Marine Drugs

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ISSN / EISSN : 16603397 / 16603397
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 3,669
Google Scholar h5-index: 57
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Marine Drugs Editorial Office
Published: 20 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010068

Abstract:The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not
Qiutong Wang, Yajie Jiang, Xuegang Luo, Chang Wang, Nan Wang, Hongpeng He, Tongcun Zhang, Liehuan Chen
Published: 20 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010069

Abstract:Chitooligosaccharides (COS) have a variety of biological activities due to their positively charged amino groups. Studies have shown that COS have antidiabetic effects, but their molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study confirmed that COS can reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, prevent obesity, and enhance histological changes in the livers of mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, treatment with COS can modulate the composition of the gut microbiota in the colon by altering the abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Furthermore, in T2DM mice, treatment with COS can upregulate the cholesterol-degrading enzymes cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) while specifically inhibiting the transcription and expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the key enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, using an oleic acid-induced hepatocyte steatosis model, we found that HMGCR can be directly transactivated by SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3), a transcriptional regulator, via 5′-CCCTCC-3′ element in the promoter. Overexpression of SMYD3 can suppress the inhibitory effect of COS on HMGCR, and COS might regulate HMGCR by inhibiting SMYD3, thereby exerting hypolipidemic functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to illustrate that COS mediate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders by regulating gut microbiota and SMYD3-mediated signaling pathways.
Leonel Pereira
Published: 19 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010065

Abstract:From the origin of our planet, about 4
Nadia Ruocco, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Giuliana D’Ippolito, Emiliano Manzo, Angela Sardo, Adrianna Ianora, Giovanna Romano, Antonella Iuliano, Valerio Zupo, Maria Costantini, et al.
Published: 19 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010066

Abstract:Oxygenated derivatives of fatty acids, collectively called oxylipins, are a highly diverse family of lipoxygenase (LOX) products well described in planktonic diatoms. Here we report the first investigation of these molecules in four benthic diatoms, Cylindrotheca closterium, Nanofrustulum shiloi, Cocconeis scutellum, and Diploneis sp. isolated from the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica from the Gulf of Naples. Analysis by hyphenated MS techniques revealed that C. closterium, N. shiloi, and C. scutellum produce several polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) and linear oxygenated fatty acids (LOFAs) related to the products of LOX pathways in planktonic species. Diploneis sp. also produced other unidentified fatty acid derivatives that are not related to LOX metabolism. The levels and composition of oxylipins in the benthic species match their negative effects on the reproductive success in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In agreement with this correlation, the most toxic species N. shiloi revealed the same LOX pathways of Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, two bloom-forming planktonic diatoms that affect copepod reproduction. Overall, our data highlight for the first time a major role of oxylipins, namely LOFAs, as info-chemicals for benthic diatoms, and open new perspectives in the study of the structuring of benthic communities.
Fei Zhang, Liman Zhou, Fandong Kong, Qingyun Ma, Qingyi Xie, Jiuhui Li, Haofu Dai, Lei Guo, Youxing Zhao
Published: 19 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010067

Abstract:Five new perylenequinone derivatives, altertoxins VIII–XII (1–5), as well as one known compound cladosporol I (6), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. KFD33 from a blood cockle from Haikou Bay, China. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods and ECD spectra analysis along with quantum ECD calculations. Compounds 1–6 exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory activities against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 with MIC values of 30, 30, 20, 30, 20 and 30 μg/well, respectively.
Florbela Pereira, Joana Almeida, Marisa Paulino, Inês Grilo, Helena Macedo, Isabel Cunha, Rita Sobral, Vitor Vasconcelos, Susana Gaudêncio
Published: 18 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010063

Abstract:The undesired attachment of micro and macroorganisms on water-immersed surfaces, known as marine biofouling, results in severe prevention and maintenance costs (billions €/year) for aquaculture, shipping and other industries that rely on coastal and off-shore infrastructures. To date, there are no sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally safe solutions to address this challenging phenomenon. Therefore, we investigated the antifouling activity of napyradiomycin derivatives that were isolated from actinomycetes from ocean sediments collected off the Madeira Archipelago. Our results revealed that napyradiomycins inhibited ≥80% of the marine biofilm-forming bacteria assayed, as well as the settlement of Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae (EC50 < 5 µg/ml and LC50/EC50 >15), without viability impairment. In silico prediction of toxicity end points are of the same order of magnitude of standard approved drugs and biocides. Altogether, napyradiomycins disclosed bioactivity against marine micro and macrofouling organisms, and non-toxic effects towards the studied species, displaying potential to be used in the development of antifouling products.
Mitchell Jones, Marina Kujundzic, Sabu John, Alexander Bismarck
Published: 18 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010064

Abstract:Chitin and its derivative chitosan are popular constituents in wound-treatment technologies due to their nanoscale fibrous morphology and attractive biomedical properties that accelerate healing and reduce scarring. These abundant natural polymers found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls affect almost every phase of the healing process, acting as hemostatic and antibacterial agents that also support cell proliferation and attachment. However, key differences exist in the structure, properties, processing, and associated polymers of fungal and arthropod chitin, affecting their respective application to wound treatment. High purity crustacean-derived chitin and chitosan have been widely investigated for wound-treatment applications, with research incorporating chemically modified chitosan derivatives and advanced nanocomposite dressings utilizing biocompatible additives, such as natural polysaccharides, mineral clays, and metal nanoparticles used to achieve excellent mechanical and biomedical properties. Conversely, fungi-derived chitin is covalently decorated with β-glucan and has received less research interest despite its mass production potential, simple extraction process, variations in chitin and associated polymer content, and the established healing properties of fungal exopolysaccharides. This review investigates the proven biomedical properties of both fungal- and crustacean-derived chitin and chitosan, their healing mechanisms, and their potential to advance modern wound-treatment methods through further research and practical application.
Riho Kurata, Kenji Shimizu, Xiaofeng Cui, Masamitsu Harada, Takayuki Isagawa, Hiroaki Semba, Jun Ishihara, Koji Yamada, Jun Nagai, Yasuhiro Yoshida, et al.
Published: 17 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010060

Abstract:Very recently, the immunotherapies against cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infection have been feasible and promising. Thus, we have examined the possibility whether or not human gamma delta T cells can be applied for the novel immunotherapies. We previously established the cells stably maintaining NFkB-driven human secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) expression. The cells can be used to determine the transcription activity of NFkB with high-standard dynamic range and accuracy. Because IL-18 is a kind of cytokines that enhances cytotoxicity and activity of human gamma delta T cells through NFkB activation, we have focused on the activity and signaling of IL-18. In this study, we modified the previous reporter cell that can determine the transcription activity of NFkB to express two subunits consisted of human IL-18 receptor. The modified cells secreted SEAP in response to treatment with human recombinant IL-18 in a concentration-dependent manner. We also observed the concentration-dependently enhancement of NFkB activity in the cells treated with mouse recombinant IL-18 although the affinity was lower compared to human recombinant IL-18. We also previously established the cells stably expressing and secreting human recombinant IL-18 and then validated whether or not the conditioned medium from the cells activate NFkB transcription activity using this assay. Our university has kept collecting many extracts from over 18,000 marine bacteria in our local sea around Omura bay—fungi, plants for Chinese herbal medicine, and so on—and also have kept gathering synthetic compounds from many Japanese chemists as drug libraries. Finally, in order to identify drugs mimicking IL-18 biological activity or possessing inhibitory effects on IL-18-induced NFkB, we demonstrated drug screening using number of extracts derived from marine bacteria and synthetic compounds.
Zhihua Sun, Manqi Zhangsun, Shuai Dong, Yiqiao Liu, Jiang Qian, Dongting Zhangsun, Sulan Luo
Published: 17 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010061

Abstract:Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are membrane receptors and play a major role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Here, we have investigated the differential expression of nAChR subunits in human breast cancer cell lines and breast epithelial cell lines at mRNA and protein levels and the effects of the αO-conotoxin GeXIVA, antagonist of α9α10 nAChR, on human breast cancer cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated that all nAChR subunits, except α6, were expressed in the 20 tested cell lines. Real time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR) suggested that the mRNA of α5, α7, α9 and β4 nAChR subunits were overexpressed in all the breast cancer cell lines compared with the normal epithelial cell line HS578BST. α9 nAChR was highly expressed in almost all the breast cancer cell lines in comparison to normal cells. The different expression is prominent (p < 0.001) as determined by flow cytometry and Western blotting, except for MDA-MB-453 and HCC1395 cell lines. αO-conotoxin GeXIVA that targeted α9α10 nAChR were able to significantly inhibit breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro and merits further investigation as potential agents for targeted therapy.
Daniela Gabbia, Miriam Saponaro, Samantha Sarcognato, Maria Guido, Nicola Ferri, Maria Carrara, Sara De Martin
Published: 17 January 2020
by MDPI
Marine Drugs, Volume 18; doi:10.3390/md18010062

Abstract:The Asian coastal communities have used the brown seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum since ancient times. Recently, some in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated their abilities in reducing risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Here, we analyzed the protective effect of a phytocomplex extracted from these seaweeds on the deposition of fat in the liver after the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats for five weeks. The administration of F. vesiculosus and A. nodosum led to significant reductions in microvescicular steatosis and plasma biochemical and lipid parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and conjugated bilirubin, and triglycerides. Furthermore, the postprandial glycemic peak was delayed and significantly reduced (p < 0.01) by the algal extract administration. In conclusion, this extract is effective in reducing microvescicular steatosis and improving glycemic control, thereby lowering the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and diabetes, diseases related to the consumption of fat and sugar-enriched diets.