Journal of Synchrotron Radiation

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ISSN / EISSN : 0909-0495 / 1600-5775
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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522007160

Abstract:
A method to optimize the notches of water-cooled white-beam mirrors over the entire photon energy range is proposed. A theoretical method is used to quantitatively evaluate the influence of the thermal load on the thermal deformation of a mirror. The result of theoretical calculations and finite-element analysis are consistent, which proves the feasibility of the method. The root mean square of the curvatures of the thermal deformation of the white-beam mirror over the entire photon energy range can be minimized. This method greatly simplifies the design work of water-cooled white-beam mirrors.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006816

Abstract:
New developments at synchrotron beamlines and the ongoing upgrades of synchrotron facilities allow the possibility to study complex structures with a much better spatial and temporal resolution than ever before. However, the downside is that the data collected are also significantly larger (more than several terabytes) than ever before, and post-processing and analyzing these data is very challenging to perform manually. This issue can be solved by employing automated methods such as machine learning, which show significantly improved performance in data processing and image segmentation than manual methods. In this work, a 3D U-net deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) model with four layers and base-8 characteristic features has been developed to segment precipitates and porosities in synchrotron transmission X-ray micrograms. Transmission X-ray microscopy experiments were conducted on micropillars prepared from additively manufactured 316L steel to evaluate precipitate information. After training the 3D U-net DCNN model, it was used on unseen data and the prediction was compared with manual segmentation. A good agreement was found between both segmentations. An ablation study was performed and revealed that the proposed model showed better statistics than other models with lower numbers of layers and/or characteristic features. The proposed model is able to segment several hundreds of gigabytes of data in a few minutes and could be applied to other materials and tomography techniques. The code and the fitted weights are made available with this paper for any interested researcher to use for their needs (https://github.com/manasvupadhyay/erc-gamma-3D-DCNN).
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522007056

Abstract:
The development, construction, and first commissioning results of a new scanning microscope installed at the 5-ID Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy (SRX) beamline at NSLS-II are reported. The developed system utilizes Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors for X-ray focusing. The instrument is designed to enable spectromicroscopy measurements in 2D and 3D with sub-200 nm spatial resolution. The present paper focuses on the design aspects, optical considerations, and specifics of the sample scanning stage, summarizing some of the initial commissioning results.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006701

Abstract:
Pump–probe experiments at X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities are a powerful tool for studying dynamics at ultrafast and longer timescales. Observing the dynamics in diverse scientific cases requires optical laser systems with a wide range of wavelength, flexible pulse sequences and different pulse durations, especially in the pump source. Here, the pump–probe instrumentation available for measurements at the Single Particles, Clusters, and Biomolecules and Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SPB/SFX) instrument of the European XFEL is reported. The temporal and spatial stability of this instrumentation is also presented.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006786

Abstract:
The Argonne X-ray Emission Analysis Package (AXEAP) has been developed to calibrate and process X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) data collected with a two-dimensional (2D) position-sensitive detector. AXEAP is designed to convert a 2D XES image into an XES spectrum in real time using both calculations and unsupervised machine learning. AXEAP is capable of making this transformation at a rate similar to data collection, allowing real-time comparisons during data collection, reducing the amount of data stored from gigabyte-sized image files to kilobyte-sized text files. With a user-friendly interface, AXEAP includes data processing for non-resonant and resonant XES images from multiple edges and elements. AXEAP is written in MATLAB and can run on common operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and MacOS.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006968

Abstract:
The acquisition speed and spatial resolution of X-ray nanotomography have continuously improved over the last decades. Coherent diffraction-based techniques breach the 10 nm resolution barrier frequently and thus pose stringent demands on sample positioning accuracy and stability. At the same time there is an increasing desire to accommodate in situ or operando measurements. Here, an environmental control system for X-ray nanotomography is introduced to regulate the temperature of a sample from room temperature up to 850°C in a controlled atmospheric composition. The system allows for a 360° sample rotation, permitting tomographic studies in situ or operando free of missing wedge constraints. The system is implemented and available at the flOMNI microscope at the Swiss Light Source. In addition to the environmental control system itself, the related modifications of flOMNI are described. Tomographic measurements of a nanoporous gold sample at 50°C and 600°C at a resolution of sub-20 nm demonstrate the performance of the device.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006439

Abstract:
γ-Irradiation and synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy have been used to induce structure disorder through the interaction of γ-rays (200 kGy) with fabricated Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and then to examine thoroughly the resultant structural change. The extracted electronic/fine XAFS structural parameters reflect a compositional and γ-irradiation co-dependence. The average crystal structure of samples prepared by the sol-gel method was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A detailed structural XRD data analysis was carried out by applying a Rietveld refinement using the MAUD program. XAFS spectra were collected at the Zn K-edge (9659 eV) in transmission mode and at the Mn K-edge (6539 eV) in fluorescence mode. Direct evidence of the solubility of Mn ions in the ZnO structure was demonstrated by fitting the extended-XAFS (EXAFS) signal. Near-edge XAFS (XANES) analysis provided the oxidation states of Zn and Mn ions through fingerprint XANES spectra of the sample along with those of standard compounds. Linear combination fitting showed that the most fit chemical forms of Zn and Mn in the samples are ZnO and MnO, respectively. The oxidation states of both Zn and Mn XAFS absorbers were confirmed from pre-edge fitting. The results of the magnetic measurements were explained in light of the average and electronic/local structural information obtained from XRD, XANES and EXAFS techniques. The magnetic properties of the samples translate into an induced change in the average crystal and electronic/local structures upon Mn concentration change and γ-irradiation. XRD confirmed the successful preparation of hexagonal Mn-doped ZnO NPs with a crystallite size in the range 33–41 nm. Both XRD and EXAFS analysis detected a minor amount of Mn3O4 as a secondary phase. XANES and EXAFS provided information exploring the outstanding potential of the utilized protocol for detecting precisely the presence of the secondary phase of Mn3O4, which changes with Mn content (x). Mean-square relative displacement (σ2) values extracted from the EXAFS fitting were found to grow for Zn–Zn/Mn paths demonstrating the substitution of Mn/Zn into Zn crystal sites. The EXAFS analysis explains the reasons behind the enhancement in the magnetic properties and shows that the Mn doping content at x = 0.05 produces the most local atomic disorder in ZnO NPs. There is a strong harmony among the XRD, XANES, EXAFS and magnetization behavior of the Mn-doped ZnO NPs. Maximum magnetization was acquired at an Mn content of 0.05. γ-Ray-irradiated Zn1–xMnxO NPs are recommended as optimized candidates for showing the diversity of the applications.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006610

Abstract:
In this study, double-multilayer monochromators that generate intense, high-energy, pink X-ray beams are designed, installed and evaluated at the SPring-8 medium-length (215 m) bending-magnet beamline BL20B2 for imaging applications. Two pairs of W/B4C multilayer mirrors are designed to utilize photon energies of 110 keV and 40 keV with bandwidths of 0.8% and 4.8%, respectively, which are more than 100 times larger when compared with the Si double-crystal monochromator (DCM) with a bandwidth of less than 0.01%. At an experimental hutch located 210 m away from the source, a large and uniform beam of size 14 mm (V) × 300 mm (H) [21 mm (V) × 300 mm (H)] was generated with a high flux density of 1.6 × 109 photons s−1 mm−2 (6.9 × 1010 photons s−1 mm−2) at 110 keV (40 keV), which marked a 300 (190) times increase in the photon flux when compared with a DCM with Si 511 (111) diffraction. The intense pink beams facilitate advanced X-ray imaging for large-sized objects such as fossils, rocks, organs and electronic devices with high speed and high spatial resolution.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29, pp 1114-1121; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006397

Abstract:
In this study, the conceptual design and performance of a multimodal X-ray probe station recently installed at the 9C coherent X-ray scattering beamline of the Pohang Light Source-II are presented. The purpose of this apparatus is to measure coherent X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and electrical properties simultaneously. A miniature vacuum probe station equipped with a four-point probe was mounted on a six-axis motion hexapod. This can be used to study the structural and chemical evolution of thin films or nanostructures, as well as device performance including electronic transport properties. This probe station also provides the capability of varying sample environments such as gas atmosphere using a mass-flow-control system and sample temperatures up to 600°C using a pyrolytic boron nitride heater. The in situ annealing of ZnO thin films and the performance of ZnO nanostructure-based X-ray photodetectors are discussed. These results demonstrate that a multimodal X-ray probe station can be used for performing in situ and operando experiments to investigate structural phase transitions involving electrical resistivity switching.
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Volume 29, pp 1004-1013; https://doi.org/10.1107/s1600577522006300

Abstract:
The DIAD beamline for Dual Imaging and Diffraction at Diamond Light Source has opted to use an industrial robot to position its Dectris Pilatus 2M CdTe diffraction detector. This setup was chosen to enable flexible positioning of the detector in a quarter-sphere around the sample position whilst reliably holding the large weight of 139 kg of detector, detector mount and cabling in a stable position. Metrology measurements showed that the detector can be positioned with a linear repeatability of <19.7 µm and a rotational repeatability of <16.3 µrad. The detector position stays stable for a 12 h period with <10.1 µm of movement for linear displacement and <3.8 µrad for rotational displacement. X-ray diffraction from calibration samples confirmed that the robot is sufficiently stable to resolve lattice d-spacings within the instrumental broadening given by detector position and beam divergence.
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