Cytojournal

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ISSN / EISSN : 1742-6413 / 1742-6413
Published by: Scientific Scholar (10.25259)
Total articles ≅ 485
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Published: 14 June 2022
Abstract:
The cervical cancer screening has been based conventionally on cytologic analysis. With advances in understanding the role of human papillomavirus, cotesting has been applied. But most of the patients subjected to colposcopy did not benefit, except in cases with HSIL [high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion] cytology. Because of this, a step to increase the sensitivity to detect cancers and pre-cancers but with higher specificity with minimal overdiagnosis leading to prevention of unindicated cervical biopsies is highly desired. Such triaging step in cases with abnormal screening results is expected to minimize invasive interventions because of low false positivity. With availability of methodologies leading to quantitatively and qualitatively enhanced cell-blocks from residual liquid based cytology specimens, immunostaining can be performed for multiple immunomarkers with potential objectivity to triage initial screening test results. This is enhanced further with inclusion of AV marker in the cell-blocks and application of SCIP (subtractive coordinate immunoreactivity pattern) approach. The cell-blocks are also resource for performing other ancillary studies including molecular pathology and proteomics/metabolomics as potential tests in future. This review explores application of residual liquid based cytology specimen for cell-blocking with application of ancillary studies in algorithmic manner as adjunct to ASCCP management guidelines for improved patient care.
, Prajakta Sathawane
Published: 14 June 2022
Abstract:
Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a monolayer slide preparation technology that has outperformed conventional Pap smears because of improved fixation, decreased obscuring factors, and standardized cell transfer. In LBC, samples are collected by completely immersing the sampling device into the company vial containing preservative fluid, whereby the cells are preserved and fixed simultaneously unlike conventional smears where the sample is smeared onto the glass slide and fixed separately. To date, two major liquid-based preparation methods are known – ThinPrep and SurePath. These two methods are different in their principles of cell harvesting but produce similar preparations. SurePath works on the principle of density gradient sedimentation. In this, a sample is vortexed and strained to break the mucus and large cell groups and then is treated through a density gradient centrifugation process to remove blood and debris. The cell pellet is resuspended and is allowed to sediment onto a glass slide. This is followed by staining on the PrepStain instrument. Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, India, uses the SurePath method which was approved by FDA in the USA in 1999. Our institution uses Rovers Cervex-Brush to collect the cells from the transformation zone. This chapter describes the principle of SurePath and the processing of cervicovaginal specimen using the fully automated system in the laboratory.
Published: 14 June 2022
Abstract:
The existence of precursor lesions for invasive cervical cancer has been recognized for more than 50 years. Our understanding of the pathobiology and behavior of cervical cancer precursors has evolved considerably over the past five decades. Furthermore, the terminology used to classify pre-invasive lesions of the cervix has frequently changed. The realization that human papillomavirus (HPV) infections constitute a morphologic continuum has prompted efforts to include them within a single classification system, specifically the squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) which have now been embraced by the surgical pathologists. The reduced number of specific pathological categories has made clinical decision-making more straightforward. The generic criteria for SIL have two important histological parameters: Alterations in the density of superficial epithelial cells and superficial squamous atypia. The flat condyloma or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I is generally associated with intermediate and high-risk HPV types as against the low-risk viruses that cause exophytic/papillary growth patterns of condylomas. The diagnosis of low-grade SIL (LSIL) (flat and exophytic condylomas) requires first excluding benign mimics of LSIL and second to confirm the characteristic cytologic atypia. For high-grade SILs (HSILs), the extent and degree of atypia generally exceed the limits of that described in flat or exophytic condylomas (LSILs). Less maturation, abnormal cell differentiation, loss of cell polarity, and increased mitotic index with abnormal mitotic figures occupying increasing thickness of the epithelium define a lesion as CIN II or CIN III. Atypical immature metaplasia associated with inflammation and atrophy is a challenge in cervical biopsy interpretation. Careful attention to the growth pattern of the epithelium, the distribution of the atypia, nuclear spacing, and the degree of anisokaryosis and the presence of enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei help in differentiating a non-neoplastic from a neoplastic process. This chapter describes in depth the diagnostic difficulties in the interpretation of cervical biopsies. It also provides useful criteria in distinguishing benign mimics from true precancerous lesions and the role of biomarkers such as the p16ink4 and Ki-67 in the differential diagnosis of precursor lesions and the reactive and metaplastic epithelium.
, Srabani Mittal, Partha Basu
Published: 14 June 2022
Abstract:
Cytology identifies the women who are at higher risk of harboring high-grade cervical premalignant lesions or invasive cancer. However, a diagnostic test such as colposcopy is crucial for women with abnormal cytology for localization of the abnormality, confirmation of diagnosis, and appropriate management. To standardize this subjective technique and to minimize the interobserver variations, Swede scoring system was introduced. The revised colposcopic nomenclature of the International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy in 2011 included various normal and abnormal colposcopic findings and gives a description of colposcopic features which improves its accuracy over the colposcopic indices. There is consensus agreement that cytology indicative of high-grade lesions (ASC-H and HSIL in the Bethesda system) should engender immediate referral for colposcopy and biopsy. The management of women who have equivocal or borderline cytology of low-grade abnormalities (ASCUS/LSIL) is still under deliberation. It is generally agreed to have an HPV triage for women with equivocal cytology. Based on the latest recommendations, the current chapter provides an extensive overview of the role of colposcopy in the management of women with various abnormalities reported on Pap smear.
, , Pramodini R. Deotale, Hirkini Mankar
Published: 14 June 2022
Abstract:
The impressive list of achievements of Dr. G. N. Papanicolaou and his tedious journey from normal to abnormal human cell includes the importance of wet fixation of cells and the development of the unique polychromatic Pap stain. The 5-dye Pap stain method evolved through 2 salient phases. The first being the development of wet fixation using alcohol-ether to enhance cellular transparency and the second phase saw the introduction of various cytoplasmic counterstaining methods using orange G and EA (light green, Bismarck brown, eosin) and phosphotungstic acid, facilitating the distinction of cell types. The specific characteristics of the staining method is, the cellular transparency combined with crisp nuclear staining, achieved through tailored cellular fixation and cytoplasmic staining using variable dye and pH combinations. With little modifications if any the Pap stain continues to be applied uniformly globally. However, institutional supply of dyes and chemicals from different companies make minor modifications, that remain consistent, an essential part of the staining protocol. This chapter describes the preparation and principles of various components of the stain that are being currently used in our department.
Rasika Gadkari, R. Ravi,
Published: 14 June 2022
Abstract:
Carcinoma of cervix is classified as per the WHO classification into primary tumors which are predominantly epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors and tumor like lesions, mixed epithelial stromal tumors, melanocytic, germ cell, and lymphoid tumors. Secondary tumors are uncommon. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in various morphological forms needs to be separated from other epithelial tumors for treatment modality selection. Majority of SCC are human papilloma virus (HPV) positive. The histological pattern, HPV type, and grading do not affect prognosis. Mixed mesenchymal and epithelial tumors are of Mullerian origin. Among sarcomas, Botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma needs to be looked for, as a small biopsy may miss it. Carcinoma cervix is not the only cancer caused by HPV. High-risk HPV is implicated in causation of various other cancers such as anal cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, vulval cancers, vaginal cancers, and penile cancers. Low-risk HPV viruses similarly cause infections of perianal and genital region in males and females. The terminology for these lesions has evolved before understanding of pathogenesis of low- and high-risk HPV. The lower anogenital squamous terminology (LAST), an acronym for LAST, incorporates the low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) terminology. In invasive cancers, a superficially invasive SCC is a well-defined entity. LAST outlines areas where p16 use is recommended. No benefit of addition of other biomarkers like p63 or ki67 is found in problem-solving in differentiation of HSIL from mimics or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Routine use of biomarkers is not advocated.
, Sufian Zaheer, Charanjeet Ahluwalia
Published: 7 June 2022
Abstract:
Objectives: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is becoming a useful method in evaluating both gynecological and nongynecological preparations. Many studies have been conducted these days to see the quality of LBC in diagnosing thyroid lesions and its role is yet to be standardized. This study has been done to pick the cytomorphological features of thyroid lesions on LBC and to compare them with the conventional cytology of these lesions.The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology processed by LBC as compared to conventional smears. Material and Methods: A prospective study has been done on 53 cases of thyroid lesions using standard conventional and LBC techniques. Results: In most of the cases, the cytological features are similar in conventional cytology smears and LBC, but the colloid film and the lymphocytic component show a clear picture on direct smears, whereas nuclear and cytoplasmic details are better evaluated in LBC slides. The preservative solution used in LBC could be efficiently used for the application of immunocytochemical and molecular techniques. Conclusion: LBC does not represent as a valid alternative to conventional cytology but it can be considered as a diagnostic utility process especially due to the possibility of applying additional techniques which enhance the efficacy of the cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions.
, Manju Kaushal, Swasti Jain
Published: 7 June 2022
Abstract:
Xanthomas are papulonodular skin lesions present in lipoprotein metabolism disorders, which result in cholesterol deposits in subcutaneous tissue, tendons, ligaments, periosteum, etc. A 28-year-old male presented with multiple soft-tissue swellings, prominently over joints. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) from multiple sites had similar appearance with foamy histocytes and giant cells. We describe an unusual case of tendinous and tuberous xanthoma diagnosed by cytology. Acquaintance with FNA cytology findings in xanthomas can help to avoid the need of surgical biopsy, as xanthomas can regress on medical therapy alone.
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