Science Advances

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ISSN / EISSN : 23752548 / 23752548
Total articles ≅ 4,940
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Songtao Hu, Xiaobao Cao, Tom Reddyhoff, Debashis Puhan, Sorin-Cristian Vladescu, Jing Wang, Xi Shi, Zhike Peng, Andrew J. Demello, Daniele Dini
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba9721

Abstract:
Artificial liquid-repellent surfaces have attracted substantial scientific and industrial attention with a focus on creating functional topological features; however, the role of the underlying structures has been overlooked. Recent developments in micro-nanofabrication allow us now to construct a skin-muscle type system combining interfacial liquid repellence atop a mechanically functional structure. Specifically, we design surfaces comprising bioinspired, mushroom-like repelling heads and spring-like flexible supports, which are realized by three-dimensional direct laser lithography. The flexible supports elevate liquid repellency by resisting droplet impalement and reducing contact time. This, previously unknown, use of spring-like flexible supports to enhance liquid repellency provides an excellent level of control over droplet manipulation. Moreover, this extends repellent microstructure research from statics to dynamics and is envisioned to yield functionalities and possibilities by linking functional surfaces and mechanical metamaterials.
Yuzhao Zhang, Junhua Zhao, Haibo Yu, Pan Li, Wenfeng Liang, Zhu Liu, Gwo-Bin Lee, Lianqing Liu, Wen Jung Li, Zhenning Wang
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba9628

Abstract:
Detection of free gastric cancer cells in peritoneal lavages and ascites plays a vital role in gastric cancer. However, due to the low content of cancer cells in patients’ peritoneal lavages, traditional detection methods lack sensitivity and cannot satisfy clinical demand. In this study, we used an optically induced electrokinetics (OEK) microfluidic method for label-free separation and characterization of patient gastric cancer cells. This method showed high effectiveness and sensitivity. We successfully separated cancer cells from a simulated peritoneal lavage mixture of gastric cancer cell lines and peritoneal lavage cells in a ratio of 1:1000. We further separated gastric cancer cells from six patients’ ascites with purity up to 71%. In addition, we measured the cell membrane capacitances, which may be used as a biomarker for gastric cancer cells. Thus, our method can be used to effectively and rapidly detect peritoneal metastasis and to acquire cellular electrical information.
Bo Wan, Xusong Yang, Xiaobo Tian, Huaiyu Yuan, Uwe Kirscher, Ross N. Mitchell
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc5491

Abstract:
The earliest evidence for subduction, which could have been localized, does not signify when plate tectonics became a global phenomenon. To test the antiquity of global subduction, we investigated Paleoproterozoic time, for which seismic evidence is available from multiple continents. We used a new high-density seismic array in North China to image the crustal structure that exhibits a dipping Moho bearing close resemblance to that of the modern Himalaya. The relict collisional zone is Paleoproterozoic in age and implies subduction operating at least as early as ~2 billion years (Ga) ago. Seismic evidence of subduction from six continents at this age is interpreted as the oldest evidence of global plate tectonics. The sutures identified can be linked in a plate network that resulted in the assembly of Nuna, likely Earth’s first supercontinent. Global subduction by ~2 Ga ago can explain why secular planetary cooling was not appreciable until Proterozoic time.
S. E. Stasiak, R. R. Jamieson, J. Bouffard, E. J. Cram, H. Parameswaran
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba1149

Abstract:
In this study, we report the existence of a communication system among human smooth muscle cells that uses mechanical forces to frequency modulate long-range calcium waves. An important consequence of this mechanical signaling is that changes in stiffness of the underlying extracellular matrix can interfere with the frequency modulation of Ca2+ waves, causing smooth muscle cells from healthy human donors to falsely perceive a much higher agonist dose than they actually received. This aberrant sensing of contractile agonist dose on stiffer matrices is completely absent in isolated smooth muscle cells, although the isolated cells can sense matrix rigidity. We show that the intercellular communication that enables this collective Ca2+ response in smooth muscle cells does not involve transport across gap junctions or extracellular diffusion of signaling molecules. Instead, our data support a collective model in which mechanical signaling among smooth muscle cells regulates their response to contractile agonists.
Zhaoyi Shen, Yi Ming, Isaac M. Held
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.abb5297

Abstract:
Anthropogenic aerosols have been postulated to have a cooling effect on climate, but its magnitude remains uncertain. Using atmospheric general circulation model simulations, we separate the land temperature response into a fast response to radiative forcings and a slow response to changing oceanic conditions and find that the former accounts for about one fifth of the observed warming of the Northern Hemisphere land during summer and autumn since the 1960s. While small, this fast response can be constrained by observations. Spatially varying aerosol effects can be detected on the regional scale, specifically warming over Europe and cooling over Asia. These results provide empirical evidence for the important role of aerosols in setting regional land temperature trends and point to an emergent constraint that suggests strong global aerosol forcing and high transient climate response.
M. Kersalé, C. S. Meinen, R. C. Perez, M. Le Hénaff, D. Valla, T. Lamont, O. T. Sato, S. Dong, T. Terre, M. Van Caspel, et al.
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba7573

Abstract:
The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is a primary mechanism driving oceanic heat redistribution on Earth, thereby affecting Earth’s climate and weather. However, the full-depth structure and variability of the MOC are still poorly understood, particularly in the South Atlantic. This study presents unique multiyear records of the oceanic volume transport of both the upper (<~3100 meters) and abyssal (>~3100 meters) overturning cells based on daily moored measurements in the South Atlantic at 34.5°S. The vertical structure of the time-mean flows is consistent with the limited historical observations. Both the upper and abyssal cells exhibit a high degree of variability relative to the temporal means at time scales, ranging from a few days to a few weeks. Observed variations in the abyssal flow appear to be largely independent of the flow in the overlying upper cell. No meaningful trends are detected in either cell.
Indraneel G. Kasmalkar, Katherine A. Serafin, Yufei Miao, I. Avery Bick, Leonard Ortolano, Derek Ouyang, Jenny Suckale
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba2423

Abstract:
As sea level rises, urban traffic networks in low-lying coastal areas face increasing risks of flood disruptions. Closure of flooded roads causes employee absences and delays, creating cascading impacts to communities. We integrate a traffic model with flood maps that represent potential combinations of storm surges, tides, seasonal cycles, interannual anomalies driven by large-scale climate variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, and sea level rise. When identifying inundated roads, we propose corrections for potential biases arising from model integration. Our results for the San Francisco Bay Area show that employee absences are limited to the homes and workplaces within the areas of inundation, while delays propagate far inland. Communities with limited availability of alternate roads experience long delays irrespective of their proximity to the areas of inundation. We show that metric reach, a measure of road network density, is a better proxy for delays than flood exposure.
Rafael M. Fernandes, Jörn W. F. Venderbos
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba8834

Abstract:
Motivated by recent reports of nematic order in twisted bilayer graphene (TBG), we investigate the impact of the triangular moiré superlattice degrees of freedom on nematicity. In TBG, the nematic order parameter is not Ising like, as in tetragonal crystals, but has a three-state Potts character related to the threefold rotational symmetry (C3z) of the moiré superlattice. We find that, even in the presence of static strain that explicitly breaks the C3z symmetry, the system can still undergo a nematic-flop phase transition that spontaneously breaks in-plane twofold rotations. Moreover, elastic fluctuations, manifested as acoustic phonons, mediate a nemato-orbital coupling that ties the nematic director orientation to certain soft directions in momentum space, rendering the Potts-nematic transition mean field and first order. In contrast to the case of rigid crystals, the Fermi surface hot spots associated with these soft directions are maximally coupled to low-energy nematic fluctuations in the moiré superlattice case.
Ambika Shanker Shukla, Akanksha Chouhan, Rachit Pandey, M. Raghupathi, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Hitoshi Kubota, Akio Fukushima, Shinji Yuasa, Takayuki Nozaki, Ashwin A. Tulapurkar
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc2618

Abstract:
It is well known that oscillating magnetization induces charge current in a circuit via Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. New physical phenomena by which magnetization dynamics can produce charge current have gained considerable interest recently. For example, moving magnetization textures, such as domain walls, generates charge current through the spin-motive force. Here, we examine an entirely different effect, which couples magnetization and electric field at the interface between an ultrathin metallic ferromagnet and dielectric. We show that this coupling can convert magnetic energy into electrical energy. This phenomenon is the Onsager reciprocal of the voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effect. The effect provides a previously unexplored probe to measure the magnetization dynamics of nanomagnets.
Ke Zou, Silvia Rouskin, Kevin Dervishi, Mark A. McCormick, Arjun Sasikumar, Changhui Deng, Zhibing Chen, Matt Kaeberlein, Rachel B. Brem, Michael Polymenis, et al.
Science Advances, Volume 6; doi:10.1126/sciadv.aba1306

Abstract:
Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend life span across species; however, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We investigate the mechanism by which glucose restriction (GR) extends yeast replicative life span, by combining ribosome profiling and RNA-seq with microfluidic-based single-cell analysis. We discovered a cross-talk between glucose sensing and the regulation of intracellular methionine: GR down-regulated the transcription and translation of methionine biosynthetic enzymes and transporters, leading to a decreased intracellular methionine concentration; external supplementation of methionine cancels the life span extension by GR. Furthermore, genetic perturbations that decrease methionine synthesis/uptake extend life span. These observations suggest that intracellular methionine mediates the life span effects of various nutrient and genetic perturbations, and that the glucose-methionine cross-talk is a general mechanism for coordinating the nutrient status and the translation/growth of a cell. Our work also implicates proteasome as a downstream effector of the life span extension by GR.
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