English Language Teaching

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1916-4742 / 1916-4750
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 2,380
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Latest articles in this journal

Sue Livingston
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n6p1

Based on theoretical findings from the literature on the integration of reading and writing pedagogies used with hearing postsecondary students to advance academic literacy, this article offers a model of instruction for achieving academic literacy in developmental and freshman composition courses composed of deaf students. Academic literacy is viewed as the product of acts of composing in reading and writing which best transpire through reciprocal rather than separate reading and writing activities. Pedagogical practices based on theoretical findings and teacher experience are presented as a model of instruction, exemplified as artifacts in online supplementary materials and juxtaposed with practices used with hearing students. Differences between the practices are seen in accommodations for students who learn visually, the amount of guidance provided and more opportunities for extensive practice.
Gavin Yu
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p124

English Language Teaching, Vol. 14, No. 5, May 2021
Ying Liu, Xin Liu, Yibei Zhang
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p109

EFL classroom teaching in China, no matter whether it is traditional one or a flipped one, is a dynamic communicative process by using English with the aim of learning it. The interactive discourse between the teacher and the student has its own pragmatic functions, especially the feedback given by the teachers which may influence the teaching and learning efficiency. In order to provide appropriate investigation resources, a corpus of 128,223 words with 36.65 hour-2199 minute real audiovisual college EFL classroom teaching transcripts is built. Taking the data of the resources as supporting evidence, this paper analyzes the pragmatic functions of EFL classroom feedback discourse, and proposes certain pragmatic strategies of increasing interactivity, which has certain pedagogical implications for EFL classroom teaching. 
Nakhon Kitjaroonchai, Suksan Suppasetseree
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p89

The study investigated the interaction patterns of six ASEAN EFL university students when they worked in small groups on two collaborative writing tasks: a descriptive essay and an argumentative essay. Both groups were homogeneous in terms of gender and heterogeneous in terms of home countries. Data collection included pre- and posttest writing, pre- and post-task questionnaires, participants’ work on essays, their reflections, observations, and semi-structured interviews. The students worked on their essays in Google Docs, and the researcher(s) used DocuViz as a tool for visualizations of students’ collaborative writing contributions and styles. The findings showed different interaction patterns (a cooperative revision style for Group A vs. a main writer style for Group B) across the two collaborative writing tasks. While revising, both groups added and corrected their essays and employed almost the same writing change functions and language functions, which were suggesting, agreeing, and stating.
Makiko Kato
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p77

The study examined the impact of a first language’s summarizing skill and second language vocabulary size on summary performances in a second language. A total of 40 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners from a Japanese university with a mixed level of English language proficiency were asked to write a summary in English (i.e., their non-native language, L2) and in Japanese (their native language, L1) from a text written English and Japanese respectively. The effect of L1 summarizing skill on L2 summary performances was examined using multiple regression analysis. L1 summary performances (i.e., summarizing skill) slightly influenced English summary performances for summary writers with lower-level English language proficiency but not L2 summary performances for those with higher-level English language proficiency. The participants’ vocabulary size measured by Nation’s (2007) test was positively correlated with their English summary performances. Moreover, the results showed that the vocabulary size in the highest and smallest-vocabulary size groups was correlated with scores on two rating scales (i.e., Language use and Source use) in their English summary. In contrast, the vocabulary size in the middle-level vocabulary size groups was correlated with their scores on two different rating scales (i.e., Main idea coverage and Integration) in their English summary. This study concluded that L1 summary performance had not impact on L2 summary performances because several characteristics influence of summary writers’ English vocabulary size. The study made several recommendations to EFL teachers who teach summary writing and for further study.
Ehsan Mohammed Abdelgadir
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p58

Consequently, the present study sheds light on a very important aspect that is a contrastive analysis of segmental vowel phonemes of both L1 and L2. As one of the Problems, that is affecting the teaching/learning process of ELT. Then to clarify the different areas between the segmental vowel phonemes of Arabic and English. It also aims at making a comparative segmental analysis in the vowel phonemes of both L1 - L2, in order to shed light on the areas of difficulties. Taking into account the different forms of sounds in relation to their spellings. Also the sound systems of both languages L1 and L2. Particular the areas of common mistakes. Thus, it encourages teachers to check English pronunciation before teaching and predict problems before they happen. Also the use of advanced methods and pronunciation dictionary for (IPA). It also helps learners to master all the significant sound features and basic structural patterns. On the phonological levels, differences cause difficulties e.g. The areas of Arabic /p/ and /v/ ,and English front vowels phonemes /i:/-/i/- /e/- /æ/, central /ə:/- /ə/-/Λ/,and back/a:/-/o/-/ ﬤ:/-/u/-/u:/ phonemes in English, they do not exist in Arabic. In addition to the English vowel /e/ which doesn’t exist in Arabic. This observation can't be only linguistically, but it will also confirm by L2 learners. These theories need to be clarified in order to allow rules to be expressed. In the English language, there are 26 alphabetical letters which are totally different than their sounds. Another drawback is the alphabetical method which is intended to teach reading by means of spelling. There is no one –to- one correspondence between sounds and letters. That is to say, each different sound cannot be represented by the same letter. There are also words which are spelt differently but sound the same. Therefore, the present study concentrates on the difficulties that Learners and beginners face in using English segmental vowel phonemes. It also tries to get new methods and new ideas. This study is based on the practical experience of the writer, being specialized in English phonology, a lecturer and an author of a phonetics textbook for beginner learners who learn English as a foreign language. And as a supervisor who follows undergraduate students in the field of experience. That is, in order to find out possible remedial solutions, better suggestion and recommendations. Then follows a descriptive method to achieve this purpose. With the sample of twenty student girls. As a case study of undergraduate trainees of Majmaah Universitiy in the training field, to collect data from the subjects’ real environment during talks, speeches, presentations and teaching in the Field Experience. The results were recorded to be analyzed. In particular, the areas of English vowels and diphthongs that are totally different than in Arabic.
Xiaoqing Fang, Philip Morris
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p41

This study, based on two questionnaires directed to translation lecturers in UK Higher Education (HE), aims to explore the teacher awareness of learner autonomy in the UK university translation classroom, and the extent to which students of translation are encouraged to become autonomous learners. It covers six aspects of translation education, i.e., objective setting, learning strategies, resources, technology, learner reflection and assessment, and teacher’s role. The results provide insights to the teachers’ understanding of student choice, control and responsibility in autonomous translation learning. The findings suggest that the translation students in UK HE are offered the most choice in translation resources and technologies, and the least choice in co-deciding translation syllabi, specialized professional goal and teaching materials; they seem to share consistent control with their teachers over the whole learning process, from goal-setting, to translation task completion, group collaboration, final version and translation quality criteria decision, to self-evaluation and reflection; they are encouraged to take responsibility for their translation products, collaboration in class, for learning to translate, and learning to evaluate and reflect. Nevertheless, the importance of encouraging student self-evaluation, peer-evaluation and self reflection in UK translation education seems to be underestimated, and is recommended to be brought to the forefront of further research.
Binod Luitel, Kamal Kumar Poudel
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p30

The present study explores the novice Master's degree pass-outs' initial expectations for learning English as a career subject (ECS), their achievements from learning it and their reflections on the achievements. Ten novice Master's pass-outs' (NMPOs') narrative biographical stories were obtained by applying a questionnaire via the e-mail. The data obtained in the form of the NMPOs' stories were analyzed using the content analysis technique. It was found that the mismatches between the initial expectations and the final achievements outnumbered the links between them. The expectations the NMPOs have achieved are mostly of the integrative kind and those they have not are of the instrumental kind  the latter being an area of their dissatisfactions. Drawing from the results, a future direction suggested to the concerned authority is that ECS should be considered in the light of education as an investment for life.   
David Coniam, Tony Lee, Leda Lampropoulou
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p23

This article explores the issue of identifying guessers – with a specific focus on multiple-choice tests. Guessing has long been considered a problem due to the fact that it compromises validity. A test taker scoring higher than they should through guessing does not provide a picture of their actual ability. After an initial description of issues associated with guessing, the article then outlines approaches which have been taken to either discourage test takers from guessing or which attempt statistically to handle the problem. From this, the article moves to a novel way of identifying potential guessers: from the post hoc use of Rasch fit statistics. Two datasets, each consisting of approximately 200 beginner level English language test takers were split into two. In each dataset, half the test takers’ answers were randomised – to approximate guessing. Results obtained via a Rasch analysis of the data was then passed to an analyst who used the Rasch fit statistics to identify possible guessers. On each dataset, 80% of guessers were identified.
Soyhan Egitim, Travis Garcia
English Language Teaching, Volume 14; doi:10.5539/elt.v14n5p13

This study aims to understand Japanese university students’ perceptions of foreign English teachers (FETs) through a two-phased exploratory sequential mixed-methods design. During the initial phase, a quantitative survey was performed with first and second-year Japanese university students (n=377). Despite a lack of precision and a high dispersion measure, the Quantitative data analysis revealed certain outliers. A significant number of participants viewed their FETs as more of an entertainer, preferred FETs of American/European heritage, and believed FETs of Asian descent may not be able to teach the language and culture as effectively as FETs of American/European heritage. Thus, a qualitative inquiry was performed to explain and build upon the quantitative findings. Two focus groups with students from the quantitative survey were given interviews. The responses confirmed the existence of phenotypical, gender, and personality FET stereotypes in Japanese university EFL classes. In addition, past educational experiences, socio-cultural factors, and mass media were also found influential in students’ perceptions of FETs. Based on the findings from the focus group interviews, the researchers propose intercultural activities as an effective pedagogical strategy to promote reflective teaching practices and intercultural competence in Japanese university EFL classes.
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