ISSN / EISSN : 19994915 / 19994915
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 3,493
Google Scholar h5-index: 53
Latest articles in this journal
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080713
Abstract:Papillomaviruses (PVs) have been identified in a wide range of animal species and are associated with a variety of disease syndromes including classical papillomatosis, aural plaques, and genital papillomas. In horses, 13 PVs have been described to date, falling into six genera. Using total RNA sequencing (meta-transcriptomics) we identified a novel equine papillomavirus in semen taken from a thoroughbred stallion suffering a genital lesion, which was confirmed by nested RT-PCR. We designate this novel virus Equus caballus papillomavirus 9 (EcPV9). The complete 7656 bp genome of EcPV9 exhibited similar characteristics to those of other horse papillomaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated E1-E2-L2-L1 amino acid sequences revealed that EcPV9 clustered with EcPV2, EcPV4, and EcPV5, although was distinct enough to represent a new viral species within the genus Dyoiotapapillomavirus (69.35%, 59.25%, and 58.00% nucleotide similarity to EcPV2, EcPV4, and EcPV5, respectively). In sum, we demonstrate the presence of a novel equine papillomavirus for which more detailed studies of disease association are merited.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080712
Abstract:In human and veterinary medicine, there have been multiple reports of pathogens being airborne under experimental and field conditions, highlighting the importance of this transmission route. These studies shed light on different aspects related to airborne transmission such as the capability of pathogens becoming airborne, the ability of pathogens to remain infectious while airborne, the role played by environmental conditions in pathogen dissemination, and pathogen strain as an interfering factor in airborne transmission. Data showing that airborne pathogens originating from an infectious individual or population can infect susceptible hosts are scarce, especially under field conditions. Furthermore, even though disease outbreak investigations have generated important information identifying potential ports of entry of pathogens into populations, these investigations do not necessarily yield clear answers on mechanisms by which pathogens have been introduced into populations. In swine, the aerosol transmission route gained popularity during the late 1990’s as suspicions of airborne transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were growing. Several studies were conducted within the last 15 years contributing to the understanding of this transmission route; however, questions still remain. This paper reviews the current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps related to PRRSV airborne transmission.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080710
Abstract:Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), the world’s largest rodents, are distributed throughout South America. These wild herbivores are commonly found near water bodies and are well adapted to rural and urban areas. There is limited information on the viruses circulating through capybaras. This study aimed to expand the knowledge on the viral diversity associated with capybaras by sampling their faeces. Using a viral metagenomics approach, we identified diverse single-stranded DNA viruses in the capybara faeces sampled in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. A total of 148 complete genomes of viruses in the Microviridae family were identified. In addition, 14 genomoviruses (family Genomoviridae), a novel cyclovirus (family Circoviridae), and a smacovirus (family Smacoviridae) were identified. Also, 37 diverse viruses that cannot be assigned to known families and more broadly referred to as unclassified circular replication associated protein encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses were identified. This study provides a snapshot of the viral diversity associated with capybaras that may be infectious to these animals or associated with their microbiota or diet.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080711
Abstract:Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma and other aggressive AIDS-associated malignancies, encodes over 90 genes, most of which are expressed only during the lytic replication cycle. The role of many of the KSHV lytic proteins in the KSHV replication cycle remains unknown, and many proteins are annotated based on known functions of homologs in other herpesviruses. Here we investigate the role of the previously uncharacterized KSHV lytic protein ORF42, a presumed tegument protein. We find that ORF42 is dispensable for reactivation from latency but is required for efficient production of viral particles. Like its alpha- and beta-herpesviral homologs, ORF42 is a late protein that accumulates in the viral particles. However, unlike its homologs, ORF42 appears to be required for efficient expression of at least some viral proteins and may potentiate post-transcriptional stages of gene expression. These results demonstrate that ORF42 has an important role in KSHV replication and may contribute to shaping viral gene expression.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080709
Abstract:Some immune escape mutants of H9N2 virus and the corresponding mutations in hemagglutinin (HA) have been documented, but little is known about the impact of a single mutation on the antigenicity and pathogenesis of H9N2. In this study, seven critical sites in HA associated with the antigenicity were identified and the effects of a HA mutation (N166D) derived from a H9N2 escape mutant (m3F2) were investigated. Although N166D did not significantly affect viral replication in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and viral shedding in the larynx and cloaca of chicken, N166D attenuated the pathogenesis of the virus in mice. Compared to the rescued RgPR8-H9_166D, RgPR8-H9_166N caused greater body weight loss and higher viral titers in the lungs of the infected mice. Moreover, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for the sera from the chickens infected with wild type H9N2 and mutant m3F2 showed that N166D mutation could result in weak antibody response in chickens. Considering the field strains of H9N2 with N166D mutation are frequently isolated in the countries with H9N2 vaccination, the findings that the single mutation in HA, N166D, affected both the antigenicity and pathogenesis of H9N2 highlight the significance of surveillance on such mutation that may contribute to the failure of H9N2 vaccination in the field.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080703
Abstract:We screened ticks and human clinical specimens to detect and characterize tick phleboviruses and pathogenicity in vertebrates. Ticks were collected at locations in Istanbul (Northwest Anatolia, Thrace), Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ (Thrace), Mersin (Mediterranean Anatolia), Adiyaman and Şanlıurfa (Southeastern Anatolia) provinces from 2013–2018 and were analyzed following morphological identification and pooling. Specimens from individuals with febrile disease or meningoencephalitic symptoms of an unknown etiology were also evaluated. The pools were screened via generic tick phlebovirus amplification assays and products were sequenced. Selected pools were used for cell culture and suckling mice inoculations and next generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 7492 ticks were screened in 609 pools where 4.2% were positive. A phylogenetic sequence clustering according to tick species was observed. No human samples were positive. NGS provided near-complete viral replicase coding sequences in three pools. A comprehensive analysis revealed three distinct, monophyletic virus genotypes, comprised of previously-described viruses from Anatolia and the Balkans, with unique fingerprints in conserved amino acid motifs in viral replicase. A novel tick phlebovirus group was discovered circulating in the Balkans and Turkey, with at least three genotypes or species. No evidence for replication in vertebrates or infections in clinical cases could be demonstrated.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080704
Abstract:Successful in vivo infection following pathogen entry requires the evasion and subversion of multiple immunological barriers. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the first immune pathways upregulated during infection by multiple pathogens, in multiple organs in vivo. In humans, there are many classes of AMPs exhibiting broad antimicrobial activities, with defensins and the human cathelicidin LL-37 being the best studied examples. Whereas historically the efficacy and therapeutic potential of AMPs against bacterial infection has been the primary focus of research, recent studies have begun to elucidate the antiviral properties of AMPs as well as their role in regulation of inflammation and chemoattraction. AMPs as therapeutic tools seem especially promising against emerging infectious viral pathogens for which no approved vaccines or treatments are currently available, such as dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). In this review, we summarize recent studies elucidating the efficacy and diverse mechanisms of action of various classes of AMPs against multiple viral pathogens, as well as the potential use of human AMPs in novel antiviral therapeutic strategies.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080705
Abstract:Application of highly active antiretroviral drugs (ARDs) effectively reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. However, the emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains has led to the increased failure of ARDs, thus calling for the development of anti-HIV drugs with targets or mechanisms of action different from those of the current ARDs. The first peptide-based HIV entry inhibitor, enfuvirtide, was approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who have failed to respond to the current ARDs, which has stimulated the development of several series of protein- and peptide-based HIV entry inhibitors in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we highlighted the properties and mechanisms of action for those promising protein- and peptide-based HIV entry inhibitors targeting the HIV-1 gp120 or gp41 and discussed their advantages and disadvantages, compared with the current ARDs.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080706
Abstract:In gilts and sows, the more severe clinical manifestation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurs in late gestation and can result in up to a 40% abortion incidence. Despite the known genetic component in resilience to PRRSV, there is scarce information regarding the abortive outcome of this disease. We tested the relationship between eight molecular markers (six from published studies and two identified in the present study in the HDAC6 gene) and the probability of abortion during a PRRSV outbreak, using data from two commercial Landrace x Large White sow farms with an incidence of abortion of 35% and 17%. From the markers tested, USP18_-1533G>A did not segregate in these populations, and CD163_c.3534C>T and HDAC6_g.2360C>T did not affect the abortion rate. In contrast, the minor allele of two markers in SSC4 (WUR1000125 in GBP1 and rs340943904 in GBP5), which lower viremia in growing pigs, and the major alleles of CD163_rs1107556229 and HDAC6_rs325981825 were associated with a lower probability of abortion during PRRSV outbreaks. The more striking result was for the MX1 gene, where the odds ratio of aborting versus not aborting was nine times lower in the sows homozygous for a 275-bp insertion than in the other genotypes. Interactions between markers were not relevant. All together, we bring here the first evidence that mutations in the host genome can predispose or protect from complete reproductive failure in sows infected with PRRSV.
Viruses, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/v11080707
Abstract:Classic human astroviruses (HAstV) are major global viral agents for gastroenteritis, but the molecular characteristics of classic HAstVs are not well understood. Here, we presented the molecular evolution of all classic HAstV serotypes by the analysis of the capsid protein sequences. Our results show that classic HAstVs can be divided into four groups with the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of 749. The overall evolutionary rate of classic HAstVs on the capsid gene was 4.509×10−4 substitutions/site/year, and most of the serotypes present a clock-like evolution with an amino acid accumulation of mutations over time. The mean effective population size of classic HAstVs is in a downward trend, and some positive and more than 500 negative selection sites were determined. Taken together, these results reveal that classic HAstVs evolve at the intra-serotype level with high genetic heterogeneity and are driven by strong purifying selection. Long-term surveillance of classic HAstVs are needed to enrich the genomic data for further analysis.