ISSN / EISSN : 2351-6895 / 2351-6895
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 212
Latest articles in this journal
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 103-116; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).39
The article is devoted to selected issues associated with acquiring syntax competence by children who are beginning early school education. The principal aim of the article is to demonstrate how children at this age attain sentence structures constituted by verbs of movement. The feature of the selected predicates is the fact that they open a position for the biggest out of all verb classes number of positions opened by a predicate (an agent, three locative positions, an object, a tool), which gives an opportunity to view the process of acquiring syntax competence by children. Sentences with verbs of movement, chosen form utterances of children whose task was to describe situations presented in illustrations, served as the material for the research. Studies have shown that children aged between six and a half to seven and a half were able to employ the verbs of movement and the proper syntactic structure appropriately in the given circumstances. Two-position structures (single, undeveloped sentences) dominated the collected data, indicating that children create short and precise messages, naming only what is most important for them in the illustration (i.e. what they considered to be the subject of the statement). The children employed all syntactic positions. The most frequently employed positions were LOCATOR [which way] in the verbs of linear movement, TOOL and OBJECT in the phrasal verbs. The LOCATOR [from] was the least employed position. The study demonstrated that syntax development is inextricably linked to the increase in the number of words in the child’s active vocabulary. The evidence for the above statement was derived from the errors resulting from the limited amount of lexical resources acquired by children within this age group. The children did not show any major problems when it came to employing inflected forms of words. The problem was only the correct use of prepositions, especially in the context of employing the LOCATOR position [which way]. The examination findings have confirmed the presuppositions of the authors that despite the diversity of syntax positions this class of verbs is mastered fairly well by children at this age.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 43-58; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).35
The article presents Russian and Polish grammarians’ points of view (Vasily Adodurov, Mikhail Lomonosov, Anton Barsov, Walenty Szylarski, Onufry Kopczyński) on considering language theory issues and how they described them in their works written in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The grammars under consideration were aimed not only at a detailed description of the Russian and Polish languages or teaching the correct language usage; in addition, they contained some theoretical information given in a manner that is comparable with modern linguistic knowledge. That information lay in the field of linguistic typology. It was also assumed that a language could acquire communicative, cognitive, nominative, and poetic functions (the appropriate terms were not used at that time). Besides, the issues concerning the forms of language existence – written and oral, as well as the dichotomy of language and speech, the nature of a language sign, including the ideas about its arbitrariness, its semantics and pragmatics were raised. Additionally, interesting discussions about sign relations at the phonetic-phonological language level, as well as some ideas of functional syntax were initiated. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the grammars of the 18th century were a reflection of the historical situation in which this grammatical research was done.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 30-42; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).34
The article is devoted to the typological classification of manuscripts containing Ruthenian and Church Slavonic translations of the extensive Polish book Żywoty świętych written by the Jesuit Piotr Skarga. Unlike the Polish original, these translations have not been studied extensively and represent a specific part of Cyrillic writing of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland. The objectives of the article are to show (1) what types of manuscripts did the translated texts from the book of the lives of Piotr Skarga fall into and to answer (2) which manuscripts contain a higher concentration of the translations. The data from special works on this topic were taken into account; the list of sources known from these works was significantly expanded. Most of the manuscripts were examined de visu. A description of the content has been prepared for each manuscript, the identified translations are included in the compiled consolidated catalog of such translations, and the results obtained were verified by comparing them with the lists of translated texts available in the studies. Both the internal structure and the content of the manuscripts in question made it possible to distinguish six typological groups, namely, miscellanies of the lives from Żywoty Świętych, miscellanies with mixed content, miscellanies of the Menaion type, the Festal Homiliary (Torzhestvennik), Didactic Gospels, and Synaxarion (Prologue). Apart from the unique miscellany containing nothing more than Cyrillic versions of hagiographical texts from Skarga’s Żywoty Świętych, the greatest concentration of these translations is attested in the Menaion type of miscellanies, which are structurally quite close to their printed Polish source.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 10-19; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).32
The Ruthenian translation of the medieval treatise Secretum Secretorum (“The Secret of Secrets”) was made in Kiev during the second half of the 15th century from a Hebrew version that dates back to late 13th‒early 14th centuries, when it was translated from the Arabic original, which probably originated in its final form during the 10th century. The Ruthenian translation contains certain interpolations that had been already present in the Hebrew version before it was translated into Ruthenian. They had been extracted from several Arabic and Hebrew sources, such as the treatise Al-Mansuri by Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyā al-Rāzī (865‒925) and the treatises On Poisons, On Coitus, and On Asthma by Maimonides (1135/1138‒1204).The author argues that the same Ruthenian translation also contains a minor (one-page long) interpolation that through Hebrew mediation goes back to The Canon of Medicine written in Arabic by Avicenna (980‒1037). It is still to be established which of the seven known Medieval Hebrew translations and/or the around 30 commentaries on it (all unpublished) was used as the immediate source for the Kievan translation. Nevertheless, the newly identified Arabic origin of this particular interpolation to the Ruthenian version of the treatise The Secret of Secrets sheds some light on the prehistory of this particular text’s portion and compliments the list of sources used by the Hebrew-to-Ruthenian translators in Kiev during the second half of the 15th century.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 72-86; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).37
Slovenian and Russian substantive internationalisms of different grammatical gender are compared in the present article. Five groups of internationalisms have been distinguished on the basis of the formed glossary based on the dictionaries of the two languages which includes about 450 pairs of lexemes with different gender characteristics: 1) Slovenian feminine ~ Russian masculine; 2) Slovenian masculine ~ Russian feminine; 3) Slovenian masculine ~ Russian neuter; 4) Slovenian feminine ~ Russian neuter; animated nouns constitute a separate group. The significant difference is the small number of neuter gender internationalisms in Slovenian, while there are a great number of such internationalisms in Russian; as well as the predominance of feminine gender borrowings in Slovenian. The analysis has illustrated that the internationalisms gender in both languages is determined by a common set of factors (the influence of gender of the prototype word, features of the morphological category of gender in language, lexical and semantic characteristics), which have different importance in the two languages. The influence of the prototype word gender is mainly characteristic in Slovenian, while structural and paradigmatic factors play a much larger role in Russian. The differences in the donor languages are of great importance for understanding the gender distinction of internationalisms in Slovenian and Russian. The time factor is more evident in Russian, where there is a gradual increasing importance of a paradigmatic factor in the gender determination of a number of borrowings, whereas for Slovenian, where a number of borrowings-internationalisms were formed later, the time factor does not play a big role.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 145-151; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).42
Birutė Jasiūnaitė. Lietuvių velniavardžiai. Vilnius: Vilniaus universiteto leidykla, 2018. 312 p. ISBN 978-609-07-0090-7.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 152-154; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).43
Publishes articles on palaeoslavonic studies and Slavic etymology, Baltic-Slavonic linguistic relations, the Slavic heritage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Slavic dialectology as well as the history and modern situation of the Slavic languages and cultures.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 131-144; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).41
The Ruthenian version of the Early Rus᾿ Exegesis on John of Damascus᾿ Easter Canon is published here according to the sole known mid-16th century manuscript from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Saint Petersburg, The Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, P. Dobrokhotov collection (f. 37), No. 18, f. 302‒308). The text belongs to the little known in Early Slavic studies genre of exegesis (commentaries) on hymnography and is a part of a larger (and still unpublished) set of Old Church Slavonic hymnopgraphic commentaries compiled in Pre-Mongol Kievan Rus in the late 12th‒early 13th c. From the entire set, merely the exegesis on the Easter Canon is known to be translated from Old Church Slavonic into Ruthenian.The translation confirms the earlier conclusion that Ruthenian was never used in liturgical singing in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, since it was functioning as a lingua ad homines and clearly differed from Old Church Slavonic, which was used as a lingua ad Deum, e.g. the only Slavic Eastern Orthodox liturgical language directly addressed to God. The publication is accompanied by a description of themost important general characteristics of the Ruthenian version, which is a later and already corruptedcopy of the original translation.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 20-29; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).33
The article is devoted to two previously unknown excerpts from the Nomoсanon (Kormchaya), found in the late 16th century Synaxarion (or Prologue) from the Andrey Sheptytsky National Museum in Lviv, Rk 252. This manuscript contains readings from September to December and represents a specific version of the expanded edition of the Prologue, characteristic of the writing tradition of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The sermons, included in this copy for 17 and 25 November, are borrowed from the Nomoсanon of Fourteen Titles without commentaries, namely from the initial part of the Collection of Apostolic Rules. A comparative analysis of the articles has demonstrated that the compiler selected some successive fragments from the oldest Slavonic version of the Kormchaya and also made some omissions. The first sermon is focused on the ordination of bishops and the rules of conduct of all ranks of the clergy. The second article forbids the ordination of priests for a fee and under the auspices of the Duke. It also specifies that the bishops’ meetings should be held twice a year. A textological analysis has shown that the synaxarian sermon of 17 November had been somewhat shortened. From a linguistic point of view, excerpts from the Nomocanon bear exact correspondence to the source text. Both sermons contain brief passages from other authors and sources (St. Nilus of Sinai, the Book of Psalms, etc.). Because of the similarity in style of the work with the source, it may be assumed that extracts from the Kormchaya were simultaneously included into the Prologue by the same person, probably at a later stage of editing of this version of the Prologue. At the end of the present article, two newly discovered synaxarian articles from the Kormchaya are published.
Slavistica Vilnensis, Volume 65, pp 117-130; doi:10.15388/slavviln.2020.65(1).40
The article continues the analysis of the problem previously raised by the author, which deals with the nature of the headlines of modern new media. This article presents a pragmatic perspective on the study of headings aimed at attracting the attention of readers from the point of view of their correspondence to the postulates of communication of J. Grice. The article shows that the attention of the reader is often attracted by the violation of such cooperative principles as the postulate of quantity (maxim of quantity). The author focuses on the speed of dissemination of information under a certain heading and notes the transformation of headlines on various news sites. This makes it possible to assess the place of a news site in the media space and to determine how correctly the news resource uses the information received from another resource. The article attempts to establish a correlation between the “viral” headlines and the nature of modern culture that affects the reasons for their creation and transformation. Following the concept of media education of the English theorist of culture and media education L. Masterman, the author outlines possible ways of developing critical thinking on the basis of such headings, which are an integral part of the “new media”.