International Journal of Food Engineering
ISSN / EISSN : 2194-5764 / 1556-3758
Published by: Walter de Gruyter GmbH (10.1515)
Total articles ≅ 1,384
Latest articles in this journal
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0190
In order to improve Perccottus glenii myofibrillar protein (MP) gel properties, three treatments were evaluated: ultrasonic, transglutaminase (TGase) and combined ultrasonic-transglutaminase treatments. Combined ultrasonic-transglutaminase treatment altered protein structure and gel properties most dramatically. As compared with untreated control group protein, treated protein gels possessed decreased sulfhydryl group content and increases in water holding capacity, whiteness value and hydrophobic interactions that increased gel strength value by up to 3.79 times that of untreated protein gel. Protein structural and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that combined ultrasonic-TGase treatment increased both protein thermal denaturation temperature and UV absorbance (as compared to control and other treatment groups) that supported formation of MP gels with desirable characteristics. These results provide a theoretical basis for development of superior MP gels to promote greater utilization of this fish protein resource by the food industry.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0169
Shallot harvesting and processing produce various waste streams, and the current study aims to investigate the effects of shallot bio-waste powder (SWP) substitution on different flour properties. Increased SWP to 50% substitution of stalk and petiole showed a rise in swelling capacity (43.33%) and water absorption (342.22%), and oil absorption (320.73%), respectively. Foaming capacity improved from 48.00% in control to 60.26% in 30% flower substitution and further decreases to 51.28% at 50%. Pasting properties reduced at higher SWP substitution and the highest drop in peak viscosity was observed at Stalk-50 (457.33 cP). Subsequently, developed functional cookies showed enhanced fiber, ash, total phenol, and total flavonoids with 3, 2, 7, and 5 fold, respectively. Cookies developed with higher substitution were of darker color and higher hardness and fracturability. Sensory evaluation with fuzzy analysis revealed better acceptance for stalk and petiole (10%) and peel (5%) of final cookies with elevated nutritional value.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0186
Native rice starches were treated with five periods of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) under each of 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 MPa, respectively. The morphological, structural and physicochemical properties of starches treated with UHPH were examined. The mean particle diameter of starch nanoparticles ranged between 154.20 and 260.40 nm. SEM revealed that the granular amorphous region of starch granules was damaged under pressures between 60 and 80 MPa, and the crystalline region was further destroyed under pressures as high as 100–160 MPa. DSC demonstrated that the gelatinization temperatures and enthalpies of nanoparticles reduced. The relative crystallinity reduced from 22.90 to 13.61% as the pressure increased. FTIR showed that the absorbance ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 decreased, and increased at 1022/995 cm−1. RVA results indicated that the viscosity of starch samples increased between 60 and 120 MPa, and the reverse effect was observed under 140 and 160 MPa.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0198
Chavil (Ferulago angulata) extract (CE) and microencapsulated chavil extract (MCE) were added to UF- Feta-type Cheese. The aim of this study was to comprising CE and MCE on physicochemical and microbiological properties in cheese. The scanning electron microscope images demonstrate the MCE had elliptical shape. The average size diameter curve of the MCE revealed bimodal distribution with two peaks (1541 and 2222 nm) separately. The hardness value of MCE cheese (212.83 ± 17.63 g) was lower than that of CE (343.67 ± 25.53 g) because of canola oil used in the microencapsulation process. The MCE-cheese showed lower values of acidity (1.67%) in comparison with CE-cheese (1.87%). The viable numbers of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis were equal among the samples (4.6–4.9 log10 CFU/g respectively). The acid degree value of MCE (2.07 ± 0.21%) and CE (1.83 ± 0.25%) cheese were nearly equal at the end of storage time.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0293
In this study, the effect of bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BCNF) incorporation on the structural and rheological properties of casein gels was investigated, where the mixed BCNF and casein gels were prepared by adding gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) to acidify the mixed polymer solutions at 3.0% casein concentration (w/v) and varying BCNF concentrations (0–0.5%, w/v). By changing the addition amount of GDL, the mechanical and structural properties of the mixed gels were studied at above, near and below the electric point (pI) of the casein. At pH above the pI of the casein, the introduction of BCNF initially increased the gel strength, but further addition of BCNF weakened the mixed gels. At near and below the pI of the casein, the incorporation of BCNF continuously increased the gel strength. Besides, all gels showed good structural homogeneity, without macroscopic phase separation occurring, which indicated good compatibility of BCNF with the casein gels.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0328
An inclined flow channel instrument that can be developed to be a structurally simple and easy-to-use rheometer was applied to control the thickness, specifically the viscosity and elasticity, of liquids thickened to support swallowing in nursing-care practice. Aqueous solutions containing salt or acid, which might be used as ingredients in drinks, were thickened with a commercial thickener. The thickener efficacy decreased because of the salt or acid in liquid phase. Analysis of the flows in the instrument by experimentation yielded a dimensionless relation representing changes of the Deborah number in the flow process, as indicated by the relative flow length, considering the shear rate in oral processing. One unique methodology to evaluate the viscoelasticities of thickened liquids during the swallowing process was presented utilizing the measurements such as elapsed time and velocity in the instrument.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0185
Four types of cereals (glutinous rice, purple rice, red rice, yellow millet) were selected to produce sweet fermented grains. Flavor profiles of sweet fermented grains are comparatively studied to distinguish various flavor types by using GC-MS, electronic nose (E-nose), and sensory analysis, and the amino acid composition and physicochemical properties of sweet fermented grains were analyzed. The results showed that the volatile compounds of sweet fermented grains were significantly different. Esters and alcohols were the major volatile compounds in sweet fermented grains. The electronic nose, electronic tongue and sensory analysis jointly verified that the volatile components of sweet fermented grains had differences between them. The sweet fermented grains could be classified based on differences in volatile compounds. In the amino acids analysis, Glu, Pro, Asp and Leu were the most abundant. The difference in physicochemical properties is more helpful to distinguish different types of sweet fermented grains. Correlation analysis between antioxidant active substances and color value showed a positive correlation between with a* value, and a negative correlation with L*, b* value. Our results suggested that there were differences in the flavor characteristics of sweet fermented grains fermented from different types of cereals. The results of the study will provide valuable information for the selection of raw materials for sweet fermented grains.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2020-0296
In order to explore the feasibility of hot air splitting of Camellia oleifera fruit, the effect of hot air temperature on peel splitting, the moisture state and moisture migration in peel, the peel microstructure and the seed color were studied. The results showed that higher hot air temperature could accelerate the splitting rate, the optimum temperature for splitting C. oleifera fruit was 90–110 °C considering the seed quality. Page model was the most suitable for describing the drying kinetic characteristics of C. oleifera fruit. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed the changing of the dehydration rate, the migration rate of bound water, immobilized water and free water in peel during hot air drying. The expansion of micro-channels in peel was conducive to moisture migration in the early splitting stage, but microstructure damaged in the late splitting stage accompanied by loose disorder of micro pores, serious shrinkage and deformation of peel.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0295
The vehicle routing problem is one of the most studied NP-hard combinatorial problem. In the food sector, the complexity of the issue grows because of the presence of strict constraints. Taking into account the variability and the restrictions typical of the dairy sector, the aim of this paper is to provide a practical tool for solving the milk collection problem in real scenarios. A heuristic approach has been proposed to determine a feasible solution for a real-life problem, including capacity and time constraints. Two different applications of the Nearest Neighbor algorithm have been modelled and compared with the current system. Different tests have been implemented for evaluating the suitability of the outcomes. Results show that the greedy approach allows for involving less vehicles and reducing the travel time. Moreover, the tool has been proved to be flexible, able to solve routing problems with stochastic times and high supply variability.
International Journal of Food Engineering; https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2021-0102
The dynamic performance of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was studied during the extraction of eucalyptus essential oil. The effect of different process variables such as solid/liquid ratio (1:1, 1:3, or 1:5), stirring speed (0, 200, or 400 rpm), and power microwave output (360, 450, or 540 W) on obtained yield, energy requirements and environmental impact were assessed. The maximum yield was 1.26 ± 0.01% and the steam generation velocities between 4.8 and 8.8 g/min favor the extraction. In terms of environmental impact, the lowest EI99 value obtained was 6.93 ± 0.1 mPT/g. A multi-response optimization was performed to identify the operating conditions that maximize yield, while minimize energy requirements and environmental impact. Temperature dynamics and extraction kinetics were fitted to a second-order transfer function model, aimed to evaluate the role of heating patterns on the process performance. Finally, a controlled temperature experiment was carried out under the optimal conditions.