Open Journal of Ecology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 21621985 / 21621993
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 466
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Latest articles in this journal

Wafaa M. Hikal
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 1-21; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.101001

Water is life and access to clean drinking water is a fundamental human right. For human health, drinking water standards and guidelines have been developed to ensure their quality. Waterborne parasites are a great challenge and cause many diseases for humans. Thus, continuous monitoring of drinking water from the competent authorities in search of pollutants is required. The safety of drinking water for the growing population can be ensured by the correct use of water treatment technologies. Cryptosporidium is the first parasite to cause concern to health officials in the world. Also, Naegleria fowleri causes fatal cerebral infection, Acanthamoeba species that cause both cerebral and corneal disease; and Giardia which has heightened world concerns because of its severity. This study is based on highlighting on drinking water quality guidelines and standards published by the World Health Organization and some countries, especially Egypt. A growing concern globally after the scientists revealed the effects of polluted drinking water. So, a large number of the population is at risk of water pollution for the purpose of human access to clean drinking water and other uses.
S. Orina Paul, M. Onyango David, Lungayia Henry, Oduor Andrew, W. Sifuna Anthony, Otuya Petronila, A. Owigar Rosemary, B. Kowenje Chrispin, M. Hinzano Sheban, Paul S. Orina, et al.
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 22-35; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.101002

Lake Victoria the second largest fresh water body in the world located in East Africa is a shared resource between Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and enjoys a wide range of streams and rivers from as far as Burundi and Rwanda. The lake has environmentally undergone physical, chemical and biological changes in the last four decades, particularly rise in its trophic condition and decline in oxygen level, which affects the water quality and fish population dynamics. This study therefore set out to determine the quality of water in selected fishing beaches of Lake Victoria, Kenya with a view to report the possible pollution levels. pH was highest at Nyamasari and Kotieno (9.3 ± 0.1) and lowest at Nyachebe and Kichinjio (7.08 ± 0.1) whereas temperature was highest at Nyamasari (29.5°C ± 0.0°C) and lowest at Kichinjio (23.4°C ± 0.2°C). DO was highest at Kotieno (10.3 ± 0.2 mgL) and lowest at Seka (2.4 ± 0.1 mgL). Turbidity was highest at Uyoga (125.5 ± 0.90 NTU) and lowest at Osieko (2.7 ± 0.1 NTU). Ammoniacal nitrogen was highest at Dunga (1278.3 ± 0.8 μ∙gl-1) and lowest at Nyamasari (12.4 ± 0.8), all a factor of human activities, lake substratum and effluents from rivers and surface runoff. All parameters assessed showed significant differences across sampling sites and depth except pH which did not vary significantly with distance from lakeshore. Further, all parameters did not show a clear pattern with respect to distance from the lakeshore possibly due to adequate mixing in the gulf. There is a need for further water quality monitoring by seasons to inform policy decisions towards sustainable lake exploitation.
Abdelazem E. A. Mohamed, Mohammed A. Halato, Siddig T. Kafi
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 397-403; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.107025

This study aims to measure the radiation dose over several steel-making factories in Khartoum region, Sudan. The authors used different techniques to detect the harmful Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) emitting through the steel-making process. While, an X-ray Diffractometer was utilized to detect the NORM in the isotopes clay elite and magnesio-ferrite over slag steel waste and soil. The worker dose was measured by using polimaster device and it was detected 56.448 mSv per year. And backpack mobile monitored the background over the waste and it was 0.048 μSv/h in accounting mode. In another hand gamma spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector detected the average of activity concentration of natural radionuclide over the slag steel waste and K-40 of it is 321 ± 3 Bq/Kg, Th-232 is 20.6 ± 5 Bq/Kg, Ra-226 is 15.2 ± 4 bq/Kg, Cs-137 is 3.33 ± 7 Bq/Kg, and over soil around the waste the concentration of K40, Ra226, Th232 was (185 ± 3, 12.6 ± 7, and 12.0 ± 5) Bq/Kg, respectively.
Lauren A. McPherson, Ida Holásková, James T. Anderson
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 418-439; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.107027

Sanda Mazi, Toua Vroumsia, Marie-Noel Yahangar, Malloum Malla, Dawai Zroumba
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 404-417; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.107026

Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Nantida Watanarojanaporn, Ratchaniwan Jaemsaeng
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 440-444; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.107028

Abdelazem E. A. Mohamed, Mohammed A. Halato, Siddig T. Kafi
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 89-96; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.103007

This study investigates the existence of high levels of radiation and heavy metallic materials in the area around Merowe Dam, using different physical techniques. Two radiation survey-meters were used in order to compare results, which were Raddose and Idintifineder and several analytical devices. The survey-meter measurements were 0.1 μSv/h over the chemical waste and 0.05 μSv/h in different areas positions. The background level of radiation was determined at different positions, and the average of the measurements was 0.09 μSv/h, which was within the normal ranges. The existence of natural occurring radioactive material falls within the global wide range as well. Furthermore, the presence of the chemical materials containing heavy metals was detected by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission spectrophotometer (ICPE-9000), Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDX-8000) devices and Gas chromatograph GC-2010 plus. The analysis showed there were lots of heavy metals that they were believed to be a revert from the dam construction material, such as paint and epoxy.
Walter G. Whitford, Yosef Steinberger
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 37-44; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.102003

Two species of Ephedra: E. trifurca and E. torreyana inhabit shrub and grassland habitats in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. E. torreyana is limited to black grama grasslands where grasses are taller than the shrub. E. torreyana is heavily browsed by vertebrates and E. trifurca is browsed during some years. We established an experiment with cylindrical exclosures that excluded rabbits and rodents, rabbits but accessible to rodents, for comparison with E. torreyana plants available to all herbivores. Plants accessible to all vertebrate herbivores were significantly smaller with shorter stem lengths than plants in exclosures. We concluded that E. torreyana in black grama grassland are largely hidden from vertebrate herbivores and that intense herbivory reflects the degraded state of the study site which makes the E. torreyana evergreen shrubs apparent to vertebrates.
Shaylee Martling, Greg Simpson, Jeremy L. Kientz, Alex J. Rosburg, Michael E. Barnes
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 177-188; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.104012

This study documented brown trout (Salmo trutta) spawning locations, redd construction timing, and associated environmental variables in an 850-m long mainstem section and a 400-m long diversion channel of Spearfish Creek within the city limits of Spearfish, South Dakota, USA in 2019. The first redds were observed on October 15, with no new redds observed after November 12. Redd construction peaked during the first week of November, when 23 redds were observed in the mainstem section and 50 in the diversion channel. Substrate size was significantly smaller, water temperatures significantly higher, and water velocities significantly greater in redd versus non-redd locations in both the mainstem reach and the diversion channel (P ˚C), but significant, increase in water temperature from the rest of the channel locations. This is the first study to document redd locations in Spearfish Creek and will provide a baseline to evaluate future spawning activity, particularly as it may be affected by likely future anthropogenic changes potentially affecting the stream environment.
John Blair, Paul Osmond
Open Journal of Ecology, Volume 10, pp 111-140; doi:10.4236/oje.2020.103009

The purpose and context for the study relates to urban growth. Australian cities are experiencing particularly rapid urbanization, taking the form of land clearing to accommodate outward expansion as well as developing to higher densities in existing urban areas. Both forms of development degrade native biodiversity, resulting in loss of vegetation with the possibility that the remnant indigenous plants will become locally extinct. One endangered ecological community in Sydney, the Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub (ESBS), still survives along some sections of Sydney’s heavily urbanized coastline. At the time of European settlement, the ESBS covered approximately 5300 ha, but it is now a highly fragmented 146 ha across 24 sites with some sites under imminent threat of development. Conservation legislation enacted by the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia has declared the ESBS as critically endangered. Despite recovery plans, in 2016 the NSW Threatened Species Scientific Committee indicated that the community faces an extremely high risk of extinction in Australia in the immediate future. A practical option in the face of declining open space in our cities is to examine the potential of urban rooftops for conserving and propagating threatened or endangered flora. While there is a limited amount of international research on using green roofs for endangered plant protection, there is no information from Australia about how green roofs perform in this geographic region. The approach taken in this research has been firstly, to review the current academic and “grey” literature from a global perspective to identify options for conserving endangered flora on green roofs. We derive an evidence-based research protocol to be used to test the green roof environment in Sydney for propagating the endangered ESBS. We establish the general applicability of green roofs for protecting vanishing flora through the literature review and conclude that our research design will be a suitable framework for the task for monitoring growth and germination performance over the ESBS community’s development cycle, with the longer-term objective of establishing a viable rooftop seed orchard.
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