Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1857-9655 / 1857-9655
Current Publisher: Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI (10.3889)
Total articles ≅ 2,811
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Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya, Neha Subedi, Jennifer Beniquez Martir, Byron Chique Carreras, Abayomi Gbolahan Afolabi, Thomas McCracken
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 95-97; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.4549

Abstract:
Anatomical anomalies in the human body are common, and their description helps physicians and surgeons during treatment. This article presents the discovery of an abnormal arterial branch originating from the internal carotid artery (ICA). Typically, this artery does not give off branches until it passes through the carotid canal, but during a cadaveric dissection of a 58-year-old female, the superior thyroid artery (STA) was found to be originating from the ICA. Some common variations of the origin of the STA are the common carotid and at the bifurcation of the Common carotid, but rarely, has it been seen origination from the ICA. No known health implication of this variation has been reported, although surgeries can become difficult since the artery is used as an anatomical landmark.
Nur Laily, Fauzie Rahman, Andini Octaviana Putri, Meitria Syahadatina Noor, Atikah Rahayu, Fahrini Yulidasari, Lia Anggraini, Vina Yulia Anhar, Ayu Riana Sari, Dian Rosadi, et al.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 123-126; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5686

Abstract:
AIM: This study aims to identify implementation of hypnobreastfeeding therapy as an effort to reduce the incidence of underweight on children aged 0–6 months. METHODS: This study is a pre-experimental with pre-test and post-test design. Subjects were children aged 0–6 months who are underweight. The intervention was conducted over 2 months. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using frequency distribution table and bivariate using McNemar test. RESULTS: Before the education through hypnobreastfeeding therapy, only 33.3% of women having a good attitude about exclusive breastfeeding to children. After the intervention for 2 months, the percentage of good attitude increase as many as 73.3% and the mother is encouraged to continue to breastfeed the child obtained that a total of 18 children (60%) of the total 30 children aged 0–6 months are underweight, which has been entered into the category of normal nutritional status. A difference in the attitude of breastfeeding and status of underweight children aged 0–6 months before and after implementation of hypnobreastfeeding therapy (p < 0.000). CONCLUSION: There are differences in the attitude of the breastfeeding mother (p = 0.012) and underweight status of children aged 0–6 months (p = 0.000) before and after the implementation of hypnobreastfeeding therapy.
Ika Puspa Sari, Sacha Audindra, Aqila S. Zhafira, Arin A. Rahma, Cut V. Syarira, Sri Wahdini
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 95-100; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5711

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection still high in Indonesia and lead to nutritional disorder, especially in the school-aged children. AIM: This research conducted to find the association of intestinal parasitic infection to the nutritional status of the children. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study, conducted in January 2016 in one primary school in South Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, by collecting the children’s stool from 1st to 5th grade. Direct examination of the stool was conducted in the Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, by Lugol and eosin staining. Nutritional status categorized using BMI chart. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Statistical Product, and Service Solutions version 20. RESULTS: From the total 157 stool examined in the laboratory, there were 60 (38.2%) children positively infected with various kinds of intestinal parasites. Mostly the infection is caused by Blastocystis hominis, which infects 44 children (69.4%). The other infection is caused by Giardia lamblia (15.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.4%), and hookworm (1.4%), and mixed infection of B. hominis and Escherichia coli (4.2%) and B. hominis with G. lamblia (4.2%). From the total of infected children, 17 children (28.3%) have BMI below 5th percentile, and it was considered as malnourished. Moreover, 67 uninfected children have normal nutritional status. Statistically, there is an association between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in school-aged children in South Jakarta (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The incidence of intestinal parasitic infection in school-aged children is 38.2%. Moreover, 28.3% of the infected children were malnourished and it is suggested that children with intestinal parasite infection have low nutritional status.
Novita Sari Harahap, Nurhayati Simatupang, Suprayitno Suprayitno
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 42-46; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5590

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Physical fitness depends on hematological parameters such as red blood cells and hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is needed in adequate quantities in trained athletes, especially in endurance sports. The effects of antioxidant supplementation are not yet fully known whether the body’s natural antioxidants that act as a defense system can overcome the increase in free radicals during physical exercise or whether additional supplements are needed. AIM: The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of physical activity and consumption of red dragon fruit on red blood cells and hemoglobin in trained people. METHODS: The subject of the study was 20 people, male, trained, divided into two groups randomly, each consisting of 10 people, namely, Group 1 (PA): A group that was given physical exercise and obtained a placebo; Group 2 (PA+RDF): A group was assigned physical activity and given red dragon fruit juice. Physical activity was performed in the form of treadmill exercises with an intensity of 80–85% of the maximum heart rate (MHR= 220 – age), frequency 3 times a week, duration 30 min, for 28 days. RESULTS: The results show that the increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin after intervention in PA+RDF group is higher than in the PA group, but based on statistic test, there is no significant difference to increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The physical activity and red dragon fruit can prevent the decrease of red blood cells and hemoglobin in trained people.
Dinasti Pudang Binoriang, Lintang Aura Rizki Novitasari
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 118-123; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5758

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Elderly is the final phase of life where the body’s physiological functions decline. The decline in function causes older people to tend to experience susceptibility to degenerative diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). The illness can be severe, causing high pain, mortality, and an increase in quality of life. The quality of life of older people is very closely related to their awareness regarding health and living habits, including physical pain, physical function, and vitality. AIM: This study aims to identify physical pain, physical function, and vitality in older people with DM. METHODS: This research used a qualitative research method with a phenomenological approach. Qualitative research is a research method that explains and provides understanding and interpretation of individual behavior and experiences in various forms. This research was conducted with semi-structured interviews, observations, and also field notes. Participants in this study were eight people selected using a purposive sampling technique. RESULTS: The results of this study stated that older people with DM experienced several complaints during the illness. Older people with DM experienced a decrease in physical function that can affect their activity. They stated that they have some resting disorders such as waking up at night and having difficulty in sleep patterns. Furthermore, the respondents also noted that they frequently felt exhausted. CONCLUSION: Physical pain, physical function, and vitality of the older people with DM in Padukuhan Kalirandu can be identified from the sub-themes obtained by researchers related to complaints of the older people during DM pain, injuries suffered by older people with DM, the experiences of the older people related to hospital treatment, older people’s daily activities, older people’s activities in the community, older people’s sports activities, disruption in activities, resting patterns, resting disorders, physical complaints related to fatigue, and how they overcome all of the pains and problems.
Elsye Maria Rosa, Popy Apriyanti, Dhesi Ari Astuti
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5761

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The puerperium is a period that begins after the birth of the placenta and ends when the uterus organs return to their pre-pregnancy state, which lasts for about 6 weeks or after delivery until 42 days of delivery. This period is a crucial period for mothers and newborns because, at this time, mothers are required to adapt to their new role of being a mother. AIM: This study aims to explore the husband’s support in the taking-hold phase of postpartum primigravida cesarean section and normal labor. METHODS: This study used a qualitative research design employing a phenomenological approach. The purposive sampling method was utilized in selecting 10 informants. Data analysis used a Colaizzi analysis and Nvivo 12 Plus software. RESULTS: The results showed that the husband’s support influenced postpartum mothers in the (1) emotional changes, (2) baby care, (3) wound care, and (4) nutritional fulfillment. CONCLUSION: The husband’s support in the taking-hold postpartum phase was proven to deal with psychological adaptation and help postpartum maternal health care.
Titiek Hidayati, Akrom Akrom, Indrayanti Indrayanti, Suny Sun
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 87-91; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5855

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The carcinogen dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) is immunotoxic. Thymoquinone, meanwhile, is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. AIM: This study aims to determine the effect of thymoquinone and tamoxifen on the CD4CD25Treg count in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats induced by DMBA. METHODS: The 50 SD rats were divided into five groups. Group I (normal control) was given standard drinking and food. Group II was given thymoquinone, Group III was given tamoxifen, Group IV was given DMBA, and Group V was given solvent control. Thymoquinone, tamoxifen, and solvent control administration started 2 weeks before DMBA administration and continued during DMBA induction. In the 3rd week, except for the normal group, all groups were created to be induced with 10 × 20 mg/kg body weight of DMBA for 5 weeks. In the 21st week, surgery and data collection were performed. The hematology profile and CD4CD25Treg number were carried out employing a flow cytometer. The difference in the average number of CD4CD25Treg and blood cells between groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance RESULTS: The results revealed that DMBA induction reduced the number of erythrocytes, HB levels, platelet counts, and leukocyte counts (p < 0.05). The administration of thymoquinone and tamoxifen reduced the hematopoiesis effect of DMBA. The thymoquinone and tamoxifen group had a higher number of CD4CD25Treg and leukocytes than the DMBA group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the average CD4CD25Treg, leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, and monocyte count between the thymoquinone and the tamoxifen groups (p > 0.05).
Rifki Febriansah, Harena Anggun Lakshita
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 77-82; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5810

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The incidence of colon cancer ranks the third most common cancer case in Indonesia, with 12.8 cases per 100.000 community. Problems that arise from cancer treatment with chemotherapy are severe side effects. Thus, we develop cancer therapy using a natural material, namely, binahong leaves (Anredera cordifolia). AIM: This study aims to investigate the co-chemotherapy activity of the n-hexane fraction of binahong (NFB) on the WiDr human colon cancer cells line. METHODS: The sample was prepared by maceration using ethanol 70% and fractionation using n-hexane. Phytochemical screening was conducted with the thin-layer chromatography method. The antioxidant test was carried out using 1,1 diphenyl-2-dipicrilhydrazil assay, while the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was designed for cytotoxic tests on WiDr colon cancer cells to identify the single effect and its combination with 5-fluorouracil as chemotherapy agents. Further, in silico test, molecular docking was used to determine the 4’, 6, 7-trihydroxyaurone as an active compound on NFB against inhibitors of κB kinases (IKK) and COX-2 proteins. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening showed that NFB contained a flavonoid compound. NFB had a weak antioxidant activity with the inhibition concentration (IC50) value of 2851 μg/mL, while NFB had a relatively strong cytotoxic activity on WiDr colon cells with the IC50 value of 191 μg/mL, and had the synergist activity in combination with 5-fluorouracil as a chemotherapy agent. The molecular docking showed the best interaction of 4’, 6, 7-trihydroxyaurone against IKK, and COX-2 proteins with docking scores of −9.0 kcal/mol and −8.1 kcal/mol, respectively. CONCLUSION: NFB had the potential to inhibit cell growth and had a synergistic effect in combination with 5-fluorouracil on WiDr colon cancer cells line.
Anastasia Venny Fransisca Sipayung, Elmeida Effendy, Mustafa Mahmud Amin
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 1-5; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5903

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus outbreak that is infecting many people almost all over the world, including Indonesia. The impact of this pandemic also affects medical health workers who are in charge of treating COVID-19 patients where they are at high risk of being infected. This causes psychological disorders such as anxiety and many factors that can become a risk for anxiety. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate risk factors for anxiety in medical health workers who treat COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in Haji Adam Malik Hospital and its satellites in Medan, North Sumatera, cross-sectional through online survey using hospital anxiety and depression scale, anxiety subscale, from May 2020 to July 2020, 129 participants. RESULTS: Four risk factors have a relationship to the occurrence of anxiety, such as gender, marital status, history of organic diseases, and duration of work caring for COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: By knowing the risk factors that can cause anxiety in medical health workers, it is hoped that both the hospital management and individual medical health workers can pay more attention to and anticipate so that medical health workers can feel more secure in carrying out their duties treating for COVID-19 patients.
Abd El Azeem Mostafa, Cherif A. Mohsen
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 37-42; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5784

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Ceramic laminate veneer restoring is considered a challenging modality in solving various esthetic dental problems. AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of digital internal relief space on the color of ceramic laminate veneer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An acrylic central incisor model was prepared for ceramic laminate veneer with standard measures. The prepared acrylic resin dentotype model was scanned with intraoral computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) optical scanner (CEREC Omnicam|Dentsply Sirona). The laminate veneer design was planned on the optically scanned preparation on CAD/CAM system software (CEREC software|Dentsply Sirona). Thirty ceramic laminate veneer specimens were machined from zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (Celtra Duo blocks, Dentsply/Sirona) according to standard design by CAD/CAM system with the change of the digital internal relief space settings. The specimens were divided into three groups according to their digital internal relief settings (IRS) (20, 60, and 100 μm) (n = 10). Thirty epoxy dies were duplicated from the prepared acrylic model. The ceramic laminate veneer specimens were cemented to epoxy dies with total etch resin cement system according to the manufacture instructions. The color change (ΔE) of the cemented ceramic laminate veneer specimens was measured by spectrophotometer (Vita Easy shade, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) using the CIELAB scale and L*, a*, b*. Each specimen was measured two times (before and after cementation). The value of color difference (ΔE) was calculated according to the formula: ΔE = [(L*2 - L*1)2 + (a*2 - a*1)2 + (b*2- b*1) 2]½. RESULTS: The highest mean value of ΔE was recorded in G100 group (1.91 ± 0.33), followed by G60 group (1.83 ± 0.09), with the least value recorded in G20 group (1.49 ± 0.49). Analysis of variance test revealed a statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: The change of the digital IRS affects the color of ceramic laminate veneers.
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