IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 0018-9499 / 1558-1578
Total articles ≅ 28,748
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, Delgermaa Nergui, Hari Parameswaran, Nelson E. Sepulveda-Ramos, George N. Tzintzarov, Yaw Mensah, Clifford D. Cheon, Sunil G. Rao, Brett Ringel, Mariia Gorchichko, et al.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3119536

Abstract:
Integrated silicon microwave pin diodes are exposed to 10-keV X-rays up to a dose of 2 Mrad(SiO2) and 14-MeV fast neutrons up to a fluence of 2.2×1013 cm-2. Changes in both DC leakage current and small-signal circuit components are examined. Degradation in performance due to total-ionizing dose is shown to be suppressed by non-quasi-static effects during RF operation. Tolerance to displacement damage from fast neutrons is also observed, which is explained using TCAD simulations. Overall, the characterized pin diodes are tolerant to cumulative radiation at levels consistent with space applications such as geosynchronous weather satellites.
Hangxu Li, Jie Zhang, Ye Ding, Wei Wei, Zhenjie Li, Xiao Lu Ji, Peng Liu, Qiuju Li, Xiaoshan Jiang, Zheng Wang, et al.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3119028

Abstract:
A hybrid pixel detector, which will be used in the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS) with Beijing PIXel (BPIX) chips, has been successfully developed to the third-generation HEPS-BPIX3. It is a two-dimensional imaging detector with pixel size of 150 μm. The BPIX can work at 20 MHz without dead-time, but the frame rate can only reach 200 Hz limited by the 1 Gbps TCP protocol of the third-generation readout system. The time structure of HEPS makes it possible to study the ultrafast dynamic evolution of crystal structure, even room-temperature data collection of macromolecular crystallography, so the detector needs to have the ability of fast readout to increase the frame rate up to 1 kHz. Based on this, fast readout and transmission bandwidth become crucial issues, meanwhile, the cost of electronics also should be considered. Therefore, a new Dual Modules Readout Board (DMRB) based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) was proposed to realize the imaging of 1.5 Megapixels detector without delay at the frame rate of 1.2 kHz, and an innovative 10 Gigabit TCP/IP firmware was developed to improve bandwidth. This paper introduces how to design, implement and run the whole system in detail from the perspective of DMRB hardware and firmware, and finally gives the performance results of DMRB with Through Silicon Via (TSV) module at 1.2 kHz frame rate.
, Vincent Goiffon, Alexandre Le Roch, Serena Rizzolo, Cedric Virmontois, Claude Marcandella, Philippe Paillet
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3119456

Abstract:
The paper studies the radiation effects on the junction leakage random telegraph signal (JL-RTS). Using arrays of transistors, a statistical study of the phenomenon in MOSFETs source p-n junctions is performed and the impact of the electric field, the type of irradiation, and the source design is investigated. It appears that although JL-RTS originate both from the DDD- and TID-induced defects, the latter is the dominant contribution in MOSFETs sources due to an electric field enhancement. The paper then completes the study with ab initio molecular simulations to investigate the origin of the JL-RTS. The results advocate for the adoption of the structural fluctuation model over the state charge fluctuation model to describe the origin of the phenomenon.
, Ryoji Kosugi, Yowichi Fujita, Yoshinori Fukao, Kazutoshi Kojima, Keiko Masumoto, Hajime Nishiguchi, Manobu M. Tanaka, Yasunori Tanaka
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3118788

Abstract:
We report on SiC pn-junction diodes with a high blocking voltage over 3 kV. Although SiC radiation sensors have been developed with a Schottky barrier type due to a simple fabrication process in the early stages, pn junction structures are advantageous due to lower sensitivity of the surface defects. Thus, this system provides an ideal condition to investigate the effect of bulk crystal defects on the characteristics of the radiation sensor. The pn diodes were designed with a device simulator and fabricated with a 4-inch 4H-SiC wafer. The epitaxial layer was grown on an n-type substrate with sufficiently low doping concentration of Nd-Na =~ 5 × 1014 cm..3 and an average thickness of 52 μm. Fabricated pn diodes with a relatively large leakage current still show a clear peak of the Landau distribution in the charge spectrum, suggesting their practical availability as minimum ionizing particle detectors. The estimated electron-hole pair creation energy is consistent with the published studies and we expect good radiation tolerance. Feasibility based on the wafer processing indicates that the prototype devices are a good candidate for the muon beam monitor application in the coherent muon-to-electron transition experiment (COMET) at J-PARC.
, Valerio Re, Elisa Riceputi, Mauro Sonzogni, Lodovico Ratti, Lorenzo Fabris
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3118980

Abstract:
This work is focused on the design and the experimental characterization of an analog channel developed for the read out of lithium-drifted silicon detectors of the General AntiParticle Spectrometer experiment aimed at the search for dark matter. The instrument is designed for the identification of antideuteron particles from cosmic rays during an Antarctic balloon mission scheduled for late 2022. A low-noise analog front-end, featuring a dynamic signal compression to comply with the wide input range, has been designed in a commercial 180 nm CMOS technology. The channel was fabricated in 2018 and is the first building block toward the development of a multichannel readout ASIC. The paper will provide a description of the design criteria, the architecture of the channel, and a summary of the results of the experimental characterization.
, Min Yang, Yapeng Wu, Liang Sun, Jiawei Ran, Qiang Lin
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3117993

Abstract:
X-ray Computed laminography (CL), as a popular non-destructive testing technology, has unique advantages for the detection of plate-type structures. However, with the limitation of the detector size, the specimen, i.e. large flat-like components, may beyond the field of view (FOV) of the CL system. For the cone-beam CT (CBCT) system, which is analogous to the CL system, a traditional way to enlarge the FOV is the displaced sample stage scanning mode. In this paper, a new CL reconstruction method with the displaced sample stage scanning mode is proposed to enlarge the FOV of the CL system. According to this method, a virtual detector is established to obtain a new CBCT system under the displaced sample stage. Then the projection data are converted into the virtual detector and scanning geometric parameters are calculated. The FDK algorithm combined with the Parker weighting function can well reconstruct the cross-sections of the specimen with acceptable quality. The numerical simulation and experiments demonstrate the proposed approach can achieve image reconstruction with sufficient quality and low computational cost. The FOV of the CL system is enlarged effectively without changing the original scanning geometry, and thereby it can be conveniently utilized in engineering applications.
, M. Manghisoni, L. Ratti, V. Re, E. Riceputi, G. Traversi, G. Dellacasa, N. Demaria, S. Garbolino, F. Rotondo
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3117666

Abstract:
The Linear front-end is the analog processor chosen for the final integration into the pixel readout chip for the High-Luminosity upgrade of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The front-end has been included in the RD53A chip, designed by the CERN RD53 collaboration and submitted in 2017. An optimized version of the front-end has been designed, submitted and tested in the framework of the RD53B developments. The optimization is mainly concerned with the time-walk performance of the front-end and with its threshold tuning capabilities. The paper describes in details such design improvements together with the results from the characterization of a small prototype chip including a 16 × 16 pixel matrix featuring both the RD53A and RD53B version of the front-end. Test results show a significant reduction, about 10 ns for input signals close to the threshold, of the time-walk in the RD53B front-end, featuring a threshold dispersion smaller than 65 electrons r.m.s. after exposure to a total ionizing dose of 1 Grad of X-rays.
, Chanjun Park, Jungsuk Park, Namchan Cho, Jaehyun Park, Gyuseong Cho
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3116090

Abstract:
In this work, we have developed a neural network model that can analyze enrichment from depleted (0.2%) to low enriched uranium (4.5%) when UO2 wastes with very low radioactivity was contained in a 1L Marinelli beaker, even when the measurement time is as short as 10 seconds using a low-resolution detector. The average count rate was about 3800 cps. Measurement of uranium enrichment is necessary for quantitative analysis of uranium radioactivity for disposal of uranium waste. Previously studied uranium enrichment methods (infinite thickness method, peak ratio method, and relative-efficiency method) are difficult to use for field measurement due to many limitations of the algorithms. Among existing methods, the relative-efficiency method is accurate, but requires a long measurement time; there is also a limitation in that a high-resolution detector is essential. In this work, we proposed a model to predict uranium enrichment using a low-resolution detector and an artificial neural network model. Furthermore, we validated the results of the neural network models using an explainable AI algorithm and principal component analysis. When the measurement time was less than 60 seconds, the existing method failed to analyze uranium enrichment, but the proposed model can predict enrichment of uranium within 5% of relative error when 5 g of uranium powder was mixed with various wastes (ash, soil, and concrete).
, D. Hellfeld, J. R. Vavrek, B. J. Quiter, K. Meehan, P. J. Barton, J. W. Cates, A. Moran, V. Negut, R. Pavlovsky, et al.
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3113588

Abstract:
Using a series of detector measurements taken at different locations to localize a source of radiation is a well-studied problem. The source of radiation is sometimes constrained to a single point-like source, in which case the location of the point source can be found using techniques such as maximum likelihood. Recent advancements have shown the ability to locate point sources in 2D and even 3D, but few have studied the effect of intervening material on the problem. In this work we examine gamma-ray data taken from a freely moving system and develop voxelized 3-D models of the scene using data from the onboard LiDAR. Ray casting is used to compute the distance each gamma ray travels through the scene material, which is then used to calculate attenuation assuming a single attenuation coefficient for solids within the geometry. Parameter estimation using maximum likelihood is performed to simultaneously find the attenuation coefficient, source activity, and source position that best match the data. Using a simulation, we validate the ability of this method to reconstruct the true location and activity of a source, along with the true attenuation coefficient of the structure it is inside, and then we apply the method to measured data with sources and find good agreement.
, Huilong Zhu, Xin Xie, Zhiyuan Hu, Dawei Bi, Zhengxuan Zhang, Shichang Zou
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2021.3115116

Abstract:
Total ionizing dose degradation is caused by radiation-induced charge buildup in oxides. Radiation hardening of SOI devices with deep submicron nodes or nano-nodes is mainly concerned with the field oxide and buried oxide. In this paper, a back-channel adjustment technique for TID hardening is proposed. The technique is compatible with the 130 nm PDSOI commercial process with no extra effort applied to the design. After testing the key electrical parameters and characterizing the radiation tolerance of the typical T-gate I/O NMOS devices, the results show that the radiation tolerance of the devices can reach more than 1 Mrad(Si) with the back-channel adjustment technique, and electrical performance is comparable to that of commercial process devices.
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