Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0022-1031 / 1096-0465
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 4,301
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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 100; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2022.104287

Abstract:
Large racial disparities plague discipline in schools across the United States which contributes to racial disparities in life outcomes such as education attainment and incarceration. The present research investigates the role a student's reputation – as shared from one teacher to another one – plays in the discipline context. Teachers (N = 192) read about two incidents of misbehavior and reported the severity of discipline the student should receive and the likelihood that they would label the student as a “troublemaker.” They were randomly assigned to read about a Black or White student and to hear from a fellow teacher that the student had a good or bad reputation. Analyses revealed a three-way interaction such that a good reputation buffers against an escalation in discipline severity for a White, but not Black, student. A White student with a bad, as compared to good reputation, received a meaningful escalation in discipline, was more likely to be labeled a troublemaker, and was deemed more likely to get suspended in the future. Meanwhile, reputation was somewhat inconsequential for a Black student. The current research advances theory on the implication of racial bias in context and informs policy for how information is shared among teachers.
, Loris Jeitziner, Matthias D. Keller, Mirella Walker
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 100; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104277

Abstract:
Throughout previous research focusing on individuals' diversity perception, it remains somewhat unclear which attributes (i.e., objective diversity) are reflected in perceptions of diversity. This manuscript investigates whether individuals consider objective differences in ambiguous facial information (which are not related to gender or race) when making diversity judgments and decisions. Throughout seven studies, facial information of group members was manipulated to appear more similar or different in regards to personality and information unrelated to Big 5 dimensions, while race, gender, and age were kept constant. Study 1a provides support that objective differences in facial information related to perceived personality traits is validly reflected in perceptions of diversity. Study 1b shows that results regarding the Big 5 can be replicated in an ensemble-coding setup. Studies 2a and 2b replicate this result, additionally showing that objective differences in facial information unrelated to the Big 5 are reflected in perceptions of diversity, too. Focusing on perceived extraversion, Study 3 reveals that individuals select faces differing (similar) in extraversion information in order to assemble a diverse (homogeneous) team. Study 4 investigates diversity choices in an ambiguous setting, showing that individuals who more strongly believe in the value of diversity are more likely to assemble a team that is objectively diverse regarding facial information. Study 5 indicates that the association between diversity in facial information and choices deteriorates if other attributes such as gender are varied too. The impact of the results for research is highlighted and discussed.
, Mark J. Brandt
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 100; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104279

Abstract:
We test if a change in an attitude affects other related attitudes (i.e., dynamic constraint), a core prediction of belief systems theory. We use psychological network methods to represent the belief system and make preregistered predictions about which attitudes should change and to what extent. We collected data in two longitudinal experiments (N = 3004; N = 2999) and three pilot studies (combined N = 2788) from community samples of US Americans. We use data from T1 as pretest measures of attitudes and to estimate the structure of the sample's belief system from which to generate and preregister predictions. At T2 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a control condition (no manipulation), a terrorism attitude manipulation (Study 1), a crime attitude manipulation (Study 2) attitude manipulation, or a banking attitude manipulation (Studies 1 & 2). We successfully manipulated the targeted attitude and also observed changes in non-targeted attitudes in the belief system. Multilevel models provided evidence that changes in non-targeted attitudes were moderated by their distance from the targeted attitude within the belief system: Non-targeted attitudes closer to the experimentally targeted attitude typically changed more. Changes in non-targeted attitudes were generally related to (and mediated by) changes in the targeted attitude. We discuss the implications of our findings for belief systems theory and the value of network methods in studying attitude change.
, André Mata, Hans Alves
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 100; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104281

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, Davide Mazzoni, Luca Pancani, Paolo Riva
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 99; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104275

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