International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 2321-7235 / 2321-7235
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 311
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 1 October 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i330173
Background: Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), including stroke, are considered as a high burden heath issue around the world. Diabetes is a well-established risk factor for stroke that affects both severity and outcome. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate cerebral stroke in diabetic patients and the impact of diabetes mellitus on the severity and outcome of all types of strokes. Patients and Methods: This study included 500 patients with the first attack stroke who were classified into two groups; Group A: 404 diabetic patients & Group B: 96 non-diabetic patients. All patients were diagnosed clinically and with base line CT (Computed Tomography) brain and stroke severity was evaluated by NIHSS within 24 hours of admission. Results: The mean NIHSS in the diabetic cases was 10.35 ± 2.51 which was statistically significant higher as compared with the non-diabetic cases (7.25 ± 1.02) (P <0.001). The percentage of cases with infarction stroke was higher in the diabetic group, however it did not detect major dissimilarity between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Cardiovascular complications including cerebral strokes occur in higher rates in diabetic patients as compared with the non-diabetic. The outcomes of cerebral strokes were worse as compared with the non-diabetic.
Published: 23 August 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 36-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230172
Background: Burnout is considered a condition of great public concern due to its biopsychosocial consequences which include poor quality of life. Healthcare providers have been described as high-risk population for experiencing burnout. Psychological distress is also considered a strong predictor of experience of burnout among healthcare workers who are burdened with the demand of the healthcare system. This is particularly so with healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa. The period of COVID-19 might have impacted on the burden of burnout experienced by healthcare professionals. Objective: This study was to determine the burden of burnout and its relationship with psychosocial variables among healthcare workers in a tertiary health care facility. Methods: The sample for this study was from a population of healthcare workers in a tertiary healthcare facility in southwest Nigeria. The questionnaire comprised three sections: information on socio-demographic work-related characteristics of the respondents; Maslach-Burnout-Inventory (MBI), and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) used in screening mental distress among the respondents. Student t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the means scores of respondents on both the MBI and K-10 scales. Results: A total of 214 healthcare workers with mean age of 36.49±9.05 participated in the study. Seventy-six (35.5%) of the respondents had high burnout level on MBI. There was statistically significant difference in the mean score emotional exhaustion subscale of burnout experience for gender The mean score on emotional exhaustion dimension in doctors was significantly higher than the nurses. Emotional exhaustion correlated negatively with respondents’ years of experience at work (r = -0.181, p = 0.008). Thirty-seven (17.3%) of the respondents suffered mild to severe psychological distress as indicated by their scores on the Kessler scale of psychological distress. Conclusion: The study brought to the fore the relevant correlates of burnout in the high-risk group of essential healthcare providers.
Published: 6 August 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230171
Background: Globally, suicidal behaviour is seen as a growing public health problem, However, little is known about the suicide ideation and its risk factors among secondary school adolescent in Ebonyi State. Suicidal thought negatively impacts the quality of life, physical, and mental well-being of the students. However, research on suicide ideation among students in low- and middle-income countries are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore suicide ideation and its risk factors among secondary school adolescent in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was conducted to assess 399 secondary school adolescents in Ebonyi State between January to May 2021. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 399 participants. However, three hundred and ninety-four (394) were properly filled and used for the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: The findings indicated that student with suicidal ideas, 68.3% are in stressful situation, 65.7% has been absence in school for 3 days consecutively, 62.7% have been disappointed by boy/girl-friend, 59.9% feel disappointed from academic performance, 58.4% have been sad or depressed most of the time, 55.6% have been lonely, and 52.3% felt so sad in a way that the situation was unbearable. The result further shows that the major risk factor of suicidal ideation among secondary school students are cultism (71.3%), alcoholism (56.9%), poverty (61.7%), drug use disorders such as (drug addiction, drug dependence, tolerance) 228 (57.9%), and mental illness (54.8%). Other risk factors identified are mental illness 216 (54.8%), sexual harassment/assault (51.8%), unemployment (51.8%), physical assault/bullying (51.8%), and family history of suicide (50.8%). Conclusions: The study concluded that suicide ideation among students was high and recommended among others that the Nigeria ministry of health both state and federal in collaboration with school management should develop a guideline on how to screen and manage factors associated with suicide ideation among secondary school adolescents.
Published: 31 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 17-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230170
Background: Medical, dental and paramedical post-graduate students are an essential part of multi-specialty teaching institutes where resident doctors are the ones who come in the first contact with the patients. In this study emotion of residents was measured through their anger. Anger has negative impacts on daily life, doctor-patient relationships. Throughout the post-graduation program, students experience stress and burn out. Aim: The study was conducted with an aim to measure the level of anger amongst the post-graduate medical, dental and paramedical students at Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: After obtaining informed and written consent, 349 subjects were assessed through a semi-structured proforma and clinical anger scale to assess the level of anger. It was a cross-sectional single interview study. Enrolment of participants done for the tenure of 1 year from 2013 to 2014 and results assessed. At the end of the study, all CAS (clinical anger scale) parameters compared medical, dental and paramedical groups. Data analyzed through the SPSS v16 software package; One way ANOVA and independent t-test was applied. Results: The overall anger was higher among post-graduate students. Post-graduate medical students had higher anger compared to paramedical post-graduate students. Female participants scored significantly lower on clinical anger compared to male participants. Post-graduates doing MD/MS were having significantly higher anger than post-graduates of MDS (p=0.002), MPT (0.000). Married participants scored lower on clinical anger compared to unmarried participants. Conclusion: Overall anger is high in medical post-graduate students which have negative implications on doctor-patient relationships and patient care can get compromised so it is necessary to find the ways through which we can lower the anger.
Published: 27 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230169
Background: Obesity is becoming an important issue for health promotion. The World Health Organization estimated that around 1.5 billion adults were overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2) and about 500 million people were obese (BMI 30 kg/m2) in 2008. The relationship between obesity and mental health is also considered important. In a community-based study, obesity was positively associated with several mental disorders, especially mood disorders and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study is the assessment of current and lifetime psychiatric disorders among morbidly obese patients. Methods: This case control study was conducted on 60 participants from outpatient clinic of GIT surgery unit and community. All participants were subjected to: Body weight and body mass index, Psychiatric interview for diagnosis of psychiatric disorders by Arabic version of MINI, Scale for diagnosis of Bulimia nervosa by Shokeer, Scale for diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa by Shokeer, Binge Eating Disorder Screener-7, Eating attitude test, Hamilton Depressions Rating Scale and Hamilton anxiety scale. Results: There was a significant increase in anxiety in patients with morbid obesity compared to control group. There was a significant difference between both groups showing the high prevalence of depression in patients with morbid obesity. Based on EAT test, there was a significant prevalence of abnormal eating behaviors in patients group compared to none of control group. A screening test for the presence of Binge eating symptoms revealed significant increase of symptoms in patients’ group. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are prevalent in morbidly obese patients and are associated with significantly worse quality of life. In addition, morbidly obese patients had significantly worse physical and mental health relative to control group from general population. High rates of psychiatric disorders among morbidly obese patients seem to be the rule rather than an exception.
Published: 24 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 49-56; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130167
Background: Substance abuse refers to the use of all chemicals, drugs and industrial solvents that can produce dependence (psychological and physical). It can also be referred to as the repeated non-medical use of potentially addictive chemical and organic substances. There is poor data about the health related risk of substance abuse among students in Nigeria. Hence, this survey was done to determine the level of knowledge, awareness & the health related risk of substance abuse among students and her host communities as an attempt to curb the menace and its effect on students and the entire society at large. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in ALUU Community in Ikwerre Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study involved 150 volunteers recruited randomly through a multi-staged sampling technique which included secondary school students, undergraduates and postgraduates who are 13yrs and above residing in ALUU community while those who did not give consent were excluded. The data was collected using self-structured close-ended self-administered questionnaires and data analysis done using SPSS version 25. Results and Discussions: The results of the study showed that 98.67% have knowledge of drug abuse, the knowledge of health and social effects of substances of abuse on humans was 96.67%. The most prevalent health/social effects were: memory loss 74.67%, sleeping and eating disorders 67.33%. The results of the study have shown that more than 2/3rd of the participants had good knowledge of drug abuse. Similarly, more than 2/3rd of the participants heard about drug/substance abuse via the mass media. The most abused drug/substance was alcohol, 9 in 10 persons abused alcohol. This goes on to imply that the chance that a student who is resident in Aluu abuses alcohol is 90%. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that 98.67% have knowledge of drug abuse, the knowledge of health and social effects of substances of abuse on humans was 96.67%. The most prevalent health/social effects were: memory loss 74.67%, sleeping and eating disorders 67.33%. Peer group, neighbourhood influence, and ‘the only child syndrome’ were the attributed contributing factors to the continual use of alcohol/drugs, even when the health and social effects are well known.
Published: 24 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i230168
Background and Aim: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders of childhood. Teachers can play a key role in identifying and supporting students with ADHD. In order to fulfill this important role, teachers must have explicit knowledge about ADHD. Teachers are seen as one of the most valuable sources of information concerning the referral and diagnosis of ADHD. They also have the responsibility for creating an environment conducive to academic, social, and emotional success for children with ADHD. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge and misperceptions of ADHD of primary school teachers in the Vadodara district of Gujarat, India. Materials & Methods: Total 491 school teachers participated in the study. The Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS) along with a demographic questionnaire was used as the survey instruments to collect data. Descriptive statistics and correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Result: Results indicated that teachers’ knowledge of ADHD was insufficient. A significant difference in knowledge was found between Urban & Rural (0.00429); Gujarati & English medium school teachers (p=0.0013); Government & private school teachers (p=0.001). Conclusion: Lack of knowledge & prevalence of misperception is obvious in primary school teachers who are the first responders of such patients (kids). Improving teachers’ standards & understanding can help significantly in early diagnosis & improving the outcome.
Published: 20 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 39-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130166
Aims: This work evaluates the vitamin D status in patients with statins- associated muscle symptoms. Study Design: A case control prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurology Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, between June 2020 and May 2021. Methodology: Total of 85 participants included in this study, 60 participants of them have chronic Stroke and ischemic heart disease, treated by different kinds of statins and 25 participants were healthy controlled individuals. The 60 patients were 35 males (55%) and 25 females (45%), with age ranging from 40 to 70 years. The 60 participants were divided into two groups: The first group included (30 patients) treated with statins and they did not have Statin-Associated Muscle Symptoms (SAMS).The second group included (30 patients) also treated with Statin and they complained of SAMS. The third group is the control group, which contains the 25 participants who were healthy people. The control group included15 males (55%) and 10 females (45%) with age ranged from 35 to 65 years. Laboratory investigations were conducted on all participants in this study. The participants were subjected to total of 5 laboratory tests, which include: (1) Vitamin D (Enzyme immunoassay method), (2) Total CK (Enzymatic method), (3) Total Cholesterol and Triglycerides (Enzymatic method), (4)High density lipoproteins Cholesterol (Precipitation method), (4)Low density lipoproteins Cholesterol (Freid Wald equation), and (5) C – reactive protein (CRP: Latex Agglutination Method) was done beside elecetrophysiology study ( Needle electromyography (NEMG) was include). Results: Out of 60 patients the statistical readings of Vitamin D levels for the studied groups, demonstrating a significant statistical difference in Vitamin D levels between patients complaining of statin-associated muscle symptoms group (P≤0.001), and the other groups with lowest mean of (26.30 ±3.75), while patient without statin-associated muscle symptom group had the mean rating of (29.33 ±3.69), and the control group had the highest mean of (30.14 ±3.57). Conclusion: There is a positive relationship between vitamin D deficiency and statin-associated muscle symptoms. Vitamin D status may play an important role in diagnosis and management of SAMS. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D and SAMS.
Published: 5 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 34-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130165
Background and Aim: The attitude of Non Psychiatry Post Graduate Residents towards Psychiatry is crucially important because of its influence on impressionable medical students and the large number of psychiatric patients who present to Non Psychiatry Doctors like General Practitioners. Present study was done with an aim to study the Non-Psychiatric Doctor Attitude towards Psychiatry. Material and Methods: Present study was Conducted at two Major Institute: K. M School Post-Graduate medicine and Research and B.J. Medical College at Ahmedabad, Gujarat. At Both Institute Psychiatric lectures during 1st MBBS, lectures on Psychiatry during final MBBS and 2 week clinical rotation during final MBBS. Modified version of attitude towards Psychiatry questionnaire (Nielsen and Eaton, 1981) was the study instrument. The non- Psychiatry post-graduate students were asked to fill the Questionnaire. Questionnaire consists of 21 statements to be responded with one of the three alternate responses- Agree, neutral and disagree. Results: Most P.G. thought that Psychiatry is making advancement and most was positive about psychoanalysis. Only 6.6% of P.G.s thought that Psychiatry is unscientific and inexact. With respect of therapeutic efficacy 83.8% would refer emotionally upset family members for Psychiatry consultation. Psychiatrist were considered as unclear thinker by 8% and overly apologetic in teaching. 40% agreed that psychiatrist tended to over analyze human behaviour.27% of P.G.s thought that on an average psychiatrist make less money than other physician.31% of P.G.s viewed that Psychiatry status as low compared to other specialties. 47% agreed that Psychiatry are often rightly seen by others as odd, peculiar and emotionally disturb them. Conclusion: Non Psychiatry Post-Graduates at a tertiary hospital in Gujarat have a moderately positive attitude to Psychiatry. However some erroneous beliefs are still prevalent among the consultants. The attitude of Non-Psychiatry consultants directly/indirectly affects the development of Psychiatry as a discipline.
Published: 1 July 2021
International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/indj/2021/v16i130164
Background and Aim: Major depression in both women and men is a debilitating disorder that disrupts relationship and daily lives and affects nearly 10% of general populations. The aims and objectives of this study were to determine the gender differences in major depression with respect to following: Demographic characteristics, Clinical manifestations, Stressful life events, Risk factors. Materials and Methods: Total of 100 patients was included in the study. All the included patients meet the criteria for DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) diagnosis of major depression. The included patients were interviewed at the department of Psychiatry, B. J. Medical College & civil hospital Ahmedabad. Based on the Life Events Scale by Holmes and Rahe (1967), its Indian adaptation PSLE (Presumptive stressful life events scale) was done by Gurmeet Singh (1983). The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS IX version. Results: Their ages range from 18 to 70 years. Most of the patients were married, were from urban background, and nuclear family. On Hamilton Depression rating scale when the statistical analysis was done, there was no significant difference between males and females. Men had higher mean life events score than women but this was not statistically significant. In female, there was significant positive correlation between number of life events in one year and severity of depression as well as impact score during one year prior to onset of depression and Hamilton rating scores. Conclusion: Male and female major depression patients did not differ as regards demographic characteristics, except that most women were homemakers and men were employed. Number of stressful life events experienced during 1 year prior to onset of MDD was similar. Early insomnia, middle insomnia and somatic symptoms general were more severely present in female patients.