Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

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ISSN / EISSN : 0001-6349 / 1600-0412
Published by: Wiley-Blackwell (10.1111)
Total articles ≅ 14,547
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Agnes Kielgast Ladelund, Frederik Jager Bruun, , ,
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14320

Abstract:
Introduction The Apgar score is routinely given at childbirth worldwide. A low Apgar score at 5 minutes is a strong predictor for neonatal death. Scores below 7 have been associated with higher risks of later neurologic disability. Few studies have assessed the association between Apgar score and school performance and intelligence. The existing literature points towards a possible association between Apgar score and later cognitive function, but the contradictions call for further investigation to fully understand the potential association. This study aimed to examine the possible association between Apgar score at 5 minutes and academic performance and intelligence in youth. Material and methods The study is a cohort study. The cohort consists of all Danish liveborn children in 1978–2000 (n = 1 450 681). Data regarding pregnancies, births, parents, school grades, and intelligence of the children were retrieved from different Danish registers. Multiple imputations were performed to avoid discarding data. After exclusion, the final cohort consisted of 1 005 241 children. Associations between Apgar score at 5 minutes and school graduation, grades and attendance, and intelligence scores from conscription were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regressions. Results No association was found between Apgar score and graduating primary school. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of graduating upper secondary education and attending conscription were significantly lower for children with scores below 7 compared with 7–10: graduating upper secondary education: Apgar 0–3: aOR 0.79 (95% CI 0.67–0.93), Apgar 4–6: aOR 0.86 (95% CI 0.81–0.93), attending conscription: Apgar 0–3: aOR 0.73 (95% CI 0.59–0.91), Apgar 4–6: aOR 0.73 (95% CI 0.66–0.80). The Apgar 4–6 group had significantly lower total mean primary school grade average: −0.13 (95% CI −0.21 to −0.054) and lower mean intelligence scores at conscription: −0.57 (95% CI −1.09 to −0.058). All other differences remained insignificant. Conclusions Performances when graduating school and attending conscription were overall equal regardless of Apgar score at 5 minutes. Chances of graduating primary school were the same irrespective of the score, but chances of graduating upper secondary education and attending conscription were significantly lower with scores below 7. The results suggest that children with scores below 7 may fail to appear at upper secondary education and conscription, but if they do, they perform equally to anyone else.
, Maria Strandbo Schmidt Jensen, Anne Katrine Leonhard, Tanja Østerlund Mortensen, , , ,
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14309

Abstract:
Introduction In this feasibility study, we hypothesize that the evaluation of cervical biomechanical strength can be improved if cervical length measurement is supplemented with quantitative elastography, which is a technique based on conventional ultrasound elastography combined with a force-measuring device. Our aims were to: (a) develop a force-measuring device; (b) introduce a cervical elastography index (CEI) and a cervical strength index (CSI; defined as cervical length × CEI); (c) evaluate how these indexes assess the cervical softening that takes place during normal pregnancy; and (d) how these indexes predict the cervical dilatation time from 4 to 10 cm. Material and methods An electronic force-measuring device was mounted on the handle of the transvaginal probe, allowing for force measurement when conducting elastography. The study group concerned with normal cervical softening included 44 unselected pregnant women. Outcomes were CEI and CSI at different gestational ages. The study group for labor induction included 26 singleton term pregnant women admitted for labor induction. Outcome was defined as cervical dilatation time from 4 to 10 cm. Elastography measured the changes in mean gray value (intensity) during manual compressions. Region of interest was set within the anterior cervical lip. Results We found that the mean of all variables regarding cervical softening decreased from early to late pregnancy: ie cervical length from 34 to 29 mm, CEI from 0.17 to 0.11 N, and CSI from 5.9 to 3.1 N mm. Moreover, the cervical dilatation time during labor induction was associated with CEI, although not statistically significantly (area under the ROC curve of 0.67), but not with the Bishop score, the cervical length, or the CSI. Conclusions We propose that quantitative elastography based on changes in the intensity of the B-mode ultrasound recording, in combination with a force-measuring device on the handle of the vaginal probe, deserves further investigation as an approach for evaluation of cervical biomechanical strength.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14314

Abstract:
Introduction The incidence of and mortality from cancers of the cervix uteri and corpus uteri are underestimated if the presence of uterine cancers, where the exact topography (site of origin) is not specified, is omitted. In this paper we present the corrected figures on mortality from and incidence of cervix and corpus uteri cancers in the Nordic countries by reallocating unspecified uterine cancer deaths and cases to originate either from the corpus uteri or cervix uteri. To further validate the accuracy of reallocation, we also analyzed how well the reallocation captures the changes occurring as the result of a transition in cause of death coding in Norway that took place in 2005. Material and Methods This study uses data available in the NORDCAN database, which contains aggregated cancer data from all the Nordic countries for the years 1960–2016. The unspecified uterine cancer cases and deaths were reallocated to either cervix uteri or corpus uteri based on the estimated probability that follows the distribution of cases and deaths with verified topography. The estimated proportions of cases and deaths for both cancers were calculated for each combination of age group, year, and country as a proportion of cases (and deaths, respectively) with known topography. Annual age-standardized rates were calculated by direct age-adjustment. Results The proportions of unspecified uterine cancers were higher in the mortality data than in incidence data, with mean values for 1960–2016 ranging between 5.1% and 26.6% and between 0.2% and 6.8% by country, respectively. In the Nordic countries combined, the reallocation increased the number of cases by 4% and deaths by approximately 20% for both cancers. Finland was the only Nordic country where the mortality rate did not increase substantially after reallocation. Conclusions The reallocation procedure had a significant impact on mortality from cancers of the cervix and corpus uteri for countries where the proportion of cancer deaths coded as uterus, not otherwise specified, is substantial. More effort to validate cause of death data with incidence data from cancer registries is warranted to avoid erroneous conclusions of temporal trends based on uncorrected cancer burden.
Christer Borgfeldt, Anneli Leksell,
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14311

Abstract:
Introduction The screening program for cervical cancer in Sweden recommends the use of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening for women aged ≥30 to 65 years. Co-testing with both HPV analysis and cytology is recommended at the first screening after the age of 40 years. To fulfil co-testing, all screened women aged 40–42 years within the region of Skåne were co-tested. The aim of the audit was to investigate the proportion of severe dysplasia as diagnosed by cytology and histological follow-up among women with Aptima HPV-negative tests. We also calculated the cost of adding the cytology to the HPV primary screening program. Material and Methods The local cytology registry was used to identify women aged 40–42 years who attended screening and were co-tested during the 4 years from January 2017 to December 2020. The Aptima HPV messenger RNA assay detects 14 HPV types. For Aptima HPV-negative women with high-grade cytology or histological high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), we performed extended HPV typing for 40 HPV types with polymerase chain reaction using modified GP5+/6+ primers followed by a Luminex assay. To estimate the added cost of using cytology to identify each histologically confirmed cervical HSIL case among Aptima HPV-negative women, we used the current cost of €21.2 per cytology evaluation at our laboratory. Results Of 19 599 women, 5.8% (1137/19 599) had abnormal cytology. Among Aptima HPV-negative women, 0.11‰ (2/18 132) had histologically confirmed HSIL. One of the women was infected with HPV18 and the other with HPV73 at the diagnosis of HSIL. The calculated cost to find one HSIL, by adding cytology to HPV-negative cases, was approximately €200 000. Conclusions The clinical benefit of a single cytology co-test added to an HPV-based screening program in women aged 40–42 years appears doubtful and economically unreasonable.
, , , Helena Hognert, Øjvind Lidegaard, Christina Bergh,
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14302

Abstract:
Introduction The aim was to describe and compare changes in the reproductive pattern of women in their 40s observed over a decade in Scandinavia. Material and Methods Cross-sectional study using the total population of women aged 40–49 years between 2008–2018 in Denmark, Norway and Sweden (on average n = 1.5 million). Aggregated data concerning birth and induced abortion rate were collected and analyzed from national health registers. National data on redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives in the three countries were collected from prescription registers. Births after spontaneous and assisted conceptions were identified by using cross-linked data on deliveries from the Medical Birth Registers and National Registers of Assisted Reproduction in the three countries. Results Use of hormonal contraception increased among women aged 40–44 years in Denmark from 24% to 31%, in Sweden from 27% to 30%, and in Norway from 22% to 24%. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device was the most frequently used method in all countries. Birth rates among women 40–44 years increased continuously from 9.5 to 12/1000 women in Denmark and from 11.7 to 14.3/1000 in Sweden, but remained stable in Norway at ~11/1000 women. There was a doubling of assisted conceptions in Denmark from 0.71 to 1.71/1000 women, Sweden from 0.43 to 0.81/1000 and Norway from 0.25 to 0.53/1000 women 40–49 years of age. Sweden had the highest induced abortion rate (7.7 to 8.1/1000 women) in women aged 40–49 years during the study period. Conclusions From 2008 to 2018, birth rates continuously increased among women aged 40–49 years in Denmark and Sweden and births resulting from assisted reproductive technology doubled in all three countries.
Mette Seland, Katrine Skrede, Kristina Lindemann, Tone Skaali, Rune Blomhoff, Kjersti Bruheim, Torbjørn Wisløff, Lene Thorsen
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14310

Abstract:
Introduction The prevalence of distress, problems and need for rehabilitation among women treated for gynecological cancer is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of distress, problems and unmet rehabilitation needs in the first years after treatment for gynecological cancer. Material and methods Women treated for gynecological cancer within the last 2 years were invited. Participants responded to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and Problem List measuring distress and problems. They also answered a questionnaire regarding physical endurance, muscle strength, and need for rehabilitation services. Results Of 114 eligible women, 92 (81%) agreed to participate. Mean time since last treatment was 7.6 months (range 0–24.5 months). A total of 57% of the participants reported distress. The four most common problems reported were fatigue (58%), tingling in hands/feet (54%), worry (53%), and problems with memory/concentration (50%). Problems associated with distress were: dealing with partner, all emotional problems (i.e. depression, fears, nervousness, sadness, worry, and loss of interest in usual activities), appearance, memory/concentration, pain, sex, sleep, and problems with physical endurance and muscle strength. Fifty-two per cent reported unmet needs for rehabilitation services. Women with distress reported more unmet rehabilitation needs than those in the non-distressed group. Conclusions The prevalence of distress in this population of women treated for gynecological cancer was high. Having a high number of problems and having unmet needs for rehabilitation services were both associated with distress. Hence, measurement of distress seems to be helpful when assessing the need for rehabilitation services.
Eva Smith Knutsson, Malin Nicklasson, Yvonne Björk, Kristina Stenberg, , Mats Brune
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14308

Abstract:
Introduction Genital chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is a common late effect after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In a previous cross-sectional study, prevalence, signs and symptoms of genital and extra-genital cGvHD were accounted for in a cohort of 42 women. Classifications of cGvHD were performed as per the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2005 criteria. In this follow-up study on surviving women, the aim was to assess genital and extra-genital cGvHD status after long period of time. Our hypothesis was that signs and symptoms of cGvHD alleviate over time. Material and methods All surviving women (n = 38) were re-examined by an ophthalmologist, a gynecologist and a hematologist. Signs and symptoms were classified according to the NIH 2014 criteria. Clinical scorings of affected organs were combined for estimating global score of cGvHD. To make possible comparisons between the two studies, data from the original study were re-classified as per the NIH 2014 criteria, and the four dead women were excluded. The same questionnaires were completed. Cervical smear, human papilloma virus test and vulvar photo-documentation were performed. Results Median time after original study was 8.4 (5.8–12) years and after transplant 14.5 (10–19.3) years. The prevalence of genital cGvHD was similar in the original (50%) and follow-up (58%) studies (p = 0.646) as well as extra-genital cGvHD. Systemic corticosteroid treatment of cGvHD was ongoing in 34% and 29%, respectively (p = 0.805). Ocular cGvHD was found in 24 of 37 examined women (65%) in the follow-up study. Genital cGvHD had disappeared in three women and developed in two women 5–12 and 9–17 years, respectively, after transplantation. The severity of global cGvHD changed over time in 14 women, but was the same on group level (p = 0.345). Atrophic mucous membranes as in estrogen deficiency were seen in 66%. Three women had human papilloma virus genotypes associated with the risk of developing cervical cancer. Conclusions Chronic GvHD did not alleviate over time. Allotransplanted women require early and continuous life-long contact with a gynecologist and an ophthalmologist for the detection of cGvHD. Specific attention should be given to the need for local estrogen and the risk of genital epithelial malignancies.
, Aniek Uittenboogaard, Karlijn M. M. Bucks, Marjolein H. F. M. Lentjes‐Beer, Steven L. Bosch, Minouche M. E. van Rumste, M. Caroline Vos, Paul J. van Diest, Sandrina Lambrechts, Anja van de Stolpe, et al.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14306

Abstract:
Introduction The local environment of the fallopian tube represents the optimal conditions for reproductive processes. To maintain tissue homeostasis, signal transduction pathways are thought to play a pivotal role. Enhancing our understanding of functional signal transduction pathway activity is important to be able to clarify the role of aberrant signal transduction pathway activity leading to female subfertility and other tubal diseases. Therefore, in this study we investigate the influence of the hormonal cycle on the activity of key signal transduction pathways in the fimbrial epithelium of morphologically normal fallopian tubes. Material and methods We included healthy pre- (n = 17) and postmenopausal (n = 8) patients who had surgical interventions for benign gynecologic conditions. Histologic sections of the fallopian tubes were reviewed by two pathologists and, for the premenopausal patients, hormone serum levels and sections of the endometrium were examined to determine the hormonal phase (early follicular [n = 4], late follicular [n = 3], early luteal [n = 5], late luteal [n = 5]). After laser capture microdissection, total mRNA was extracted from the fimbrial epithelium and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was performed to determine functional signal transduction pathway activity of the androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), Hedgehog (HH), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and canonical wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) pathways. Results The early luteal phase demonstrated high AR and ER pathway activity in comparison with the late luteal phase (p = 0.016 and p = 0.032, respectively) and low PI3K activity compared with the late follicular phase (p = 0.036), whereas the late luteal phase showed low activity of HH and Wnt compared with the early follicular phase (both p = 0.016). Signal transduction pathway activity in fimbrial epithelium from postmenopausal patients was most similar to the early follicular and/or late luteal phase with regard to the AR, ER and PI3K pathways. Wnt pathway activity in postmenopausal patients was comparable to the late follicular and early luteal phase. We observed no differences in HH and TGF-β pathway activity between pre- and postmenopausal samples. The cyclic changes in signal transduction pathway activity suggest a stage-specific function which may affect the morphology and physiology of the human fallopian tube. Conclusions We demonstrated cyclic changes in activity of the AR, ER, PI3K, HH and Wnt pathways throughout the hormonal cycle.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Volume 101, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14174

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