Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1857-9655 / 1857-9655
Total articles ≅ 3,433
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Hanik Endang Nihayati, , Rr Dian Tristiana, Yuli Anggraini, Iskandar Iskandar,
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 14-18; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6206

Abstract:
Background: The level of independence among schizophrenia patients is still a problem that must be resolved. The development of appropriate relevant instruments is needed. This study aims to develop a nursing rehabilitation therapy instrument to increase the independence of schizophrenia patients in the hospital setting. Methods: This study used a research and development study design. The study was conducted in a Psychiatric Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia from August to December 2020. The total sample in this study consisted of 100 nurses determined by a simple random sampling technique. In addition, 50 medical records were observed. The inclusion criteria were nurses who cared for patients with schizophrenia with a minimum work experience of 1 year. Respondents were excluded from the study if they did not follow the study through to completion. The data collection process was done online by filling in a Google form. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and a FGD followed with 10 nurses to discuss the new instrument. Results: The data found that a rehabilitation therapy instrument is not currently available (53%). The FGD results show that it is necessary to develop the nurse’s knowledge and to provide adequate facilities and rooms, as well as to develop instruments to use as measuring tools in order to evaluate the rehabilitation therapy given. Conclusion: Rehabilitation therapy instruments are important to develop for schizophrenia patients. It is hoped that the development of the instrument in this study will optimise the rehabilitation of schizophrenia patients.
Siti Nur Hasina, Iis Noventi, , Dodik Hartono
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 41-46; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6487

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world and has created a level of fear, uncertainty that has an impact on several aspects of life including mental health. The rapid spread of the Corona Virus or COVID-19 throughout the world has damaged the order of life starting from the economy, social, politics, education, culture, religion and health. Various efforts have been made by the Indonesian government with social distancing or physical distancing, washing hands with soap and staying active at home. Conditions that change suddenly will make people unprepared to deal with it, especially in the psychological condition of the Indonesian people who experience a lot of anxiety. AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness meditation based on spiritual care on the level of community anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This type of research uses experimental quantitative research using a randomized controlled trial research design. This research was conducted for 4 weeks in January-February 2021. The population of this study is the Surabaya community. The sampling technique used consecutive sampling technique and was divided into two groups, namely the intervention group as many as 61 respondents and the control group as many as 61 respondents. Data analysis used paired t test and independent t test with a significance value of p < 0.05. This research questionnaire uses the DASS 42 questionnaire has reliability 0.82 and the validity test gets the Cronbach alpha value is 0.85. RESULTS: The average level of anxiety before doing the spiritual care-based mindfulness meditation intervention in the intervention group was 17.28 (severe anxiety) and 17.18 in the control group (severe anxiety) with p = 1.000 which means there is no difference in the average level of anxiety whereas After being given the intervention, the average level of anxiety in the intervention group was 6.03 (normal anxiety) and 18.06 in the control group (severe anxiety) with p = 0.000, which means that there is a difference in the average level of anxiety in the intervention group and the control group after being given the intervention. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness meditation based on spiritual care can reduce people’s anxiety levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Riski Novera Yenita, Thamrin Thamrin, Bintal Amin, Agrina Agrina
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 149-157; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.7091

Abstract:
Growth and development that is not optimal is a form of chronic malnutrition, one of which is marked by height for age which is below the standard deviation (<-2 SD) and is called stunting. Stunting has a negative impact on children's motor development, reduces children's performance in school, increases the risk of excess nutrition, infectious diseases, and even death as well as reduces productivity in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for stunting in people living in the Kampar watershed. This research is a mixed-method with an explanatory sequential design which is a modification of (1–3). The research was carried out on people living in the Kampar river basin. The priority areas for specific stunting reduction interventions in this study are the Work Areas of the Kampar Kiri Hulu II Health Center, the Koto Kampar XIII Health Center, and the Kampar Kiri Health Center. This study found that the dominant factors of the five variables were home sanitation and parenting, as both affected the incidence of stunting. The findings obtained are different from the results of data analysis obtained from interviews, observations, and descriptive statistics. Based on the results of data analysis from interviews, observations, and descriptive statistics, it was found that all variables of the three factors became the main factors that had a close relationship with the incidence of stunting in the community in the Kampar watershed.
Andi Fatmawati Syamsu, A. Dwi Bahagia Febriani, Ema Alasiry, Kadek Ayu Erika, Andi Mardiah Tahir, Isharyah Sunarno
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 106-111; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6581

Abstract:
AIM: This study aimed to determine the stressor of mothers whose baby was treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) ward and identify the demography parameter which affected the stressor. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in four hospitals in Makassar City. Stressor was evaluated using Parental Scale Stressor (PSS): NICU. Samples were taken consecutively for 30 babies treated in NICU ward for more than 24 h. RESULTS: On the average, the mothers’ stressors were the situation and view of NICU (2.87), appearance and behavior of the baby (2.78), the role of parents (2.74), and communication relationship between the parents and nurse (2.80). Meanwhile, demography factors (maternal age, age of pregnancy, parity, and experience) did not affect the maternal stress statistically. CONCLUSION: Premature babies who are treated in NICU ward can be the source of maternal stress, thus provision of education to the mothers can decrease the stress.
Ernawati Ernawati, Nursalam Nursalam, Shimarti Rukmini Devy, Edy Soesanto, Sri Rejeki
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 112-117; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6589

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: In the context of community empowerment, the role of nurses as health workers is very important to transform the knowledge and skills of cadres. However, the support of nurses in empowering human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) health cadres has not been widely explained. AIM: This study examines the effect of nurse support and empowerment on the ability of HIV/AIDS cadres to assist mothers with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional approach. We involved 119 HIV/AIDS cadres including local residents who care about AIDS (WPA, n = 90), facilitators of families of hope (PKH, n = 17), and peer support groups (KDS, n = 12). Data collection was carried out from February to April 2020, the sample was selected using multistage cluster sampling in Kudus Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the support of nurses, empowerment of HIV/AIDS cadres, and its effect on the ability of cadres in assisting women with HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: We found that nurses’ support for the empowerment of HIV/AIDS cadres was low in almost all aspects (instrumental, informational, emotional, and affiliation). Nurse support and cadre empowerment affect the ability of HIV/AIDS cadres by 28%. Regression test formula Y = −97.080 + 0.738X1 + 1.944X2. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the four types of nurse social support may be interrelated and are generally still low in the process of empowering HIV/AIDS cadres. There is an effect of nurse support and empowerment of HIV/AIDS cadres on the ability of cadres to assist women with HIV/AIDS.
Wafa Ibrahim Alharbi, Amani Mahrus, , Albraa B. Alolayan
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 128-134; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6923

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Nurses represent the largest section of the health-care workforce, and lack of sleep has an adverse influence on them, particularly during pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It causes not only health problem but also poor work results and an increased risk of medical errors. AIM: The goal of the study was to determine the prevalence of poor sleep quality among nurses during COVID-19 outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among a group of nurses in the Al-Madinah region of Saudi Arabia at the National Guard Health Affairs in 2020 (1st year of the COVID-19 crisis). Data were collected using a validated questionnaire with two sections: Sociodemographic data such as age, nationality, family status, gender, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: There were 238 nurses in the report. 37.8% of them were found to be between the ages of 31 and 35, while 24.4% were under the age of 30. The nurses were mostly female (84%). Sleep latency, sleep disruption, overall subjective sleep quality, and sleep length were the most widely identified sleep problems. Sixty-six percent of the nurses said they had a poor night’s sleep. None of the demographic variables analyzed had a significant relationship with overall sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Majority of nurses working at the National Guard Health Affairs and primary health-care centers in Al-Medina, Saudi Arabia, experience poor sleep quality, during the 1st year of COVID-19 crisis regardless of their demographic characteristics.
I Wayan Mustika, Ketut Sudiantara, Agus Sri Lestari
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 118-123; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6781

Abstract:
Intruduction: The aging process results in a progressive decline in physiological functions with age, including a decrease in productivity. Hypertension is a major problem in public health in Indonesia and in developing countries. Hypertension is a common cause of disturbed sleep patterns, due to structural and functional changes in the peripheral vascular system. The purpose of this study was the effect of health education with audiovisual methods and relaxation massage to reduce blood pressure and sleep quality disorders in the elderly. Materials and Methods: Experimental research (community trial) with pretest-posttest control group design. The target population in this study is the elderly who are included in the elderly age group, namely > 50 years in Selemadeg District, Tabanan Regency. The sample size is 90 elderly, determined based on the results of previous studies with a standard deviation (σ) = 0.51, the difference in the mean of cognitive changes (μ1- 2) = 0.30. divided into two groups, the treatment group and the control group. The independent variable is health education using audiovisual media and Relaxation Massage and the dependent variable is blood pressure. Data collection tools in the form of sphygmomanometer, observation sheet. Data analysis used independent t-test, paired t-test and Multivariate ANOVA test. Result: The blood pressure of the treatment group before the intervention mostly had grade I hypertension (53.3%), and after the intervention most of the blood pressure improved to normal (57.8%), and this result was statistically significant (0.000). In the treatment group before the intervention, many had poor sleep quality (46.7%), and after the intervention improved sleep quality in the good category (53.3%), and this result was statistically significant (0.000). Conclotion: It is concluded that the provision of health education with audiovisual methods and massage relaxation can reduce blood pressure and improve sleep quality in the elderly.
Heru Santosa, Nurmaini Nurmaini, Elmeida Effendy, Wardiyah Daulay
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 124-127; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6912

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Families, especially parents, are the closest people expected to care for people with mental disorders and this means family-focused care mental disorders is the main concept for the management of the illness due to the close relationship. AIM: The study was, therefore, conducted to explore the phenomenon of applying family empowerment in people with mental disorders as a means of developing instruments. METHODS: The research was qualitative with a phenomenological approach and data were collected through in-depth interviews and analyzed with the Colaizzi method. The participants include 14 families having someone with mental disorders and selected using the purposive sampling technique. RESULTS: The results, however, produced seven themes which are the perception of mental disorders, motivation to care, family participation, withdrawal from drugs, spirituality, costs, and alternative treatments. CONCLUSIONS: This task was found to be the main effort by a family to provide appropriate assistance in accordance with the observed health problems and internal family resources considered capable of deciding are expected to determine the right action to overcome the problems.
Awatiful Azza, Cipto Susilo
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 143-148; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6627

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is one of the complications of pregnancy in many communities with low socioeconomic conditions. The lack of intake of quality nutrition can be a precipitating factor in the occurrence of this complication. AIM: This study aims to find out the nutritional adequacy for pregnant women through the transcultural model assessment using correlational design and a cross-sectional approach in pregnant women at the third trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diagnosis of pre-eclampsia was identified through a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg and proteinuria. There were 222 samples with purposive sampling. The data were obtained through questionnaires and the interview results were used as secondary data. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals (CI) of 95%, and the alpha value of 0.05. RESULTS: The analysis of the nutritional adequacy with the incidence of pre-eclampsia confirmed that the carbohydrate with OR of 5.250 (OR = 3.545, 95% CI = 2.098, 13.158), folic acid (OR = 16,838, 95% CI = 2.222, 127.64), and vegetable (OR of 4.00, 95% CI = 1.619, 9.885) which are related to the incidence of pre-eclampsia. CONCLUSION: The fulfillment of the daily nutrition of pregnant women is greatly influenced by the culture and myth developed in society. An assessment using the transcultural model approach can give a lot of information about the influence of culture in pregnant women’s daily life.
, Erika Maharani, Hsing-Mei Chen
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 135-142; https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.7166

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Engagement in health-promoting behaviors (HPB) among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is important, particularly for the high-and-very-high-risk group. However, information concerning HPB and risk of cardiovascular events among patients with CVD is limited. AIM: This study aimed to explore HPB and risk of cardiovascular events among patients with CVD. METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among adults with confirmed CVD (n = 167) using multistage cluster sampling. Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile 2 and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension Risk Prediction Chart were used for measuring HPB and cardiovascular risk levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression tests. RESULTS: Women, marriage, low income, and hypertension dominated with 60 years as mean age. Among the subscales of HPB, interpersonal relationship had the highest score while physical activity in the poorest score and almost half of the respondents had a low-risk of cardiovascular events. There was a significant correlation between the nutrition subscale and cardiovascular risk levels and it showed significant difference between low-and high/ very- high-risk groups of cardiovascular events. Although the risk of cardiovascular events did not demonstrate prediction of HPB, age (β _= 0.250; CI = 0.001–0.013), educational level (β _= 0.200; CI = 0.005–0.107), presence of diabetes (β _= 0.183; CI = 0.013–0.286), and smoking (β _= –0.195; CI = –0.372–[–0.005]) explained 20.7% of the HPB variance. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the authorities of stakeholders need to consider that a tailor-made health-promoting program should be proposed particularly to increase physical activity and promotes healthy nutrition among patients with CVD. Furthermore, considering special needs among patients with CVD are crucial to support them within their cultural perspective.
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