BMJ Open Ophthalmology
EISSN : 2397-3269
Published by: BMJ (10.1136)
Total articles ≅ 295
Latest articles in this journal
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000852
To create an easy-to-use complementary ophthalmological tool to support a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnosis. The FASD Eye Code was derived from 37 children with FASD evaluated along with 65 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls. Four ophthalmological categories, which are abnormalities commonly found in children with FASD, were ranked independently on a 4-point scale, with 1 reflecting normal finding and 4 a strong presence of an abnormality: visual acuity, refraction, strabismus/binocular function and ocular structural abnormalities. The tool was validated on 33 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 57 children born moderate-to-late premature (MLP) and 16 children with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). Among children with ADHD none was born prematurely or small for gestational age (SGA) or diagnosed with FASD. Among children born MLP none was SGA, had a diagnosis of ADHD or FASD, or a history of retinopathy of prematurity. Children with SRS were all born SGA, half were born preterm and none had FASD. Children with FASD were re-examined as young adults. An FASD Eye Code cut-off total score of ≥10 showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.87), with 94% specificity and 43% sensitivity, in discriminating between FASD and controls, MLP and ADHD, corresponding to a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 7.5. Between FASD and controls, an AUC of 0.87 (CI 0.80 to 0.95), with 100% specificity and 43% sensitivity, was found; between FASD and SRS, an AUC of 0.60 (CI 0.45 to 0.75) was found, with 88% specificity and 43% sensitivity. A cut-off score of≥9 showed a specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 57% for FASD versus controls, corresponding to an LR+ of 36.9. Scores in individuals with FASD were stable into young adulthood. The FASD Eye Code has the potential to serve as a complementary tool and help to strengthen an FASD diagnosis.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000809
Order of the theatre list and complexity of the cases are important considerations which are known to influence surgical outcomes. This survey aimed to establish their influence on cataract surgery. Cataract surgeons ordered five cataract cases according to their surgical preference, first using case notes and second using composite ORs (CORs) for posterior capsule rupture. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyse the data. Between 11 June and 14 July 2020, 192 cataract surgeons from 14 countries completed the online survey. Majority of the surgeons (142 vs 50) preferred to choose the order of their list (p<0.01) and to review the case notes prior to the day of surgery (89 vs 53; p=0.04). 39.86% preferred to start with the less risky case and 32.43% reserved the last position on the list for the riskiest case. There was a significant trend to order the list in an ascending level of risk, independent of whether case notes or CORs were used. Additionally, 44.79% of the respondents indicated they would be happy to have their list order planned by an automated program based on their preferred risk score. This survey demonstrates that cataract surgeons prefer to choose the order of their theatre list and that the order is dependent on the complexity of cases. There is support among surgeons for automated list ordering based on an objective score for risk stratification, such as a COR.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000813
Objective Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC) is associated with pathogenic variants in BEST1, which typically causes visual impairment in the late stage of disease. We present a pedigree with variable expressivity and the youngest case in the literature with visual impairment in early childhood. Methods and analysis This is a retrospective, observational, case series describing multigenerational members of one family affected with ADVIRC. Patients underwent examination, ultra-widefield fundus photography and angiography, optical coherence tomography, full-field electroretinography (ffERG) and full-field perimetry. Results Three affected members of the pedigree, one from each successive generation, were found to harbour a mutation, c.715G>A:p.Val239Met, in BEST1. The proband characterised in this report is, to our knowledge, the youngest documented case of ADVIRC in early childhood. Yet, this patient has the most severe retinal dysfunction compared with the father and paternal grandmother, whom exhibit classic characteristics of ADVIRC. Longitudinal data from the paternal grandmother showed that there was a rapid decline in ffERG responses (photopic decline worse than scotopic) from the fourth to fifth decade of life, which correlated with severe concentric constriction of visual fields. Conclusion This multigenerational case series provides new insights into the ADVIRC disease spectrum and rate of progression. While ADVIRC typically causes a slowly progressive disease, we show that variable phenotypic expressivity is possible among affected members of the same family with the same mutation in BEST1. Thus, ADVIRC must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of paediatric patients with severe retinal dystrophy in early childhood.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000854
Objective This study aimed to explore the British public’s healthcare-seeking beliefs concerning eye symptoms, and assess how the first COVID-19 lockdown influenced these. Methods and analysis An anonymous web-based survey was disseminated through mailing lists and social media between June and August 2020. The survey sought participants’ views on the severity and urgency of the need for medical review for four ophthalmic and two general medical scenarios on a five-point scale. Participants were asked to answer questions twice: once ignoring the COVID-19 pandemic, and once taking this into account, with additional questions asked to identify factors influencing the decision to seek medical attention and ward admission. Results A total of 402 participants completed the survey (mean age 61.6 years, 63.1% female and 87.7% of white ethnicity). Scores for symptom severity and urgency of medical review increased significantly with the severity of the clinical scenario (both p<0.001). However, participants gave significantly lower scores for the urgency of medical attention when accounting for the COVID-19 pandemic (compared with no pandemic) for all scenarios (all p<0.001). Younger age, greater deprivation and non-white ethnicity were correlated with a lower perception of seriousness and urgency of medical attention. Conclusions During the first UK lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced urgency of medical review for ocular and systemic pathologies was reported in response to the pandemic, which represents a barrier to healthcare-seeking behaviour. This has the potential to critically delay medical review and timely management, negatively impacting patient outcomes.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000804
Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the amount of oral flora dispersion towards the ocular surface in relation to various face mask scenarios. Methods and analysis Thirty participants were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Each participant was seated and instructed to hold a blood agar plate perpendicular to the bridge of their nose and facing downward. Participants then partook in three unique face mask scenarios: no face mask, surgical face mask and surgical face mask with tape securing the superior edge. During each scenario, participants were instructed to forcefully exhale for 5 s three times. The primary outcome measure was the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) grown on each face mask scenario-specific plate. Results Thirty participants were recruited for the study, and a total of 90 chocolate agar plates were successfully incubated. The proportion of detecting any CFU was 6.67% (95% CI: 0.818% to 22.1%) for no mask scenario, 0% (95% CI: 0% to 11.6%) for mask scenario and 3.33% (95% CI: 0.0844% to 17.2%) for mask-taped scenario. The mean differences in proportion of detecting any CFU were 3.33% (95% CI: 0% to 10%, p=0.309) for no mask versus mask taped, 3.35% (95% CI: 0% to 10%, p=0.307) for mask taped versus mask and 6.68% (95% CI: 0% to 16.7%, p=0.142) for no mask versus mask. Conclusion This study showed no difference in bacterial dispersion towards the ocular surface when comparing no face mask, a surgical face mask without tape or a surgical face mask with tape.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000836
Objective To evaluate the long-term visual outcome and safety after bilateral cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in infants with visually significant cataract at birth operated before 12 weeks of age. Methods and analysis Medical records of infants with congenital cataract who had bilateral surgery with primary IOL implantation before 12 weeks of age at Oslo University Hospital between 2007 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen infants (30 eyes) were enrolled for a prospective study examination in 2017. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed. Visual axis opacification (VAO) was defined as opacification on the anterior or posterior surface of the IOL, capsular phimosis or fibrinous membrane. Secondary glaucoma was evaluated according to international guidelines. Results Median age at the time of primary surgery was 35 days (range, 15 to 70 days). There were no serious intraoperative complications, and all eyes had the IOL implanted in the capsular bag. After a median follow-up of 6.1 years (range, 1.5 to 10.2 years), the CDVA was 0.5 logMAR (range, 1.2 to 0.04). All eyes had surgery for VAO and the median number of surgical procedures was 2.0 (range, 1 to 5). The cumulative incidence of secondary glaucoma was 10% after 5 years of follow-up. Conclusion Primary IOL implantation before 12 weeks of age gave a satisfactory visual outcome, and the incidence of secondary glaucoma was similar to that reported after primary IOL implantation in older infants. However, the risk of VAO was high.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000801
Objective The difficulty in accurately assessing distance visual acuity (VA) at home limits the usefulness of remote consultation in ophthalmology. A novel web application, DigiVis, enables automated VA self-assessment using standard digital devices. This study aims to compare its accuracy and reliability in children with clinical assessment by a healthcare professional. Methods and Analysis Children aged 4–10 years were recruited from a paediatric ophthalmology service. Those with VA worse than +0.8 logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution) or with cognitive impairment were excluded. Bland-Altman statistics were used to analyse both the accuracy and repeatability of VA self-testing. User feedback was collected by questionnaire. Results The left eyes of 89 children (median 7 years) were tested. VA self-testing showed a mean bias of 0.023 logMAR, with a limit of agreement (LOA) of ±0.195 logMAR and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.816. A second test was possible in 80 (90%) children. Test–retest comparison showed a mean bias of 0.010, with an LOA of ±0.179 logMAR, an ICC of 0.815 and a repeatability coefficient of 0.012. 96% of children rated the test as good or excellent, as did 99% of their parents. Conclusion Digital self-testing gave comparable distance VA assessments with clinical testing in children and was well accepted. Since DigiVis self-testing can be performed under direct supervision using medical video consultation software, it may be a useful tool to enable a proportion of paediatric eye clinic attendances to be moved online, reducing time off school and releasing face-to-face clinical capacity for those who need it.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000798
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. It is estimated that as many as 3.2 million people worldwide experience blindness due to glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Until now, there is no definite mechanism related to the incidence of OAG. However, increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important risk factor. Several current studies show that there is a significant relationship between hypertension (HTN) and IOP. In particular, several epidemiological studies have shown that an increase in systemic blood pressure (BP) is associated with an increase in IOP. However, several studies report that high BP provides a protective effect at a young age against the incidence of OAG. Therefore, this literature aims to explore the effect of HTN on the incidence of OAG. In this review, search for the literature using keywords that match the topic, then a gradual screening was carried out with the predetermined eligibility criteria. From 3711 studies, 16 studies matched the criteria having a total sample size of 72 212 and then a quantitative meta-analysis was conducted. The results showed a risk ratio of 1.69 (95% CI 1.50 to 1.90) in the HTN group. However, from our qualitative synthesis, we found that people who have an unstable diastolic blood pressure (DBP), either high or low, are both able to increase the risk of OAG events. In conclusion, we found that HTN was able to increase the risk of OAG and DBP instability, whether high or low, can also increase the risk of OAG incidence.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000841
Objective In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, strict hygiene and containment measures have been instituted in the clinical ophthalmological examination to prevent virus transmission. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of these protective measures on the quality of the examination with an emphasis on gender-specific differences. Methods and analysis An online survey was sent to ophthalmologists in 10 countries. The collected data included demographics, place of work, current professional status, COVID-19 protective measures and their impact on the quality of the examination. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Fisher’s exact test was used to analyse gender differences. Results A total of 120 responses were collected. 54.0% of the respondents identified as female and 43.4% as male. Over 75% agreed that protective measures made the examination conditions more difficult. The major problems were fogging of the lenses (87.6%) or slit lamp oculars (69.9%), reduced operability of the slit lamp due to protective barriers (60.2%) and time delay due to disinfection measures (68.1%). Significantly more women than men reported that they used filtering face piece (FFP2) instead of surgical masks (p=0.02). More male participants reported that they removed their mask to prevent fogging (p=0.01). 31% of all participants felt that the COVID-19 protective measures reduced the overall quality of slit lamp examination and 43.4% reported a reduced quality of fundoscopic examination. Conclusion COVID-19 related safety measures reduce the feasibility of the clinical ophthalmological examination. Practicable solutions are required to maintain good examination quality without compromising personal safety.
BMJ Open Ophthalmology, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000775
Objective To evaluate ocular manifestations of reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients in a validated comparative model, and additionally to evaluate the correlation between severity of COVID-19 and ocular manifestations. Methods and Analysis In a prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 2400 subjects were enrolled over a period of 8 months. To eliminate bias of identical ocular symptom profile in other non-COVID-19 respiratory infections and to acquire a comparative model, 1200 COVID-19 RT-PCR-positive patients (group 1) and 1200 RT-PCR-negative patients (group 2) were included. Data collection included use of a prestructured tool and ‘Google-forms’, along with stratification of patients into ‘mild, moderate, and severe’ categories. Study subjects were evaluated for ocular manifestations by clinical examination and laboratory work-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results 144 (12%) patients in group 1 had ocular symptoms as compared with 24 (2%) patients in group 2 (p<0.001). Ocular manifestations (symptoms and signs) comprising burning sensation (6.7%, p<0.001), foreign body sensation and irritation (7.0%, p<0.001), and conjunctival signs (2.7%, p<0.001) were found statistically significant in group 1 as compared with group 2. Ocular involvement increased in proportion to severity of COVID-19: mild (5.3%), moderate (24.6%) and severe (58.8%) (p=0.0006). Conclusion The frequency of occurrence of ocular manifestations was higher in group 1 as opposed to group 2. Furthermore, the presence of ocular manifestations carried a direct correlation with severity of systemic disease and presence of comorbidities.