Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1857-9655 / 1857-9655
Published by: Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI (10.3889)
Total articles ≅ 3,144
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Sumarti Endah Purnamaningsih Maria Margaretha, Sri Mulatsih, , Hari Kusnanto
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 1-7; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.6202

Abstract:
Background: Many children with cancer are faced with fatal diagnosis and unbearable pain, and palliative care is highly needed. In Indonesia, the provision of palliative care is only accessible in a few major cities where most cancer treatment facilities are located and development has been slow. While, the implementation of family center care identified a number of challenges related to family empowerment to be included in the development and implementation of interventions. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the perspectives of nurses regarding family-centered treatment in Indonesia’s palliative wards for children with cancer. Methods: A qualitative approach to content analysis was employed. The study participants were 10 primary nurses in pediatric units who worked with cancer patients regularly. These participants were purposefully chosen. The interview session included 10 study participants. Participants’ work experience ranged from 2 to 11 years, and their age ranged from 27 to 51 years. Data were collected via face-to-face, semi-structured interviews that lasted for an average of 30 to 45 minutes. The interviews were performed to explore the participants’ understanding about the definition of family-centered palliative care, including the needs and obstacles to implementation. These were analyzed using content analysis methodology that includes five main segments: introduction, coding, theme creation, thematic classification, and reporting. Results: The themes from the study included an appreciation of palliative and family-centered care, palliative care capability and family-centered care, and multidisciplinary cooperation under three principles concerning needs and barriers. Conclusion: Integrating family-centered care approaches in providing palliative care for children with cancer as well as the resources required for such programs to be implemented by hospital management in working toward improved quality care for patients. Communication and continuity of care remain a challenge; training and equipping clinicians with skills and confidence to carry out family-centered care approaches and palliative care for children with cancer can aid in this process.
Muhammad Rusda, Ichwanul Adenin, M. Fidel Ganis Siregar, Andrina Y. M. Rambe, Yudha Sudewo
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 6-8; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5904

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans was the common causes of vulvovaginalis candidiasis (VVC) in human. To avoid complications, prompt and proper treatment of VVC must be performed. The pharmacological effects of Nigella sativa include antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immune stimulation, and anti-cancer properties. AIM: N. sativa has been shown to have an in vivo antifungal effect and the purpose of this study was to determine the antifungal and potential in vivo therapeutic effects. METHODS: This research was an empirical study which evaluated the therapeutic effect of the vaginal candidiasis model of N. sativa in rats. The subjects were 28 rats inoculated with C. albicans and were divided into four groups: Control group (G1), fluconazole group (G2), N. sativa group (G3), and N. sativa and fluconazole group combinations (G4). The colony of C. albicans was assessed to determine the treatment’s therapeutic effect. RESULTS: There was no difference in the number of colonies of C. albicans between all the pre-inoculation (p = 0.274) and post-inoculation (p = 0.323) classes. A substantial decrease in the number of C. albicans colonies within 48 h of treatment was observed between the three control group treatment forms (N. sativa group p = 0.046; fluconazole group p = 0.002; and N. sativa + fluconazole group p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic effect of N. sativa has been achieved by reducing the number of colonies of C. albicans.
Ketut Suarayasa, Elli Yane Bangkele, Sumarni Sumarni, Haerani Harun, Bohari Bohari
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 43-49; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5623

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Early detection of risk factors for pregnancy is carried out through regular prenatal examinations from an early age to detect abnormalities/disorders/illnesses suffered by pregnant women early. Mobile applications are very helpful in the process of early detection and recording of health workers’ reports, especially during a pandemic. AIM: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes, actions, and skills of pregnant women in the early detection of high-risk pregnancy before and after the intervention and the effectiveness of M.D-Risti modules and applications. METHODS: This study used a quasi-experiment design research design with a pre-post only group design consisting of an intervention group and a control group at 4 health centers in Palu City with a purposive sampling technique of 43 respondents per group with univariate and bivariate analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the level of knowledge (p = 0.00), attitude (p = 0.00), action (p = 0.00), and the skills of pregnant women in early detection of pregnancy (p = 0.00) before and after treatment in the intervention group. There was a significant difference between the two groups with a significant value on knowledge (p = 0.00), attitude (p = 0.00), action (p = 0.00), and skills of pregnant women in doing early detection of pregnancy risk independently (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: The intervention of M.D-Risti modules and applications had a significant effect on changes in knowledge, attitudes, actions, and skills of pregnant women in early detection of pregnancy risk compared to pregnant women who were not given intervention at all. The M.D-Risti application is one of the solutions during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the long term, all health centers in Palu city can use it to help monitor the risk of pregnancy more quickly
Yetty Machrina, Dharma Lindarto, , Novita Sari Harahap
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 124-128; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.6362

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) has an important role in mitochondria biogenesis which generated cellular metabolism. Carbohydrate metabolism in the liver is crucial to maintain plasma blood glucose. AIM: This research aimed to determine the expression of PGC-1α gene in the liver type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model, after treatment with a focus on exercise. METHODS: We used 25 healthy male Wistar rats as subjects. Rats were modified to T2DM models by feeding a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin injection. We divided the rats into five groups, that is, sedentary group as a control and four others as treatment groups. The exercise was assigned for treatment groups by a run on the treadmill as moderate intensity continuous (MIC), highintensity continuous (HIC), slow interval (SI), and fast interval (FI). The treatment groups were exercise throughout 8 weeks with a frequency of 3 times a week. RESULTS: The results showed that expression of PGC-1α gene was lower in all treatment groups compared to controls (p < 0.05). Expression in HIC was higher than MIC (p < 0.05), so was the expression in FI more than SI (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise affected PGC-1α gene expression in the liver of the T2DM rat model. The expression of PGC-1α was linear with exercise intensity.
Ahmed Fawzy, Samira Mahmoud Abd Allah, Mostafa Mohammed Salem, Lobna Omar Al Farouk
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 106-113; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5671

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the lung is the most common tumor type of primary lung cancer and is characterized by heterogeneity on the molecular, clinical, and pathological levels. The presence of an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene defines a molecular subset of non-small cell lung cancer with distinct clinical and pathologic features. Furthermore, the tyrosine-kinase receptor (C-kit) is considered to be expressed in various solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung. AIM: This study aims to correlate immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of ALK and C-kit with pathological features of lung carcinoma and to correlate IHC expression of ALK with IHC expression of C-kit in lung carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material of this study consists of paraffin blocks of 60 cases of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, IHC staining with ALK and C-kit then analysis of immunoreactivity scoring was done. RESULTS: As regards ALK expression, 3 (5%) cases showed positive expression of ALK and 57 (95%) cases showed negative expression of ALK with no statistically significant correlation between the ALK expression and the histopathological type. While C-kit expression, 4 (6.7%) cases showed positive expression and 56 (93.3%) cases showed negative expression of C-kit with statistically significant correlation between the C-kit expression and the histopathological type. CONCLUSION: There is an association between expression of c-kit and tumor histological type in lung carcinoma. Expression was notably significant among adenocarcinomas and small cell carcinomas.
Sesca D. Solang, Brigitte Inez Maitimo, Jeanny J. Winokan, Dian Pratiwi, Bohari Bohari
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 127-131; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5691

Abstract:
AIM: This study aims to determine the determinants associated with the productivity of women of childbearing age in North Sulawesi Province. METHODS: The research design used is an analytic study with a cross-sectional approach. This research uses the raw data of the North Sulawesi Province Program Performance and Accountability Survey (SKAP) of 2019. The sample of this study was all women of childbearing age (15–49 years), married and unmarried in North Sulawesi Province based on the SKAP raw data of 2019, totaling 1454 women of childbearing age. The variables in this study consisted of independent and dependent variables. The independent variables in this study were age, education, marital status, the ideal number of children, decision using contraception, age at first sexual intercourse, and contraceptive use in women of childbearing age. RESULTS: Fertility with >2 children is 349 people (24.01%). There is a significant relationship between age, education, marital status, ideal number of children, the decision to use contraception, age at first sexual intercourse, and use of contraception on fertility with p < 0.05. The multivariate test showed that ideal children (odds ratio [OR] 5.555), age (OR 5.619), age at first sexual intercourse (OR 9,486), and use of contraception (OR 0.450). CONCLUSION: The age of sexual intercourse had the most significant influence on the fertility of women of childbearing age with an OR of 9.486. This indicates that the age at sexual intercourse in women of childbearing age will affect fertility 10 times compared to other variables, namely, the ideal number of children, age, and use of family planning.
Silviya Kyuchukova, Albena Andonova, Mima Nikolova, Mariana Penkova-Raditcheva
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 76-79; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5645

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: In the context of health education, the lifestyle of each individual includes social and behavioral factors that are potentially manageable and preventable in general. A health-educated person adheres to healthy lifestyle, which is characterized by the presence of: active attitude to his own health, positive health motivation, skills for health protection and strengthening, and useful health habits. Stimulating one of them is the systematic monitoring and registration of the main vital indicators, as a good prerequisite for active monitoring of the health condition. As of December 31, 2019 the population of Bulgaria is 6,951,482 people, and the people, aged 65 and over are 1,504,088, or 21.6% of the country’s population. AIM: The objective of this study was to establish the degree of personal commitment and responsibility for their health of people over 65-year-old, living in Bulgaria. Tasks: (a) To make a questionnaire, (b) Processing of the received information and analysis of results, (c) Formulation of conclusions regarding awareness, health motivation and lifestyle of the respondents, (d) Reporting the degree of responsibility for their health of the respondents. METHODS: Mathematical-statistical – dispersion, comparative analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient/p/;desk research; interview. Contingent: 113 people; average age – approx. 68.168 ± 8.80 years. Time: 2019. RESULTS: (1) A statistically significant relationship was found: p = 0.001 and x2 = 21.886. The respondents with two chronic diseases – 40.5% are well aware of the normal values of the measured indicators. (2) Two thirds of the respondents/74.3%/are well informed about the normal and pathological values of the main vital indicators, which they can measure and register themselves. (3) 76% of the respondents have received the necessary health information from the medical team/partnership model. (4) Only half of the older respondents in the study/51.4%/follow a diet complied with their health status. CONCLUSION: In our professional medical care for the elderly people in Bulgaria, we must place emphasis on their preventive and prophylactic commitment to their own health. The useful and practical combination of properly received and internalized medical information from the elderly people is an important prerequisite for their informed commitment to their own health.
Yasmine S. Galal, Walaa A. Abuelhamd, Tamer A. Abdel Hamid, Nema R. Elsayed
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 80-88; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5703

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Insufficient knowledge and negative attitude toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among health care workers (HCWs) could lead to faulty practices resulting in delayed diagnosis and spread of the disease. AIM: this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice, and perceived barriers to infection control toward COVID-19 among Egyptian HCWs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Cairo University Children Hospital, with 537 HCWs (doctors and nurses) enrolled. RESULTS: HCWs had an overall good knowledge level about COVID-19 where 61% had a knowledge score of ≥18 points (out of 23). Doctors were more knowledgeable than nurses. About 64% of HCWs were considered as having positive attitude (scored ≥10 out of 13 points), with a significantly higher positive attitude among nurses. The mean practice score of HCWs was 1.0 ± 2.0 with a significantly higher good practice among nurses. Younger age, being a doctor, and higher qualification were the significant positive predictors of acquiring knowledge about the disease. The most commonly perceived barriers for applying infection control measures in hospitals were overcrowdings in health-care facilities (78.2%) and insufficient infection control policies (62.6%). CONCLUSION: HCWs in general expressed good knowledge, positive attitude, and good practice toward COVID-19 despite some gaps that were detected in specific items. Proper planning of educational programs that are directed according to the needs of different groups of HCWs is crucial. Effective policies should be established to overcome the barriers for applying infection control in health facilities.
Vasilka Rendzova, Julijana Nikolovska, Sonja Apostolska, Nikola Petričević
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 19-23; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5582

Abstract:
AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal problems in 3rd, 4th, and final year of study in Ss. Cyril and Methodius University Dental School. METHODS: All 3rd, 4th, and final year regular dental students were invited to take part in the study, which involved completing the extended Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. This questionnaire facilitates an assessment of troubles (ache, pain, or discomfort) with neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees, and ankles/feet. RESULTS: Out of a maximum possible number of 146 students, 116 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire (33 males and 83 females). The response rate was 79.5%. The mean age of students was 22.6 years (SD = 1.52), ranging from 20 to 26 years. During the past 12 months, students have problems mostly with neck 48 (41.4%), upper back 43 (37.1%), and low back 43 (37.1%). Working hours/week was 12 h for 3rd year, 20 h for 4th, and 30 h for 5th-year students. There is a significant difference between the students from third study year with these from 4th and 6th study year regarding the neck (χ2 (2)= 6.46, p < 0.05), upper back (χ2 (2) = 7.38, p < 0.05), and low back (χ2 (2)= 13.79, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study reported high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the dental students. Preventive measures and more ergonomic recommendations are indicated.
Rianto Noviady Ramli, Almas Prawoto, Nyoman Putu Riasa, Iswinarno Doso Saputro, Ahmad Fawzy Mas'Ud
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 101-108; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5649

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: We investigated the epidemiology and the knowledge of first aid regarding to burns in the rural area of Kulon Progo, located in Indonesia. Although 44% of Indonesia’s population resides in rural areas, data of burn in Indonesia are very limited to national referral centers located in Indonesia’s largest cities. We also surveyed the patients and families of these burn patients to try to understand their knowledge on the first aid of burns. AIM: We wanted to explore and discover what myths and misperceptions existed in rural communities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study analyzing the medical records of patients with burns admitted to two of Kulon Progo’s largest referral hospitals between January 2018 and December 2019. A survey was distributed to the patients and their families regarding their knowledge on the first aid of burns. We wanted to analyze if certain groups of the population were more at risk for specific types of burn etiologies, the correlation between burn etiology and length of stay, the correlation between total body surface area (TBSA) of burns and length of stay in the hospital, and the correlation between education level of survey participants’ and their knowledge of first aid of burns. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients were reviewed in this study. The highest proportion of total burn injuries occurred in the age group of 1–14 years old (38%). The major etiology of all burn cases were caused by scald (54%). Housewives and children were at a higher risk for scalds and laborers were at a higher risk for electrical and chemical burns (p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between etiology and length of stay (p = 0.29). There was a statistically significant correlation between the TBSA and the length of hospital stay (p = 0.0001). The majority of survey respondents (66%) had poor knowledge on the first aid of burns. There was no significant correlation between education level and knowledge of first aid of burns (p = 0.07547). CONCLUSIONS: Children, laborers, and housewives have a significant risk of suffering from a burn injury. A majority of people still have poor knowledge on the first aid of burns. There was no correlation between education levels and knowledge of first aid burns.
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