Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience

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ISSN / EISSN : 1530-7026 / 1531-135X
Published by: Springer Nature (10.3758)
Total articles ≅ 1,341
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Jianping Huang, Chujun Wang,
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00982-x

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, Efsevia Kapsali, Marc Woirgardt, Jutta Kray
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00978-7

Abstract:
Recent research has focused on the interaction between motivation and cognitive control and shown that both are important for goal-directed behavior. There also is evidence for developmental differences in the sensitivity and behavioral effectiveness of incentives, showing that mid-adolescents might be especially susceptible to rewards. Further pursuing this line of research, the present study examined developmental differences in incentive processing and whether these potential differences also would correspond to changes in cognitive control. We compared the processing of high and low potential gains and losses in early-, mid-, and late adolescents by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) and examined whether these incentives also led to specific performance differences in task-switching. We expected that potential gains compared to potential losses and high compared to low incentives would lead to more preparatory updating as reflected in the P3b and consequently to better task performance and smaller global and local switch costs as indicators of cognitive control in all age groups. Furthermore, we expected that mid-adolescents should be especially sensitive to high gains and thus show the most pronounced enhancements in task performance and global and local switch costs in trials with high gains, respectively. Our results corroborate the idea of a special sensitivity to high rewards during mid-adolescence. The analysis of ERPs showed age-related differences in the processing of incentive cues that also varied with cognitive control demands. However, the different incentives did not impact age-related differences in indices of cognitive control, but had a general effect on response speed.
Jordan E. Pierce, R. James R. Blair, Kayla R. Clark,
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00980-z

Abstract:
During cognitive reappraisal, an individual reinterprets the meaning of an emotional stimulus to regulate the intensity of their emotional response. Prefrontal cortex activity has been found to support reappraisal and is putatively thought to downregulate the amygdala response to these stimuli. The timing of these regulation-related responses during the course of a trial, however, remains poorly understood. In the current fMRI study, participants were instructed to view or reappraise negative images and then rate how negative they felt following each image. The hemodynamic response function was estimated in 11 regions of interest for the entire time course of the trial including image viewing and rating. Notably, within the amygdala there was no evidence of downregulation in the early (picture viewing) window of the trial, only in the late (rating) window, which also correlated with a behavioral measure of reappraisal success. With respect to the prefrontal regions, some (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus) showed reappraisal-related activation in the early window, whereas others (e.g., middle frontal gyrus) showed increased activation primarily in the late window. These results highlight the temporal dynamics of different brain regions during emotion regulation and suggest that the amygdala response to negative images need not be immediately dampened to achieve successful cognitive reappraisal.
, Tiffany C. Ho, Colm G. Connolly, Alan N. Simmons, Tony T. Yang
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00975-w

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Meryl Rueppel, Kristin A. Mannella, Kate D. Fitzgerald,
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00976-9

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, Alexa M. Morcom
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00971-0

Abstract:
People often want to recall events of a particular kind, but this selective remembering is not always possible. We contrasted two candidate mechanisms: the overlap between retrieval cues and stored memory traces, and the ease of recollection. In two preregistered experiments (Ns = 28), we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to quantify selection occurring before retrieval and the goal states — retrieval orientations — thought to achieve this selection. Participants viewed object pictures or heard object names, and one of these sources was designated as targets in each memory test. We manipulated cue overlap by probing memory with visual names (Experiment 1) or line drawings (Experiment 2). Results revealed that regardless of which source was targeted, the left parietal ERP effect indexing recollection was selective when test cues overlapped more with the targeted than non-targeted information, despite consistently better memory for pictures. ERPs for unstudied items also were more positive-going when cue overlap was high, suggesting that engagement of retrieval orientations reflected availability of external cues matching the targeted source. The data support the view that selection can act before recollection if there is sufficient overlap between retrieval cues and targeted versus competing memory traces.
Heming Gao, Xiaoman Wang, Mengjiao Huang,
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00974-x

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Maedeh Ghasemi, Mojdeh Navidhamidi, Fatemeh Rezaei, Armin Azizikia,
Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00973-y

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