Advances in Analytical Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 2163-1557 / 2163-1565
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 185
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杨 珂
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 268-273; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.114029

Abstract:
# 本文为探讨植物对富营养化水体中总磷的去除效果,选用挺水植物鸢尾为研究对象,进行模拟试验,从试验开始测定,每间隔7天采集水样一次,共采集7次,进行水样中总磷含量的测定。结果表明:经过采样间隔7天,水体中总磷含量下降8.2%~19%;经过采样间隔14天,水体中总磷含量下降26.8%~43.7%;经过采样间隔21天,水体中总磷含量下降35.0%~53.5%;经过采样间隔28天,水体中总磷含量下降40.2%~61.3%;经过采样间隔35天,水体中总磷含量下降39.2%~64.0%;经过采样间隔42天,水体中总磷含量下降41.2%~65.7%。试验表明,鸢尾对磷污染水体有一定的去除效果。 In this paper, in order to explore the effect of plants on the removal of total phosphorus in eutrophic water, the emergent plant iris was selected as the research object, and the simulation experiment was carried out. The results showed that after a sampling interval of 7 days, the total phosphorus content in the water body decreased by 8.2% to 19%; after a sampling interval of 14 days, the total phosphorus content in the water body decreased by 26.8% to 43.7%; after a sampling interval of 21 days, the total phosphorus content in the water body decreased by 35.0%~53.5%; after a sampling interval of 28 days, the total phosphorus content in the water body decreased by 40.2%~61.3%; after a sampling interval of 35 days, the total phosphorus content in the water body decreased by 39.2%~64.0%; after a sampling interval of 42 days, the total phosphorus content in the water body decreased by 41.2%~65.7%. Experiments show that iris has a certain effect on removing phosphorus polluted water bodies.
李 悦
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 117-122; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.113013

Abstract:
本文通过X-射线荧光光谱分析(XRF)、X-射线衍射(XRD)对鄂尔多斯市的煤矸石进行元素分析、成分分析、主要成分的含量分析,对其组分结构进行鉴定,并通过红外光谱、激光拉曼光谱、X-射线衍射(XRD)光谱进行验证,发现该煤矸石中氟化钙的含量较高,可能为萤石。若能将其提取出来,则可将煤矸石变废为宝,发挥其潜在的经济价值。 In this paper, the main components of the coal gangue in Ordos City were carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), the element analysis, composition analysis and content analysis, and its component structure was identified and verified by infrared spectrum, laser Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. It was found that the content of calcium fluoride in coal gangue was high, which may be fluorite. The calcium fluoride could be turned into treasure and its potential economic value could be brought into play by extracting from the coal gangue.
李 静
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 153-160; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.113017

Abstract:
电化学传感器操作简单、制作方便、灵敏度高、检测限低,在生物技术、临床检测、医药工业等领域具有重要的研究前景。石墨烯纳米复合材料是由石墨烯与一些活性材料特异结合形成的新型材料。因其具有小尺寸效应且大表面积、优异的电催化活性以及将不同功能的材料整合成良好的整体并表现协同效应的优点,被广泛应用于电化学传感器研究。石墨烯纳米复合材料所制备的电化学传感器也为研究物质的化学本质提供了重要的信息。本文简要介绍了石墨烯纳米复合材料电化学传感器的分类、发展史和在实际样品检测中的应用,综述了近年来各类石墨烯纳米复合材料在电化学传感器方面的研究进展。 The electrochemical sensor has the advantages of simple operation, easy manufacture, high sensitivity and low detection limit. It has an important research prospect in the fields of biotechnology, clinical detection and the pharmaceutical industry. Graphene nanocomposite is a new type of material formed by the specific combination of graphene and some active materials.Due to its small size effect, large specific surface area and excellent electrocatalytic activity, grapheme nanocomposite can also form a good whole with integrated materials with different functions, showing the advantage of synergistic effect, so they are widely used in the research of electrochemical sensors. The electrochemical sensor prepared by grapheme nanocomposite materials also provides important information for studying the chemical nature of substances. In this paper, the classification, development history and application of grapheme nanocomposite electrochemical sensors in biological sample detection are briefly introduced, and the research progress of various grapheme nanocomposite electrochemical sensors in recent years is summarized.
鉴袁 秉
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 123-131; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.113014

Abstract:
以氯化银、碘化银和硫酸钡的悬浮液光度法为例,研究了沉淀物光度法测定的可能性及其规律,研究表明,在严格遵守“精密度法则”,即“保持影响测量各因素对同一测定系列各个样品影响一致性”的条件下,以阿拉伯胶作稳定剂,将沉淀制成稳定的悬浮液即可用光度法测定。每种悬浮液都有自己的消光光谱,有色沉淀的悬浮液既有反射光谱又有选择性吸收光谱。具有一定消光强度的反射光或吸收光,都可用于相关物质的含量测定,只是不同波长的灵敏度和值域不同。测定结果都表明 :“在入射光值域内,消光强度的改变量ΔA正比于消光物质的含量改变量ΔC:ΔA = kΔC。” Taking suspension photometry of silver chloride, silver iodide and barium sulfate as an example, the possibility and regularity of precipitation photometry were studied. The results show that under the condition of strictly abiding by the “precision rule”, i.e. “to maintain infection consistency of each factor for each sample in the same measurement series”, using Arabic gum as the stabilizer, the precipitation is made into a stable suspension and then determined by photometry. Each kind of precipitate suspension has its own extinction spectrum. The extinction spectrum of colored precipitate suspension has both reflection band and selective absorption band. The reflected light or absorbed light with certain extinction intensity can be used for the content determination of related matter, but the sensitivity and domain of different wavelengths are different. The results show that: “In the domain of incident light, the change ΔA of extinction intensity is directly proportional to the content change ΔC of extinction matter: ΔA = kΔC.”
丽卑 佳
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 217-228; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.114023

Abstract:
目的:本研究通过水热法合成了花状溴氧化铋(BiOBr)和金纳米粒子(Au NPs),利用超声复合法制备[email protected] (水溶性柱[5]芳烃)功能化BiOBr复合材料([email protected]/BiOBr),将其应用与对咖啡酸的超灵敏性检测。在可见光照射下,[email protected]/BiOBr检测咖啡酸时有显著的光电流响应,这主要是由于在可见光照下WP5和咖啡酸之间的主客体络合可提高咖啡酸分子在[email protected]/BiOBr上的吸附,Au NPs产生的局域表面等离子效应(LSPR)、BiOBr产生的光生空穴可以加速咖啡酸分子的氧化,同时产生的高浓度的高能载流子既可以抑制电子–空穴对的复合又能提高氧化峰电流,最终实现对咖啡酸的超灵敏性检测。该光电传感器检测咖啡酸时的浓度范围在1.74~190 μmol/L之间,检出限为0.58 μmol/L,表明[email protected]/BiOBr对咖啡酸具有较好的催化效果。该光电化学传感器具有高效、响应迅速和重复性好等优点,对酚类化合物的检测具有重要意义,在生物小分子光催化方面具有广阔的应用前景。 Purpose: In this study, flower-like bismuth bromide oxide and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, using ultrasonic method to obtain [email protected] (water-soluble column [5] aromatic hydrocarbon) and BiOBr heterojunction composite materials. The photochemical platform for the ultra-sensitive detection of caffeic acid was established based on [email protected]/BiOBr. The photocurrent response of [email protected]/BiOBr in caffeic acid photocatalysis under visible light irradiation was obviously enhanced because the host-guest complexation between WP5 and caffeic acid can improve the adsorption of caffeic acid on the [email protected]/BiOBr under visible light, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of Au NPs as well as the BiOBr was benefitted to assist the oxidation of the caffeic acid molecules, and inhibit the recombination of electron-hole pairs and enhance the oxidation current by the high-energy carriers, thus leading to the excellent detection of caffeic acid. The detection range of the photoelectrochemical sensor for caffeic acid was between 1.74 μmol/L and 190 μmol/L, and the detection limit was 0.58 μmol/L, indicating that [email protected]/BiOBr had a good detection for caffeic acid. The photocatalysis has the advantages of high efficiency, prompting response and good stability, and has potential significance in the analysis of phenolic compounds in organisms. It is expected to have a broad application prospect in photocatalysis of small biomolecules.
周 琳
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 132-143; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.113015

Abstract:
目的:本研究将水溶性柱[5]芳烃(WP5)修饰在金纳米粒子(Au nanoparticles, AuNPs)表面,作为复合材料修饰玻碳电极(GCE),建立了一种检测牛血红蛋白的光电化学传感方法。利用Au NPs在可见光照下的局域表面等离子共振效应,WP5与多巴胺(DA)的主客体络合作用,及这二者的协同作用,检测溶液中的多巴胺。由于多巴胺与牛血红蛋白(BHb)的吸附作用,向DA中依次滴加不同浓度的牛血红蛋白。随着牛血红蛋白的加入,多巴胺产生的电信号会减弱,从而达到对牛血红蛋白的间接性检测。结果表明,在牛血红蛋白的浓度为10−11~10−4 mg/mL浓度范围内,阳极峰电流密度与牛血红蛋白的浓度呈较好的线性关系,检出限为5.2 × 10−12 mg/mL (S/N = 3)。 Purpose: In this study, a water-soluble pillar[5] arenes (WP5) were modified on the surface of gold nanoparticles (Au nanoparticles, Au NPs) as a composite material modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and their photoelectrochemical sensor was established for detecting bovine hemoglobin. The enhanced photocurrent signal benefited from the localized surface plasmon resonanc (LSPR) effect of Au, the host-guest complexation between WP5 and DA. With the addition of bovine hemoglobin, the electrical signal produced by dopamine will be weakened, so as to achieve indirect detection of bovine hemoglobin. The PEC immunosensor showed a specifically recognize toward BHb with a wide detection range of 1.0 × 10−11 to 10−4 mg/mL and a detection limit of 5.2 × 10−12 mg/mL (S/N = 3).
璇汤 晓
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 99-107; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.113011

Abstract:
缝合线、缝合钉是当前外科手术中实现伤口闭合或植入物固定的常用手段,然而,这些侵入性技术引起的疼痛和不适,导致迫切需要开发用于外科手术的组织粘合剂。本文主要介绍了组织粘合剂的设计标准,以及现有组织粘合剂的种类和应用。目前,生物类(如纤维蛋白胶)、合成类(如氰基丙烯酸酯胶)组织粘合剂已在临床上有广泛的运用,但它们存在的固有缺点驱使着人们进一步开发性能更为优良的组织黏合剂。众多的研究团队致力于化学修饰天然多肽/蛋白/多糖开发半合成类组织粘合剂。尽管这些研究工作取得了一定进展,但尚且缺少长期研究和临床试验。此外,开发新型多功能粘合剂,在满足粘附生物组织的同时,降低感染率,提高治疗药物的功效等等,已然成为了组织粘合剂研究的新热点。这些新功能的结合将极大地增强组织粘合剂的效用并扩大其生物医学应用,是组织粘合剂研究开发的新趋势。 Sutures and staples are common methods for wound closure or implant fixation in current surgical operations. However, the pain and discomfort caused by these invasive techniques have led to an urgent need to develop tissue adhesives for surgical operations. This article mainly introduces the design standards of tissue adhesives, as well as the types and applications of existing tissue adhesives. At present, biological (e.g. fibrin glue) and synthetic (e.g. cyanoacrylate glue) tissue adhesives have been widely used clinically, but their inherent shortcomings drive people to further develop better performance Tissue adhesive. Numerous research teams are committed to chemically modifying natural peptides/proteins/polysaccharides to develop semi-synthetic tissue adhesives. Although some progress has been made in these researches, there is still a lack of long-term research and clinical trials. In addition, the development of new multifunctional adhesives, which can reduce the infection rate or improve the efficacy of therapeutic drugs and so on, while satisfying the adhesion of biological tissues, has become a new hot spot in the research of tissue adhesives. The combination of these new functions will greatly enhance the effectiveness of tissue adhesives and expand their biomedical applications, which is a new trend in the research and development of tissue adhesives.
健罗 垠
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 47-59; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.112005

Abstract:
磷酸化是生物体内广泛存在的一类蛋白质翻译后修饰,其参与了绝大多数生命活动的调控。鉴于磷酸化修饰有着重要的生物学意义,相关研究一直是不少科研工作者们关注的焦点。然而,因磷酸化蛋白具有分布广泛、相对丰度低、持续动态变化等特征,导致其分析过程存在复杂性高、效率低、难度大等问题。开发高效且稳定的样品前处理方法是实现高通量磷酸化修饰分析的关键因素之一。除基于金属氧化物亲和色谱法、固定化金属亲和色谱法的经典富集材料之外,近十年来,一些通过离子交换、氢键、配体交换、疏水作用等方式分离磷酸化多肽的新型材料也逐渐得到应用。本文简述了这些新兴富集方法的原理及研究进展。 Phosphorylation is a type of protein post-translational modification widely existing in organisms, and it is involved in the regulation of most life activities. In view of its important biological significance, the relevant research has been the focus of many scientific researchers. However, due to the characteristics of wide distribution, low relative abundance and continuous dynamic changes of phosphorylated proteins, the analysis process is extremely complicated, inefficient and difficult. It is one of the key factors to achieve high-throughput phosphorylation analysis via developing efficient and stable sample preparation methods. In the past decade, in addition to the classic enrichment materials based on metal oxide affinity chromatography and immobilized metal affinity chromatography, several novel ones based on ion exchange, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, and/ or hydrophobic interaction have been used to separate phosphopeptides. This review briefly describes the enrichment principles as well as the research progress of these emerging methods.
苗张 高
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 60-67; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.112006

Abstract:
为降低糖尿病患者用药安全隐患,本文利用金纳米表面增强拉曼散射效应,使用785 nm便携式拉曼光谱仪,旨在建立一种表面增强拉曼技术检测唾液中盐酸二甲双胍含量的方法。实验选取200~1000 cm−1的光谱波段,收集不同浓度盐酸二甲双胍表面增强拉曼谱图,将其特征峰强度与盐酸二甲双胍浓度进行线性拟合,两者具有较好的相关性。故而,利用金纳米粒子表面增强拉曼技术定量检测唾液中盐酸二甲双胍含量的方法具有一定的可行性,且能为糖尿病患者治疗期间提供新的药物监测方法,以便为患者制定个性化的给药方案。 In order to reduce the safety risk of drug use in diabetic patients, this paper uses the gold nano surface to enhance the Raman scattering effect, using 785 nm portable Raman spectrometer, aims to establish a surface-enhanced Raman technology to detect the content of metformin hydrochloride in saliva. The spectral band of 200 to 1000 cm−1 was selected to collect different concentrations of metformin hydrochloride surface enhancement Raman spectra, and linearly fitted the characteristic peak strength with the concentration of metformin hydrochloric acid, which had a good correlation. Therefore, the method of quantitatively detecting the content of metformin hydrochloride in saliva using gold nanoparticle surface enhancement Raman technology is feasible, and can provide a new drug monitoring method during the treatment of diabetic patients, so as to develop personalized drug administration plan for patients.
严 硕
Advances in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 75-82; https://doi.org/10.12677/aac.2021.112008

Abstract:
目的:建立安眠药中非法添加艾司唑仑的表面增强拉曼光谱分析方法。方法:利用正交实验确定最佳检出条件,结合拉曼图谱对艾司唑仑的特征峰进行分析,建立艾司唑仑快速检测的定性定量识别模型。结论:以艾司唑仑683 cm−1处的特征峰强度建立标准曲线方程,检出限为0.1 μg∙mL−1。本方法的简便操作和较低成本为现场快速检验安眠药中艾司唑仑非法添加成分提供了新方法。 Objective: To establish a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy method for the analysis of illegally added eszopiclone in sleeping pills. Methods: To determine the best detection conditions using orthogonal experiments, to analyze the characteristic peaks of eszopiclone in combination with Raman mapping, and to establish a qualitative and quantitative identification model for the rapid detection of eszopiclone. Conclusion: A standard curve equation was established with the characteristic peak intensity of eszopiclone at 683 cm−1, and the detection limit was 0.1 μg∙mL−1. The simple operation and low cost of this method provide a new method for the rapid on-site inspection of the illegal addition of eszopiclone in sleeping pills.
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