International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2409-9821
Published by: Avanti Publishers (10.15377)
Total articles ≅ 50
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, , Kateryna Kukharicheva
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 8, pp 52-60; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2021.08.5

Abstract:
Estimates of speech quality and intelligibility for three university classrooms of small, medium and large sizes are presented. The quality and intelligibility of speech were assessed by objective methods using binaural room impulse responses, measured at 5-6 points of the premises. The measures of speech quality were log-spectral distortion (LSD), bark spectral distortion (BSD) and perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ), and the objective measure of speech intelligibility was the speech transmission index (STI). Among the quality measures considered, only BSD is shown to be highly correlated with STI measures for all three classrooms. In this case, correlation coefficient R varies from minus 0.6 for a small room to minus 0.98 for a large room. The close relationship between PESQ and STI is observed only in the case of a large classroom (R = 0.96-0.99), and the LSD measure was found to be uncorrelated with STI for premises of all sizes. The obtained results can serve as a justification for the use of BSD instead of STI, and vice versa, in the acoustic examination of classrooms of different sizes.
Kheir Al-Kodmany
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 8, pp 37-51; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2021.08.4

Abstract:
Increasingly, architects and engineers are interested in pursuing sustainable design. Yet, they lack sources that summarize best practices. As such, this review paper maps out and examines prominent examples of "sustainable" skyscrapers of varying geographic locations, climates, and socio-cultural contexts. It discusses the design themes and green features of "LEED skyscrapers" and elaborates on recent developments in architecture and engineering. The presented 12 case studies do not intend to evaluate LEED rating systems. Instead, they illustrate how LEED has advanced the green design agenda and encouraged the pursuit of innovative design and engineering solutions. The mapped-out green features in this article should be helpful to all professionals interested in green architecture.
Emanuele Maiorana, Maël Sonna Donko, Guillaume Hervé Poh’Sié
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 8, pp 22-36; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2021.08.3

Abstract:
This work aims to prove that the strict initial imperfection tolerance limits proposed by the American AWS D1.1/D1.1M and the European EN 1090-2 codes could be relaxed for the webs of the most encountered steel I-plate girders subjected to local bend-buckling during their erection phase. To achieve this scope, a parametric study was done involving 36 perfect and 612 imperfect web models with varying aspect ratio, slenderness ratio, initial imperfection amplitude, and stress ratio using Abaqus/CAE by Finite Element (FE) linear buckling analyses then FE geometrically and materially nonlinear analyses with imperfections included (GMNIA). After investigating the results, two main research novelties were found. An easily applicable equation to determine the ultimate strength of webs subjected to direct stresses, which is a function of not only the slenderness ratio and stress ratio (as in other research) but also a function of the initial imperfection amplitude, was derived. Secondly, a tolerance limit equation that is a function of not only the slenderness ratio but also the stress ratio, thus considering the symmetry of the section of plate girders, has been derived. The derived tolerance limit equation provides acceptable and inclusive parameter-wise imperfection tolerances for webs of plate girders so as to relax strict and costly tolerance limits. The results obtained show that for monosymmetric I-plate girders during erection, EN 1090-2 and AWS D1.1/D1.1M tolerance limits can be relaxed to around 40% and 80% in less slender webs and close to 60% and 200% in more slender webs, respectively.
Veturia Chiroiu, Cornel Brişan, Ligia Munteanu, Cristian Rugină
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 8, pp 14-21; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2021.08.2

Abstract:
Given five pairs of attachment points of a planar platform, there exists a sixth point pair so that the resulting planar architecturally singular platform has the same solution for the direct kinematics. This is a consequence of the Prix Vaillant problem posed in 1904 by the French Academy of Science. The theorem discusses the displacements of certain or all points of a rigid body that move on spherical paths. Borel and Bricard awarded the prizes for two papers in this regard, but they did not solve the problem completely. In this paper, the theorem is extended to the elliptic paths in order to determine the displacements of certain or all points of a rigid body that move on super-ellipsoid surfaces. The poof is based on the trajectories of moving points which are intersections of two implicit super-ellipsoid surfaces.
Imad Shakir, Mohammed Ahmed Jasim, Sardasht S. Weli
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 8, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2021.08.1

Abstract:
High-rise buildings have been rapidly increasing worldwide due to insufficient land availability in populated areas and their primary role as essential buildings in modern cities and capitals. However, high-rise buildings are very complicated due to the huge number of structural components and elements unlike low-rise buildings, as well as these high-rise buildings demand high structural stability for safety and design requirements. This paper aims to provide brief information about high-rise buildings regarding the basic definition, safety features, structural stability, and design challenges. A brief description of existing structural systems that are available in the literature is presented to articulate a technical issue that has been widely reported, named, adopting an effective structural system for resisting lateral loads resulting from wind and seismic activities. Consequently, a general overview is presented that covers the behavior of various structural systems for different heights of high-rise buildings by implementing a number of nonlinear static procedure analyses (pushover) and nonlinear dynamic procedure analyses (for wind and earthquake loading). Finally, a critical review of the available simplified model and seismic energy base design are also presented. This paper is intended to help in the development and application of construction systems for high-rise buildings in the future.
Nicolae Badea, George Vlad Badea, Andreia Podasca
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 7, pp 105-118; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2020.07.8

Abstract:
This paper makes a technical analysis of the methods that can be used to provide Energy to Residential Buildings. The paper firstly describes the legislative framework for increasing the efficiency in the building sector and building certification. The key for improving the energy efficiency of buildings is ‘Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings(nZEB)‘. The main research in nZEB is described in section three and the technologies for increasing the energy performance of buildings, in summary, are presented in section four. A case study of the integration of renewable sources in the energy supply of residential buildings describes the calculation methodology of required energy, the specific consumption, and energy performance of building after inclusion of renewable energy for powering the building. The results of this analysis show that the energy uses in nZEB buildings are influenced by the building location, their architecture, energy system design, and level of renewable energy production.
Jiying Liu, Xuwei Zhu, Moon Keun Kim, Ping Cui, Shengwei Zhu, Risto Kosonen
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 7, pp 62-87; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2020.07.6

Abstract:
To provide excellent thermal comfort in an energy-efficient manner, the radiant floor cooling and heating system has become an attractive technology. In this work, an intermittently-operated radiant floor heating system combined with a ventilation system for use during the weekdays is proposed via a transient two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model that takes into account the variation of the indoor heat gain. Additionally, intermittent controls based on the minimum outdoor air temperature and the average water supply and return temperature are proposed. Six specifically-designed outdoor air temperature values ranging from -15oC to 15oC are taken as examples to evaluate the thermal comfort performance using the operative temperature and local thermal discomfort criteria, including the vertical air temperature, floor temperature, and radiant asymmetry. Meanwhile, the percentages dissatisfied induced by the local discomfort parameters above were analyzed.. Results show that for the case with a minimum outdoor air temperature of -14.2 oC, the earlier shut-off of the water supply (e.g., 18:00) cannot contribute to maintaining a comfortable environment at 7:00. To eliminate the effect of the indoor heat gain, a water supply shut-off after 20:00 and the pump starting to recirculate water in the concrete slab at 00:00 are encouraged in the case of an insufficient indoor heat gain during the next daytime. The maximum operative temperature commonly occurred between 4:00-6:00 p.m. A trade-off between the percentages dissatisfied and the operative temperature is finally identified. The control strategy of the shut-off of the water supply for two hours at noon and at least four hours during the nighttime is ultimately obtained to yield the acceptable thermal comfort performance in the intermittent operating mode of a floor heating system while effectively reducing energy consumption.
Piero Bevilacqua, Stefania Perrella, Daniela Cirone, , Natale Arcuri
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 7, pp 88-104; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2020.07.7

Abstract:
Energy efficiency is becoming a crucial target in the construction of a decarbonized society to guarantee sustainable development and tackle climate change issues. The building sector is one of the major players being responsible for a huge amount of primary energy, mostly related to heating and cooling services. Aside from intervening on the building envelope, intending to reduce energy demand, it is of fundamental importance to consider appropriate air-conditioning systems that can easily integrate renewable sources and rationalize energy use. Heat pumps are an appealing solution because of the renewable energy available in the external sources and because of the possibility to drive them with PV systems. Solar assisted heat pumps have therefore become a promising solution for energy efficiency in buildings, allowing lower primary energy demands and generating lower CO2 emissions. The ulterior integration of thermal storage in the systems allows for a further improvement of energy efficiency. This paper investigates the achievable energy savings after interventions of energy efficiency on a building aggregate composed of four buildings. In particular, two different scenarios of improvement of the HVAC system substituting the existing plant with PV-assisted heat pumps are considered. The performances obtained with the use of single-heat pumps and a centralized one with thermal storage are investigated employing dynamic simulations conducted in the TRNSYS environment.
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 7, pp 47-61; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2020.07.5

Abstract:
The low durability of water action has been the main issue of earth construction since ancient times. In this way, sustainable solutions are needed to improve the earthen building materials water-resistance performance without significantly changing their appearance and eco-friendly nature. This study aims at characterizing the water-resistance of compressed earth blocks (CEB) produced with or without different types of colorless water-repellent admixtures. To this end, different types of unstabilized and 8% cement stabilized CEB were protected with two post-surface treatments, namely a silane-siloxane based surface water-repellent (SWR) and a natural linseed oil (LO), as well as one olein based integral water-repellent (IWR). Unprotected reference CEB were also considered for comparison purposes. More sustainable CEB were produced with 20% replacement of earth by recycling waste building materials. The CEB were tested in terms of compressive and flexural strength, capillary water absorption, immersion absorption, water permeability, low-pressure water absorption, and water erosion resistance from drip and spray tests. The influence of the moisture content on the compressive strength was also analysed. The cement-stabilization and water-repellent treatments were able to overcome the non-water-resistant nature of unstabilized CEB. In general, the best performance was attained with SWR, followed by IWR. The LO was less effective in reducing the long-term absorption but was able to protect unstabilized CEB from light rainfall simulated conditions. Under severe water erosion, the surface treatments were less effective, but water penetration was reduced up to near 40%. The mechanical strength, total porosity, water permeability and immersion absorption were not significantly affected by water-repellent products. Moreover, the mechanical strength reduction of stabilized CEB after saturation was about 30%, regardless of the water-repellent treatment. The main contribution of water-repellent admixtures occurred in all properties involving capillary absorption.
Dariusz Bajno
International Journal of Architectural Engineering Technology, Volume 7, pp 23-35; https://doi.org/10.15377/2409-9821.2020.07.3

Abstract:
Historic buildings, as well as much newer ones, with architecturally attractive facades, will not be thermomodernized from the outside, Because of their high value stands in the way. One such case is mentioned in this article, in which an analysis of external vertical partitions was carried out, in terms of heat and humidity in a small residential building located in southern Poland and built in 1930. The article describes a hygrothermal analysis of the above mentioned partitions, before and after thermomodernization, which should assess the legitimacy and effectiveness of using controversial methods of insulation of external building partitions from their internal sides. The article is a summary of a five-year observation and research of the object, after its thermomodernization in 2015. The analysis was focused on its vertical partitions.
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