Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1857-9655 / 1857-9655
Current Publisher: Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI (10.3889)
Total articles ≅ 2,735
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Latest articles in this journal

Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya, Neha Subedi, Jennifer Beniquez Martir, Byron Chique Carreras, Abayomi Gbolahan Afolabi, Thomas McCracken
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 95-97; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.4549

Abstract:
Anatomical anomalies in the human body are common, and their description helps physicians and surgeons during treatment. This article presents the discovery of an abnormal arterial branch originating from the internal carotid artery (ICA). Typically, this artery does not give off branches until it passes through the carotid canal, but during a cadaveric dissection of a 58-year-old female, the superior thyroid artery (STA) was found to be originating from the ICA. Some common variations of the origin of the STA are the common carotid and at the bifurcation of the Common carotid, but rarely, has it been seen origination from the ICA. No known health implication of this variation has been reported, although surgeries can become difficult since the artery is used as an anatomical landmark.
Askhat Shaltynov, Aizhan Raushanova, Ulzhan Jamedinova, Aigerim Sepbossynova, Altay Myssayev, Ayan Myssayev
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 89-94; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5704

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Global health initiatives such as health for all and universal health coverage aim to improve access to health care. These goals require constant comprehensive monitoring to eliminate inequalities in the availability of health care. AIM: The purpose of our study was to assess the physical availability of medical care in Kazakhstan. METHODS: A descriptive study based on a Service Availability and Readiness Assessment (SARA) general availability index calculation that used secondary data as a source of information. RESULTS: The general availability index calculated for the regions of Kazakhstan ranged from 95% to 100%. When considering individual indicators of the index, decrease trends of the volume of inpatient care were identified. Outpatient care had fluctuations with values better than benchmark after 2009. Stable upward trend illustrates positive picture of core health personnel. CONCLUSION: According to the SARA availability index, it can be concluded that health care in Kazakhstan exceeds the threshold values and is available in all regions. Trends for individual indicators of the index should be studied in more detail, taking into account the influence of health policy and other factors.
Nur Laily, Fauzie Rahman, Andini Octaviana Putri, Meitria Syahadatina Noor, Atikah Rahayu, Fahrini Yulidasari, Lia Anggraini, Vina Yulia Anhar, Ayu Riana Sari, Dian Rosadi, et al.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 123-126; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5686

Abstract:
AIM: This study aims to identify implementation of hypnobreastfeeding therapy as an effort to reduce the incidence of underweight on children aged 0–6 months. METHODS: This study is a pre-experimental with pre-test and post-test design. Subjects were children aged 0–6 months who are underweight. The intervention was conducted over 2 months. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using frequency distribution table and bivariate using McNemar test. RESULTS: Before the education through hypnobreastfeeding therapy, only 33.3% of women having a good attitude about exclusive breastfeeding to children. After the intervention for 2 months, the percentage of good attitude increase as many as 73.3% and the mother is encouraged to continue to breastfeed the child obtained that a total of 18 children (60%) of the total 30 children aged 0–6 months are underweight, which has been entered into the category of normal nutritional status. A difference in the attitude of breastfeeding and status of underweight children aged 0–6 months before and after implementation of hypnobreastfeeding therapy (p < 0.000). CONCLUSION: There are differences in the attitude of the breastfeeding mother (p = 0.012) and underweight status of children aged 0–6 months (p = 0.000) before and after the implementation of hypnobreastfeeding therapy.
Ika Puspa Sari, Sacha Audindra, Aqila S. Zhafira, Arin A. Rahma, Cut V. Syarira, Sri Wahdini
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 95-100; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5711

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection still high in Indonesia and lead to nutritional disorder, especially in the school-aged children. AIM: This research conducted to find the association of intestinal parasitic infection to the nutritional status of the children. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study, conducted in January 2016 in one primary school in South Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, by collecting the children’s stool from 1st to 5th grade. Direct examination of the stool was conducted in the Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, by Lugol and eosin staining. Nutritional status categorized using BMI chart. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, Statistical Product, and Service Solutions version 20. RESULTS: From the total 157 stool examined in the laboratory, there were 60 (38.2%) children positively infected with various kinds of intestinal parasites. Mostly the infection is caused by Blastocystis hominis, which infects 44 children (69.4%). The other infection is caused by Giardia lamblia (15.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.4%), and hookworm (1.4%), and mixed infection of B. hominis and Escherichia coli (4.2%) and B. hominis with G. lamblia (4.2%). From the total of infected children, 17 children (28.3%) have BMI below 5th percentile, and it was considered as malnourished. Moreover, 67 uninfected children have normal nutritional status. Statistically, there is an association between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in school-aged children in South Jakarta (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The incidence of intestinal parasitic infection in school-aged children is 38.2%. Moreover, 28.3% of the infected children were malnourished and it is suggested that children with intestinal parasite infection have low nutritional status.
Madihah Binti Abdullah, Titih Huriah, Arianti Arianti, Rosnani Binti Sarkasi
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 6-17; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5594

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The limited palliative care services can affect the late in palliative care management, such as late in decision making. Decision making is one of the crucial processes that every patient with life-threatening health life-limiting illness needs to overcome. Nurses can be the third party between the patients and physicians in helping them with decision making. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the differences perspectives of palliative care decision making for palliative patients and families in Indonesia and Malaysia. METHODOLOGY: The study design used qualitative method with the phenomenology approach. The sample size of this study was 12 participants from two different study settings. They were three palliative nurses and three physicians from each country, selected by purposive sampling. The study was carried out at PKU Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta Hospital and Tuanku Fauziah Hospital Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia. Data collection used in-depth interview. The interpretative phenomenology analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There were differences in the perspectives of palliative care services in Indonesia and Malaysia based on the culture form each of the countries. Nurses played a supportive role in ensuring that the care delivered to the patients and families were effective and efficient. Lack of staff was one of the challenges for Indonesia and Malaysia palliative care services need to face. CONCLUSION: Three themes emerged from the collected data; there were views on palliative care, nurses’ supportive roles, and limited resources. To encounter the challenges and difficulties that interrupt the care delivery to the patients, nurses need to improve knowledge about palliative and their skills.
Ghada Wahby, Madiha Said Abdel-Razik, Fayrouz El Egizy, Marwa Rashad Salem
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 132-137; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5603

Abstract:
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to assess clinical supervision (CS) role in quality family planning/reproductive health services (FP/RHS) in Ministry of Health and Population-primary health care (MOHP-PHC) facilities through objective analysis. METHODS: Settings: MOHP and five Egyptian governorates. Design: A qualitative study with objective analysis that covers strengths and sustainability. Sampling: Random sample of 25 districts and 250 health units (one physician and one nurse from each unit) from five governorates. Data collection: Focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 21) for clinical supervisors at central, governorate, and district levels. RESULTS: FGDs raised vital roles of CS in FP/RHS. Clinical supervisors were dissatisfied because they are not partners in decision making in MOHP training programs. CONCLUSION: CS in FP/RHS is important for sustainable capacity building of the service providers teams in PHC facilities.
Novita Sari Harahap, Nurhayati Simatupang, Suprayitno Suprayitno
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 42-46; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5590

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Physical fitness depends on hematological parameters such as red blood cells and hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is needed in adequate quantities in trained athletes, especially in endurance sports. The effects of antioxidant supplementation are not yet fully known whether the body’s natural antioxidants that act as a defense system can overcome the increase in free radicals during physical exercise or whether additional supplements are needed. AIM: The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of physical activity and consumption of red dragon fruit on red blood cells and hemoglobin in trained people. METHODS: The subject of the study was 20 people, male, trained, divided into two groups randomly, each consisting of 10 people, namely, Group 1 (PA): A group that was given physical exercise and obtained a placebo; Group 2 (PA+RDF): A group was assigned physical activity and given red dragon fruit juice. Physical activity was performed in the form of treadmill exercises with an intensity of 80–85% of the maximum heart rate (MHR= 220 – age), frequency 3 times a week, duration 30 min, for 28 days. RESULTS: The results show that the increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin after intervention in PA+RDF group is higher than in the PA group, but based on statistic test, there is no significant difference to increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin between the two groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The physical activity and red dragon fruit can prevent the decrease of red blood cells and hemoglobin in trained people.
Nur Fitriani Hamra, , Arya Tjipta, Nur Dina Amalina, Taufiqurrachman Nasihun
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 35-41; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5537

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The active myofibroblast producing extracellular matrix deposition regarding wound closure is characterized by alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. However, the persistence of α-SMA expression due to prolonged inflammation may trigger scar formation. A new strategy to control α-SMA expression in line with wound closure improvement uses hypoxic mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) due to their ability to firmly control inflammation for early initiating cell proliferation, including the regulation of α-SMA expression associated with wound closure acceleration. AIM: This study aimed to explore the role of HMSCs in accelerating the optimum wound closure percentages through controlling the α-SMA expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four full-thickness rats wound model were randomly divided into four groups: Sham (Sh), Control (C) by NaCl administration only, and two treatment groups by HMSCs at doses of 1.5×106 cells (T1) and HMSCs at doses of 3×106 cells (T2). HMSCs were incubated under hypoxic conditions. The α-SMA expression was analyzed under immunohistochemistry staining assay, and the wound closure percentage was analyzed by ImageJ software. RESULTS: This study showed a significant increase in wound closure percentage in all treatment groups that gradually initiated on days 6 and 9 (p < 0.05). In line with the increase of wound closure percentages on day 9, there was also a significant decrease in α-SMA expression in all treatment groups (p < 0.05), indicating the optimum wound healing has preceded. CONCLUSION: HMSCs have a robust ability to accelerated wound closure improvement to the optimum wound healing by controlling α-SMA expression depending on wound healing phases.
Billy Salvatore Soedirman, Anak Agung Ayu Putri Laksmidewi
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 10-14; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.5585

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a restoration therapy based on cognitive improvement of patients, by giving patients a variety of stimulation. This therapy is highly recommended for people with mild dementia from mild to moderate in either Alzheimer dementia or vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is a collection of symptoms of decreased cognitive abilities associated with the incidence of stroke. CASE REPORT: Reported a 76-year-old man, who had a bleeding stroke, in admission the patient were often angry, sleepless, and aphasic. After returning home the patient experienced impairment in memory, language, executive ability, mild to moderate degree of visuospatial and incapable to manage his daily activities, therefore in routine evaluation of the 3rd month, patient was diagnosed as Vascular cognitive impairment. On regular home visits until the 6th month after the stroke, it was reported that in the first 6 months had been received CST. However, in the 7th–9th month of CST because at the time of the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic, human interaction was severely restricted, so patient monitoring was carried out using Ina AD-8 through phone. An evaluation of the cognitive function by measuring the cognitive function of the patient was using the Indonesian version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-Ina), as well as using activity daily living and instrumental daily living activities to measure the patient’s independence function. After 6 months of CST, there were cognitive improvements and were seen in MoCA – Ina, Ina AD-8 followed by improved patient independence. CONCLUSION: Cognitive stimulation is the best intervention option in the treatment of mild to moderate vascular dementia. This case is one good example that shows the success of CST that has been observed for 9 months, not only on the cognitive component but also in terms of the ability to perform daily activities.
, Hamed Tabesh, Majid Jangi Jangi, Kolsoum Deldar, Sayyed Mostafa Mostafavi, Mahmood Tara
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, Volume 9, pp 8-25; doi:10.3889/oamjms.2021.3421

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: There are various electronic health records (EHRs) evaluation frameworks with multiple dimensions and numerous sets of evaluation measures, while the coverage rate of evaluation measures in a common framework varies in different studies. AIM: This study provides a literature review of the current EHR evaluation frameworks and a model for measuring the coverage rate of evaluation measures in EHR frameworks. METHODS: The current study was a comprehensive literature review and a critical appraisal study. The study was conducted in three phases. In Phase 1, a literature review of EHR evaluation frameworks was conducted. In Phase 2, a three-level hierarchical structure was developed, which includes three aspects, 12 dimensions, and 110 evaluation measures. Subsequently, evaluation measures in the identified studies were categorized based on the hierarchical structure. In Phase 3, relative frequency (RF) of evaluation measures in different dimensions and aspects for each of the identified studies were determined and categorized as follows: Appropriate, moderate, and low coverage. RESULTS: Out of a total of 8276 retrieved articles, 62 studies were considered relevant. The RF range in the second and third level of the hierarchical structure was between 8.6%–91.94% and 0.2%–61%, respectively. “Ease of use” and “system quality” were the most frequent evaluation measure and dimension. Our results indicate that identified studies cover at least one and at most nine evaluation dimensions and current evaluation frameworks focus more on the technology aspect. Almost in all identified studies, evaluation measures related to the technology aspect were covered. However, evaluation measures related to human and organization aspects were covered in 68% and 84% of the identified studies, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, we systematically reviewed all literature presenting any type of EHR evaluation framework and analyzed and discussed their aspects and features. We believe that the findings of this study can help researchers to review and adopt the EHR evaluation frameworks for their own particular field of usage.
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