ISSN / EISSN : 22279067 / 22279067
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 672
Latest articles in this journal
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090146
Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a group of connective tissue disorders that manifest with hyperextensibility of joints and skin, and general tissue fragility. While not a major criterion for clinical diagnosis, pain is a frequently endorsed symptom across subtypes of EDS. As such, the present review aims to summarize research to date on pain characteristics and management, and the relationship between such pain symptomatology and quality of life in pediatric EDS. Characteristics of pain, including theorized etiology, relative intensity and extent of pain are described, as well as descriptions of frequently endorsed pain sites (musculoskeletal, and non-musculoskeletal). Interventions related to the management of musculoskeletal (e.g., pharmaceutical intervention, physical therapy) and non-musculoskeletal pain (e.g., pharmaceutical and psychological interventions) are discussed, highlighting the need for additional research related to pediatric pain management in the context of hypermobility syndromes. In addition, the relationship between pain in pediatric EDS and quality of life is described. Finally, limitations of literature to date are described and recommendations for future lines of research are outlined.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090147
The aim of this study was to determine the minimum change in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) required to reduce adiposity (percent body fat) in exercise programs for overweight and obese youth. Studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases. Studies were limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise training (e.g., aerobic, strength, concurrent) that assessed percent body fat and CRF for both exercise and control groups in overweight and obese children and adolescents. A series of meta-regressions were conducted to explore links between change in CRF (maximum oxygen consumption, ml/kg/min) and change in percent body fat. Twenty-three RCTs were included (n = 1790, 59% females). Meta-regression analysis suggested that increases of at least 0.38 mL/kg/min in CRF (p < 0.001) were considered to be a clinically important reduction of percent body fat (−2.30%, 95% confidence interval −3.02 to −1.58; p < 0.001; I2 = 92.2%). Subgroup analysis showed that increases of at least 0.17 mL/kg/min in CRF favored a reduction of percent body fat of −1.62% (95% confidence interval −2.04 to −1.20; p < 0.001; I2 = 69.9%). In conclusion, this change in CRF could be considered by pediatric researchers, youth fitness specialists, and health care providers to determine the effectiveness in body fat reductions through exercise.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090148
We examined the predictive relations of social media and smartphone use to body esteem in female adolescents and the mechanism that underlies these relations. As a result of frequent social media and smartphone use, adolescents are continually exposed to appearance-related media content. This likely reinforces a thin ideal and fosters appearance-based comparison and increases fear of external evaluation. Hence, we investigated a cognitive-affective framework in which the associations of social media and smartphone use with body esteem are serially mediated by cognitive internalization of an ideal body image, appearance comparisons, and social appearance anxiety. By testing female adolescents (N = 100) aged 13 to 18, we found that excessive social media use leads to unhealthy body esteem via intensified cognitive internalization, which aggravates appearance comparisons and anxiety regarding negative appearance evaluation. Further, we found that screen time for specific smartphone activities also harmed body esteem, independent of social media use. However, overall smartphone screen time did not affect body esteem when social media use was taken into consideration. Our findings underscore the multifactor mechanism that elucidates the negative impacts of social media and smartphone activities on body esteem in female adolescents, who are developmentally susceptible to poor body esteem.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090145
Precision medicine relies upon artificial intelligence (AI)-driven technologies that raise ethical and practical concerns. In this study, we developed and validated a measure of parental openness and concerns with AI-driven technologies in their child’s healthcare. In this cross-sectional survey, we enrolled parents of children n = 418) and confirmatory (n = 386) factor analysis. We developed a 12-item measure of parental openness to AI-driven technologies, and a 33-item measure identifying concerns that parents found important when considering these technologies. We also evaluated associations between openness and attitudes, beliefs, personality traits, and demographics. Parents (N = 804) reported mean openness to AI-driven technologies of M = 3.4/5, SD = 0.9. We identified seven concerns that parents considered important when evaluating these technologies: quality/accuracy, privacy, shared decision making, convenience, cost, human element of care, and social justice. In multivariable linear regression, parental openness was positively associated with quality (beta = 0.23), convenience (beta = 0.16), and cost (beta = 0.11), as well as faith in technology (beta = 0.23) and trust in health information systems (beta = 0.12). Parental openness was negatively associated with the perceived importance of shared decision making (beta = −0.16) and being female (beta = −0.12). Developers might support parental openness by addressing these concerns during the development and implementation of novel AI-driven technologies.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090143
Movement integration (MI) products are designed to provide children with physical activity during general education classroom time. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary classroom teachers’ self-reported use of MI products and subsequent perceptions of the facilitators of and barriers to MI product use. This study utilized a mixed-methods design. Elementary classroom teachers (n = 40) at four schools each tested four of six common MI products in their classroom for one week. Teachers completed a daily diary, documenting duration and frequency of product use. Following each product test, focus groups were conducted with teachers to assess facilitators and barriers. MI product use lasted for 11.2 (Standard Deviation (SD) = 7.5) min/occasion and MI products were used 4.1 (SD = 3.5) times/week on average. Activity Bursts in the Classroom for Fitness, GoNoodle, and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum were most frequently used. Facilitators of and barriers to MI product use were identified within three central areas—logistics, alignment with teaching goals, and student needs and interests. Teachers were receptive to MI products and used them frequently throughout the week. When considering the adoption of MI products, teachers, administrators, and policy makers should consider products that are readily usable, align with teaching goals, and are consistent with student needs and interests.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090142
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ankle joint mobilization in children with cerebral palsy (CP) to ankle range of motion (ROM), gait, and standing balance. We recruited 32 children (spastic diplegia) diagnosed with CP and categorized them in two groups: the ankle joint mobilization (n = 16) group and sham joint mobilization (n = 16) group. Thus, following a six-week ankle joint mobilization, we examined measures such as passive ROM in ankle dorsiflexion in the sitting and supine position, center of pressure (COP) displacements (sway length, area) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC), and a gait function test (timed up and go test (TUG) and 10-m walk test). The dorsiflexion ROM, TUG, and 10-m walk test significantly increased in the mobilization group compared to the control group. Ankle joint mobilization can be regarded as a promising method to increase dorsiflexion and improve gait in CP-suffering children.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090144
Febrile seizure (FS) is related to a febrile illness (temperature > 38 °C) not caused by an infection of central nervous system, without neurologic deficits in children aged 6–60 months. The family study implied a polygenic model in the families of proband(s) with single FS, however in families with repeated FS, inheritance was matched to autosomal dominance with reduced disease penetrance. A 20 month-old girl showed recurrent FS and afebrile seizures without developmental delay or intellectual disability. The seizures disappeared after 60 months without anti-seizure medication. The 35 year-old proband’s mother also experienced five episodes of simple FS and two episodes of unprovoked seizures before 5 years old. Targeted exome sequencing was conducted along with epilepsy/seizure-associated gene-filtering to identify the candidate causative mutation. As a result, a heterozygous c.2039A>G of the ADGRV1 gene leading to a codon change of aspartic acid to glycine at the position 680 (rs547076322) was identified. This protein’s glycine residue is highly conserved, and its allele frequency is 0.00002827 in the gnomAD population database. ADGRV1 mutation may have an influential role in the occurrence of genetic epilepsies, especially those with febrile and afebrile seizures. Further investigation of ADGRV1 mutations is needed to prove that it is a significant susceptible gene for febrile and/or afebrile seizures in early childhood.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090141
Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease later in life. No recommendations exist for blood pressure (BP) and renal follow up for these patients. Aim: To compare BP and serum and urinary kidney markers between preterm-born adolescents and term-born controls. Methods: BP measurements in 51 preterm-born (≤32 weeks gestational age) and 82 term-born adolescents at the age of 10–15 years were conducted. Stepwise regression analysis explored the association between BP and participant characteristics. Kidney markers measured in the serum and urine were creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and uromodulin. Kidney markers measured in the serum were cystatin C, beta-2 microglobulin, and beta trace protein. Results: Systolic BP was significantly higher in preterm boys compared with term boys, but not in girls, and low birth weight was associated with higher BP in boys. In the preterm group, maternal hypertension/preeclampsia and adolescent height were associated with higher systolic BP. Serum creatinine and NGAL were significantly higher in the preterm group. Conclusions: Our study confirms an inverse sex-dependant relationship between birth weight and BP at adolescent age. The higher serum creatinine and NGAL in the preterm group may indicate that premature birth affects kidney function in the long term.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090140
This study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of olanzapine for high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy in children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric patients (n = 13) with cancer who had been administered olanzapine as an anti-emetic drug (AED) during a high and moderate emetogenic chemotherapy block from January 2018 to March 2020. Patients were administered other prophylactic AEDs according to practice guidelines. The mean age of the patients was 14.1 ± 5.5 years. The total number of chemotherapy cycles was 41. Twenty-one (51.2%) chemotherapy blocks were high emetogenic chemotherapy and 20 (48.8%) blocks were moderate emetogenic chemotherapy. Olanzapine was used for prophylaxis in 20 (48.8%) blocks of chemotherapy and rescue in 21 (51.2%). Of the 41 cycles, a complete response to olanzapine was achieved in 31 (75.6%), partial response in 6 (14.6%), and no response in 4 (9.8%). The mean dose was 0.07 ± 0.04 mg/kg/dose and 2.50 ± 1.37 mg/m2/dose. Adverse effects included somnolence, hyperglycemia, fatigue, and disturbed sleep. Our findings indicate that olanzapine was effective and safe for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children. A prospective controlled study is needed to confirm these findings.
Children, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/children7090139
There continues to be a reluctance to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants. The debate on whether the short-term outcomes translate to a difference in long-term benefits remains. This article intends to review the pulmonary vasculature changes that can occur with a chronic hemodynamically significant PDA in a preterm infant. It also explains the rationale and decision-making involved in a diagnostic cardiac catheterization and transcatheter PDA closure in these preterm infants.