ISSN / EISSN : 16603397 / 16603397
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 4,045
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Latest articles in this journal
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080418
Two new series of synthetic renieramycins including 22-O-amino ester and hydroquinone 5-O-amino ester derivatives of renieramycin M were semi-synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer H292 and H460 cell lines. Interestingly, the series of 22-O-amino ester derivatives displayed a potent cytotoxic activity greater than the hydroquinone derivatives. The most cytotoxic derivative of the series was the 22-O-(N-Boc-l-glycine) ester of renieramycin M (5a: IC50 3.56 nM), which showed 7-fold higher potency than renieramycin M (IC50 24.56 nM) and 61-fold more than jorunnamycin A (IC50 217.43 nM) against H292 cells. In addition, 5a exhibited a significantly higher cytotoxic activity than doxorubicin (ca. 100 times). The new semi-synthetic renieramycin derivatives will be further studied and developed as potential cytotoxic agents for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080419
When the aquaculture water environment deteriorates or the temperature rises, shrimp are susceptible to viral or bacterial infections, causing a large number of deaths. This study comprehensively evaluated the effects of the oral administration of a chitosan–gentamicin conjugate (CS-GT) after Litopenaeus vannamei were infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, through nonspecific immunity parameter detection, intestinal morphology observation, and the assessment of microbial flora diversification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that the oral administration of CS-GT significantly increased total hemocyte counts and reduced hemocyte apoptosis in shrimp (p < 0.05). The parameters (including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, lysozyme, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and phenoloxidase) were significantly increased (p < 0.05). The integrity of the intestinal epithelial cells and basement membrane were enhanced, which correspondingly alleviated intestinal injury. In terms of the microbiome, the abundances of Vibrio (Gram-negative bacteria and food-borne pathogens) in the water and gut were significantly reduced. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the abundances of Vibrio both in the water and gut were negatively correlated with CS-GT dosage. In conclusion, the oral administration of CS-GT can improve the immunity of shrimp against pathogenic bacteria and significantly reduce the relative abundances of Vibrio in aquaculture water and the gut of Litopenaeus vannamei.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080416
Alginate lyases play an important role in alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) preparation and brown seaweed processing. Many extracellular alginate lyases have been characterized to develop efficient degradation tools needed for industrial applications. However, few studies focusing on intracellular alginate lyases have been conducted. In this work, a novel intracellular alkaline alginate lyase Alyw202 from Vibrio sp. W2 was cloned, expressed and characterized. Secretory expression was performed in a food-grade host, Yarrowia lipolytica. Recombinant Alyw202 with a molecular weight of approximately 38.3 kDa exhibited the highest activity at 45 °C and more than 60% of the activity in a broad pH range of 3.0 to 10.0. Furthermore, Alyw202 showed remarkable metal ion-tolerance, NaCl independence and the capacity of degrading alginate into oligosaccharides of DP2-DP4. Due to the unique pH-stable and high salt-tolerant properties, Alyw202 has potential applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080417
Tilapia piscidin (TP) 4 is an antimicrobial peptide derived from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which shows broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and excellent cancer-killing ability in vitro and in vivo. Like many other antimicrobial peptides, TP4 treatment causes mitochondrial toxicity in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TP4 targeting of mitochondria remain unclear. In this study, we used a pull-down assay on A549 cell lysates combined with LC-MS/MS to discover that TP4 targets adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) 2, a protein essential for adenine nucleotide exchange across the inner membrane. We further showed that TP4 accumulates in mitochondria and colocalizes with ANT2. Moreover, molecular docking studies showed that the interaction requires Phe1, Ile2, His3, His4, Ser11, Lys14, His17, Arg21, Arg24 and Arg25 residues in TP4 and key residues within the cavity of ANT2. These findings suggest a mechanism by which TP4 may induce mitochondrial dysfunction to disrupt cellular energy metabolism.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080415
Astaxanthin is a natural product gaining increasing attention due to its safety and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the anti-cancer effects of astaxanthin on prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines using aggressive PCa DU145 cells. Also an instantaneous silenced cell line (si-STAT3) derived from DU145 and a control cell line (si-NK) were used for the MTT and colony formation assays to determine the role of astaxanthin in proliferation and colony formation abilities. Flow cytometry assays were used to detect the apoptosis of tumor cells. Migration and invasion assays detected the weakening of the respective abilities. Western blot and RT-PCR tests detected the levels of STAT3 protein and mRNA. Astaxanthin resulted in suppression of the proliferation of DU145 cells and the level of STAT3. The treatment of DU145 cells with astaxanthin decreased the cloning ability, increased the apoptosis percentage and weakened the abilities of migration and invasion of the cells. Furthermore, astaxanthin reduced the expression of STAT3 at protein and mRNA levels. The effects were enhanced when astaxanthin and si-STAT3 were combined. The results of animal experiments were consistent with the results in cells. Thus, astaxanthin inhibits the proliferation of DU145 cells by reducing the expression of STAT3.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080414
Collagen-based skin-like scaffolds (CBSS) are promising alternatives to skin grafts to repair wounds and injuries. In this work, we propose that the common marine invertebrate sea urchin represents a promising and eco-friendly source of native collagen to develop innovative CBSS for skin injury treatment. Sea urchin food waste after gonad removal was here used to extract fibrillar glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-rich collagen to produce bilayer (2D + 3D) CBSS. Microstructure, mechanical stability, permeability to water and proteins, ability to exclude bacteria and act as scaffolding for fibroblasts were evaluated. Our data show that the thin and dense 2D collagen membrane strongly reduces water evaporation (less than 5% of water passes through the membrane after 7 days) and protein diffusion (less than 2% of BSA passes after 7 days), and acts as a barrier against bacterial infiltration (more than 99% of the different tested bacterial species is retained by the 2D collagen membrane up to 48 h), thus functionally mimicking the epidermal layer. The thick sponge-like 3D collagen scaffold, structurally and functionally resembling the dermal layer, is mechanically stable in wet conditions, biocompatible in vitro (seeded fibroblasts are viable and proliferate), and efficiently acts as a scaffold for fibroblast infiltration. Thus, thanks to their chemical and biological properties, CBSS derived from sea urchins might represent a promising, eco-friendly, and economically sustainable biomaterial for tissue regenerative medicine.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080413
Tube anemones, or cerianthids, are a phylogenetically informative group of cnidarians with complex life histories, including a pelagic larval stage and tube-dwelling adult stage, both known to utilize venom in stinging-cell rich tentacles. Cnidarians are an entirely venomous group that utilize their proteinaceous-dominated toxins to capture prey and defend against predators, in addition to several other ecological functions, including intraspecific interactions. At present there are no studies describing the venom for any species within cerianthids. Given their unique development, ecology, and distinct phylogenetic-placement within Cnidaria, our objective is to evaluate the venom-like gene diversity of four species of cerianthids from newly collected transcriptomic data. We identified 525 venom-like genes between all four species. The venom-gene profile for each species was dominated by enzymatic protein and peptide families, which is consistent with previous findings in other cnidarian venoms. However, we found few toxins that are typical of sea anemones and corals, and furthermore, three of the four species express toxin-like genes closely related to potent pore-forming toxins in box jellyfish. Our study is the first to provide a survey of the putative venom composition of cerianthids and contributes to our general understanding of the diversity of cnidarian toxins.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080412
Nutritional strategies to help promote immune competence are of particular interest for a range of population groups. This study aimed to assess the potential impacts of fucoidan, a seaweed-derived bioactive polysaccharide, on gut markers of immunity and inflammation. A group of professional team-sport athletes were selected for inclusion in the study given the recognized potential for intense physical activity to induce alterations in immune function. A retrospective analysis was performed on stored fecal samples which had been collected from professional team-sport athletes (n = 22) and healthy adults (n = 11) before and after seven days of supplementation with fucoidan (Fucus vesiculosus/Undaria pinnatifida extract, 1 g/d). Fecal concentrations of calprotectin, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and lysozyme were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The supplement was well tolerated by participants with no adverse events reported. At baseline, fecal lysozyme concentrations were ~73% higher in the healthy adults compared to the professional athletes (p = 0.001). For the professional athletes, a significant (~45%) increase in fecal lysozyme was observed following the supplementation period (p = 0.001). These data suggest that fucoidan supplementation may have the potential to promote the secretion of antimicrobial peptides in specific population groups and contribute to the regulation of mucosal immune health.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080411
Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antiradical, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory effects, and so on. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algae biomaterials and their derivatives from 2011 to 2020, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals.
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18080408
Chitosan oligosaccharide is known to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. However, some studies found that chitosan oligosaccharide might induce mild to moderate hepatic damage in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rats or diabetic rats. Chitosan oligosaccharide can be as a dietary supplement, functional food, or drug. Its possible toxic effects to normal subjects need to be clarified. This study is designed to investigate the effects of chitosan oligosaccharide on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism and liver histomorphology in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Diets supplemented with 5% chitosan oligosaccharide have been found to induce liver damage in HF diet-fed rats. We therefore selected 5% chitosan oligosaccharide as an experimental object. Rats were divided into: a normal control diet group and a normal control diet + 5% chitosan oligosaccharide group. The experimental period was 12 weeks. The results showed that supplementation of 5% chitosan oligosaccharide did not significantly change the body weight, food intake, liver/adipose tissue weights, plasma lipids, hepatic lipids, plasma levels of AST, ALT, and TNF-α/IL-6, hepatic lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative enzyme activities, fecal lipids, and liver histomorphology in normal rats. These findings suggest that supplementation of 5% chitosan oligosaccharide for 12 weeks may not induce lipid metabolism disorder and liver toxicity in normal rats.