International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-7235 / 2321-7235
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 348
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Godwin Okoye, Kenechukwu Ben-Umeh, Victor Okoye, Shedrack Osuji, Rachel Vincent
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 15-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i2347

Abstract:
Objective: Cancer patients are at a high risk of exhibiting depressive symptoms. However, what remains unknown is whether gynecological cancer (GC) worsens this risk. This study seeks to compare depressive symptoms amongst women diagnosed with GC and women diagnosed with other cancer types before COVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also seeks to compare both study periods to confirm if COVID-19 influenced depressive symptoms of women with GC. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to find an association between depressive symptoms and gynecological cancers using other cancer type diagnosis in females as a reference. We utilized the sample adult file of NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) data from 2019 (Pre-Pandemic data) and data from 2020 (Pandemic data). We also utilized the PHQ-8 scale to quantify major depressive disorder. Each of the 8 items were scored from 0-3. All statistical analysis were performed using SAS v9.4 ((SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC), and statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: A weighted population of women with GC vs other cancer types was obtained. Women with GC tend to have lesser Age, Educational status, Health status, Income. They also tend to be more obese and smokers. Women with GC tend to have had hysterectomy (68.03% vs 35.43%) and access to care during COVID-19 (71.63% vs 68.01%). Severe depressive symptoms were higher before pandemic and among women with GC OR 2.89 (95%CI 1.64 - 5.12). Moderate depressive symptoms were higher during the pandemic and among women with GC OR 2.19 (95%CI 1.35 – 3.57). Among women with GC, depressive symptoms were less likely in 2020 than 2019 with an OR 0.57 (95%CI 0.36 – 0.91) Conclusion: Based on the data available, women with gynecologic cancer are more prone to having depressive symptoms than women with other cancer types. Therefore, policies should be implemented to improve wellness of women with gynecologic cancer. Although, depressive symptoms wasn’t worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic.
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 8-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i2346

Abstract:
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, often debilitating psychological state disorder that may develop after a traumatic life event. Most patients get over the initial symptoms naturally, but those that experience persistent symptoms require standard treatment approaches such as 1: 1 psychotherapy, psychotropic medications, or both whichever have relevance. However, there are secondary hindrances such as drug safety and drug tolerability associated with these psychotropic medications, that interdict an appropriate course of treatment. The upshot of those events is that it creates a breach in our potential to properly manage PTSD in a significant number of patients, leaving them endangered to surfacing complications like employment-related incapacities, suicidal ideations, co-morbid medical disorders, and illicit drug abuse. Thus, there is a need for more worthwhile, tolerable, and long-standing approaches. Transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a safe and non-invasive treatment technique used to treat various psychiatric and neurological disorders. This neuromodulation technique involves stimulation of specific deep brain regions by the assembly of high and low-intensity magnetic fields thus filling the therapeutic void. This text mainly focuses on the results of controlled and pragmatic trials for efficacy, safety, and tolerability of patients affected by PTSD. The alternative treatment for PTSD currently is psychotherapy and antidepressant medications.Despite receiving these alternatives, there are about 50% of patients who continue to experience major symptoms..That is, the reason why TMS came out as another suitable option. Atleast 5 directories such as MEDLINE, CINAHL, Psych INFO, SCOPUS and EMBASE were probed to pinpoint pragmatic studies and randomized controlled trials that were designed for the treatment of PTSD with TMS. A total of 28 studies were found worthy for this review, out of which 5 are mentioned in this article. Although, so far it looks propitious in spite of the manifoldness as far as its outcomes and its clinical importance are concerned. Hence, still researches involving stimulation constraints are to be conducted in the near future.
Jennings Hernandez
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i2345

Abstract:
The age of technology and smart devices has paved the way for a current and encouraging method to address mental healthcare that benefits from global connectivity: telehealth. According to the American Telemedicine Association, telehealth or telemedicine is defined as the usage of medical information from one site to another through electronic communication with the goal of improving a client’s overall health through emails, cellular phones, two-way videos, and conference calls. With the current Covid-19 pandemic, hospitals (especially those with mental health units or free-standing psychiatry facilities) are seldomly able to keep up with the influx of mental health patients without being turned away or having to wait for an extended period of time. Through telemedicine, those barriers have been lifted providing more efficient and enhanced access to care for everyone, especially those seeking mental health services. This review paper attempts to establish that despite the observations that telehealth has a positive impact on improved access to mental healthcare, it has not flourished to the extent it could have prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also try to provide long-term telehealth solutions, some of which are already being implemented in the current pandemic to improve the quality of mental healthcare access to a larger majority of Americans and those in other countries as well. With people being advised to stay-at-home coupled with the fear of cross-contamination in public places, people are resorting to telehealth for psychiatric visits and follow-ups. Before this pandemic, however, certain laws and rules have been a barrier to more telehealth options becoming available or feasible to the public. Telehealth is changing the conventional standard of psychiatric medicine by enhancing access to care, reducing re-admission rates, and enhancing the quality of life. Those that have tested positive for the COVID-19 virus and are quarantined at home can still meet with their mental healthcare provider periodically to discuss progress and prognosis. Research has shown that telemedicine has neutralized the impacts of delayed care, hospital admissions, and complications from psychiatric conditions globally. Telehealth has proven to provide steady benefits to patients, psychiatrists, and mental health providers through round-the-clock access remotely.
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 43-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i1344

Abstract:
The Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neurological and psychiatric condition, represented as the appearance of disorienting perceptual disorder with occasional episodes of bizarre visual illusions and spatial distortions. It was first introduced by John Todd in 1955, based on the literary chronicles of the strange encounters described by Lewis Carroll in Alice in Wonderland books. A 30-year-old healthy male presented to the doctor’s office with left-sided headaches lasting 24 hours and preceded by an aura. During these auras, the patient was experiencing erratic behaviors consistent with the phenomena experienced by Alice, the main character in the world-famous story. He reported objects being larger and further away than they really were and his hands appearing smaller than they really were. Symptoms lasted up to 45 minutes. All clinical and diagnostic workups and evaluations were unremarkable, and the patient was treated for migraines with auras using Valproic Acid. During his follow-up at 3 months intervals, the patient continued with symptoms, and his medication dosage was increased. In his next follow-up three months later, he described having no more symptoms. AIWS has been found to be related to migraines with preceding auras. It is both common in pediatrics as well as in adults. I present an AIWS case co-existent with aura migraines.
Jennings Hernandez
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 37-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i1343

Abstract:
The coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant physical and mental tension among frontline workers globally. Poor working conditions, lack of protective personal equipment (PPE), short-staffed departments, medication shortage, depleted hospital beds, and ventilators have had a direct correlation with occupational burnout syndrome (BOS) and psychological distress among frontline healthcare workers (HCW) and their physical and mental well-being. The limitless hours on shift, the abundant number of daily cases, and the upturn of fatalities have contributed to the stressors among HCWs during this pandemic. In this paper, we will examine the occupational burnout syndrome and the psychological distress among HCWs working frontline during the pandemic. Also, the paper will explore whether there is a correlation between occupational burnout syndrome, mental and psychological distress, and COVID-19. The goal of this research is to acquire and establish if there had been an increase in anxiety and other mental health concerns as well as burnout levels for workers impacted by COVID-19. Categories explored will entail anxiety levels, mental and physical strains of working long hours, working under subpar conditions with limited PPE and patient rooms, and fear of exposure to the virus. Throughout the pandemic, many cases of tragic suicidal deaths have emerged. Consequently, attention to the well-being of healthcare professionals (HCPs) across the world has become imperative to adequately support and monitor. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM-5) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – Medical Personnel (MBI-MP) are tools used by psychiatrists to diagnose and treat mental health such as burnout syndrome and psychological distress levels which also encompasses post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mass traumatic events (MTE). Studies have shown a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms, anxiety, fear, depression, and frustration in emergency professionals involved in the COVID-19 pandemic. Through various studies, we will demonstrate how the pandemic has affected frontline workers' mental and psychological well-being as well as how inadequate working conditions and long working hours lead to occupational burnout syndrome. Results will show how healthcare workers are feeling unaccomplished, second-guessing their clinical decisions, defeated, and mentally and physically drained. It is expected that subpar working conditions will continue to deteriorate the physical and mental well-being of HCWs on the frontline as the number of COVID-19 cases continue globally even after three years since its inception.
Ismail Opolot, , Julius Wandabwa, Joyce Namwase, Jennipher Mariam Konso
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i130215

Abstract:
Introduction: Anencephaly also called cranioschisis is part of neural tube defects spectrum which occur when the neural tube fails to close normally during the 3rd and 4th weeks of development leading to fetal loss, still birth or neonatal death. Literature show that causation of anencephaly is multifactorial involving interaction of genetics and the environment though not well characterized. In this case report, we present the features of anencephaly and its different clinical associated malformations. Methods: A case report study design was employed to explore the prenatal and antenatal events that resulted into an anencephaly delivery. The intra-natal and immediate postnatal fetal observations and outcome were documented. We also documented the care given to the mother throughout ANC, time of delivery and postnatally until discharge. Results: 29-year G2P1+0 at 29W2D, presented with 2 days’ sudden progressive per vaginal bleeding and clear non-foul discharge on 2nd day of admission with no history of abdominal pain, fever or trauma. Two days later she was delivered by Caesarean section to a grossly neural malformed preterm baby boy with APGAR score 6 at 1 minute and 4 at 5 minutes. Birth weight and length were 1.5 kg and 48.6cm respectively. The baby life indicators deteriorated progressively and finally died at 36 minutes after time of delivery. Conclusion: Although interaction between genomic and environmental factors that play a key role in the causation of anencephaly can not clearly be evaluated, there is an understanding of pre-natal and antenatal factors that predispose to this case such as lack of Folate and or interference with its bioavailability, use of teratogenic drugs taken during pregnancy and antenatal maternal conditions. We therefore recommend routine supply of folate to girls and women intending or risk to conceive 3 months before pregnancy through first trimester and health education about use of native drugs and any other conventional medicines during pregnancy.
, Beatrice Ohaeri, Iyanuoluwa O. Ojo, Oluwatoyin Babarimisa
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 11-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i130214

Abstract:
Substance abuse is a global public health problem with physical, social, psychological, economic, and health implications. Adolescent age is an important transitional period and comes with a high level of vulnerability, curiosity, experimentation, and making choices that may be detrimental to them in the long run. The problem of substance abuse has become very popular among adolescents, several researchers from different parts of the world have reported a high prevalence rate of substance abuse among teenagers and its resultant health and social problems. This study identified four different levels of factors that influence substance abuse among teenagers which includes family-related problems, and individual, psychological and social factors. Different preventive measures have also been identified, highlighting roles that should be played by family, the community, schools, as well as the government. These measures will have a great impact on curbing the menace of substance abuse among young people in societies, they will be able to avoid risky behaviors, function effectively, and achieve their dreams.
, M. Ganga Raju, M. Niharika, B. Pratyusha
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v18i130212

Abstract:
In animal models for screening for anticonvulsant activity, it has been scientifically established that medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy possess promising anticonvulsant properties and can be a source of newer anticonvulsants. This study's objective was to evaluate the ethanolic root extract of Clitoria ternatea Linn for its preliminary phytochemical components, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic effects. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated against Maximum electroshock (MES) induced convulsion and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion model in rats. Using phenytoin (25 mg/kg) as a standard drug, the efficacy of the extract at oral dose levels of 200 and 400 mg/kg were evaluated in an experimental rat model. The marble bury test was used to assess the mice for anxiolytic activity, and lorazepam served as the standard drug at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening revealed that C. ternatea extract contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, triterpenoids, phenols and steroids. The ethanolic extract significantly decreased the duration of tonic flexion and tonic extension in MES induced model (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract significantly increased the latency of convulsion and decreased the duration of convulsion in PTZ induced model (p<0.05). The ethanolic root extract were found to be significantly decrease the number of marbles buried in the treated groups as compared to control group, indicating anxiolytic activity. According to specific investigations, terpenes and steroids exhibited anticonvulsant effects in some experimental seizure models, including MES and PTZ. Alkaloids and triterpenes, which are phytoconstituents in ethanolic extract of Clitoria ternatea (EECT), might be the basis of its anxiolytic actions. Based on the findings of the study, Clitoria ternatea's ethanolic root extract has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects on animals.
Nikolas Haller, Ulrike Kumpf, Gabi Koller, Frank Padberg,
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 37-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v17i430211

Abstract:
Objective: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide. It often shows a chronic course, and pharmacological treatment is rather ineffective for maintaining abstinence. New non-invasive brain stimulation techniques could help to improve AUD symptoms by rebalancing and synchronizing the disturbed prefrontal brain function and thus reduce craving. This study aims at evaluating the use of gamma transcranial alternating current stimulation to improve clinical und neuropsychological symptoms in patients with AUD. Methods: In this small open label study, six patients suffering from AUD for several years underwent treatment with prefrontal gamma transcranial alternating current stimulation for 10 min twice daily respectively 20 min once per day for 10 days. Clinical and neuropsychological tests as well as craving were assessed over the course of treatment. Results: Scores of the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire decreased in all patients and cognitive functions assessed by word fluency and computer-based n-back test improved. Conclusions: This new non-invasive brain stimulation technique could be of interest in treating craving symptoms and in maintaining abstinence.
, Olaitan Oladele, Babatunde Suleiman, Adeoye Oyewole, Samson Ojedokun, Taiwo Oloyede, Olanike Oladibu
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2022/v17i430210

Abstract:
Aim: To determine the prevalence and correlations of depression and problematic drinking among undergraduates in a Nigerian University. Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional survey Methodology: The study was conducted among 412 full-time undergraduates of LAUTECH, 18 years and above and apparently well without previous history of mental illness. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) are instruments used for the study. Data analysis was done with the statistical package for social sciences version 21. Results: Approximately half (49.5%) of the respondents were depressed and 20.4% of them had major depression. The prevalence of problematic alcohol use in the study population was 10.4% mostly among males. There was no significant association between depression, alcohol use and problematic alcohol use (χ2 = 1.125, df = 1, P-value = 0.289) in the study sample. Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of depression and problematic drinking among university students is worrisome as this will not only adversely impact their academic performance but future productivity and the risk of other psychosocial and health problems.
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