Surgical Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2157-9407 / 2157-9415
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 880
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Luis G. Fernandez, Mohamed I. Abdelgawad, Mahmoud Omar, Marc R. Mathews, Scott H. Norwood, Alan D. Cook, Rebecca Swindall, Carly Wadle
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 234-245; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.134029

Abstract:
Background: Scleroderma is a complex immune-mediated rheumatic disease that is characterized by fibrosis of the skin, internal organs, and vasculopathy. Extensive fibrosis, especially in the limited compartment, has been reported to induce acute compartment syndrome frequently reported involving the upper and lower extremities. Case Presentation: We present a rare case of a 54-year-old Caucasian female who underwent surgery for abdominal compartment syndrome in the setting of scleroderma. Upon arrival, at the hospital, the patient’s health status showed signs of improvement with no indicators of abdominal compartment syndrome until the tenth hospital day. A CT scan showed a new intra-abdominal fluid collection with total lower abdominal anasarca and a stable retroperitoneal hematoma. Following emergency surgery, significant bowel edema without other intra-abdominal injuries was noted. Conclusion: Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome may occur in patients with scleroderma without evidence of intra-abdominal trauma or emergent abdominal surgery. Further research is warranted to investigate the relationship between scleroderma and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome.
Zhengwen Xu, Fugen Li, Meng Sun, Chuan Qian, Wenjun Luo, Xiaorong Zhu
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 246-250; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.134030

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the causes and preventive measures of pelvic floor peritoneal hernia after transabdominal perineal radical resection of rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A 68-year-old patient with progressive exacerbation of Miles’ postoperative intestinal obstruction was retrospectively analyzed. Conservative treatment was ineffective, and surgery was performed again. Surgery confirmed that the obstruction was caused by a pelvic floor peritoneal hernia. The original reconstruction peritoneal suture needle spacing was too wide, resulting in peritoneal hiatus. Results: The early postoperative intestinal obstruction in this patient was not caused by inflammatory intestinal obstruction, stenosis of stoma, and intestinal adhesion, but by the formation of pelvic floor peritoneal hernia. Conclusion: Pelvic floor peritoneal hernia should not be ignored in the early stage of intestinal obstruction after Miles’ operation. Improper suture during pelvic floor peritoneal reconstruction is the main cause of pelvic floor peritoneal hernia.
Samantha A. Delapena, Luis G. Fernandez, Devin O’Connor, Katharine A. Dishner, Marc R. Matthews
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 222-233; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.134028

Abstract:
A physiologic amputation is an important option for the critically ill patient who has irreversible limb disease with necrotic wounds but who would have a low probability of surviving a standard open amputation, without effective preoperative resuscitation, antibiotics, and correction of metabolic derangements. An open amputation may be required secondary to vascular ischemic disease, necrotizing fasciitis, or thermal injury that has led to the critical and unstable condition. The physiologic amputation stabilizes the patient while preventing further metabolic deterioration. The cryoamputation is intended to rescue the patient’s life and is not meant for limb salvage. While physiologic amputation has been described for over a century, it is uncommonly performed. This case report describes a physiologic amputation in a step-by-step fashion for the surgeon attempting to save a critically ill patient’s life who might not otherwise survive an open amputation.
Yannick Ekani Boukar Mahamat, Georges Bwelle, Cyrille Chopkeng, Freddy Bombah, Fabrice Tietche Tim, Guy Aristide Bang, Eric Patrick Savom, Divine Mokake, Alain Chichom, Arthur Essomba, et al.
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 98-104; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.133013

Abstract:
Background: Cancers have been a major public health problem in developing countries in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile of digestive cancers in secondary and tertiary health care facilities in Cameroon. Methodology: This was a cross sectional and descriptive study conducted over a period of 12 months in 14 health structures over the national territory. Included in our study were patients aged 15 and above with a histologically proven digestive cancer, patients with a clinical, biological and morphologic evidence of a digestive cancer. Socio-demographic (age, gender, region of origin, profession), clinical (symptoms on diagnosis, personal and family past history, consumption habits, tumour location) and paraclinical data were recorded on a pretested questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0. Quantitative data was expressed as means with their corresponding standard deviations. Chi square was used for correlation between variables. A P value 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Five hundred and eighty-two cases of digestive cancers were recorded out of 37,780 consultations/admissions during the study period giving a prevalence of 1.5% with a male predominance (58.1%). The mean age was 53.11 ± 17.26 years (15 - 99) with 33.8% of them below 45 years of age. Tumours were predominantly localized in the liver (43.5%) and colon (24.9%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type in 44.5% of all cases. Alcohol consumption was found to be associated with colorectal cancer (p = 0.028) while tobacco consumption was found to be significantly associated with oesophageal cancer (p ≤ 0.001) and gastric cancer (p = 0.0047). Conclusion: A third of patients with digestive cancers were aged less than 45 years suggesting an early onset of these cancers in our setting. Relatively low prevalence with the liver being the most common site of localisation in our setting.
Eric Patrick Savom, Georges Roger Bwelle Motto, Guy Aristide Bang, Joseph Cyrille Chopkeng, Ricardo Fomene Ngouanet, Ghislain Loïc Batimba Nolabia, Arthur Essomba
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 66-77; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.132010

Abstract:
Background: Ligation of the inter-sphincter fistula tract associated with anal plug (LIFT-Plug) is a new anal fistula treatment procedure at the Yaoundé Central Hospital. A two-sided prosthesis piece bent in the shape of a cone is used here as an anal plug. The aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic results and the safety of this device. Patients and Methods: The clinical data of patients operated by the LIFT-Plug technique from January 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021 for a high anal fistula were analyzed prospectively. The variables evaluated were operative time, cure rate, postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Results: We included 28 patients with a mean age of 42 years. The sex ratio was 1.15. No patient presented preoperative continence disorder. The fistula was high trans-sphincteric in 89.3% of cases. The average duration of surgery was 55.2 minutes (45 to 66 minutes). The postoperative course was straightforward, although 60.7% of the patients had experienced tingling that resolved spontaneously. Three patients (10.7%) presented with transient gas incontinence (WIS of 4) which completely resolved after one month. All patients healed within a mean of 63.21 days (25 to 95 days). At the end of the 6-month follow-up, no case of recurrence had been recorded. Conclusion: The LIFT-Plug is a simple, safe and effective technique for the treatment of upper anal fistula without major impairment of continence despite delayed healing. The adapted two-sided prosthesis is a good alternative to the conventional anal plug.
Kouame Bernadin Kouakou, Kouakou Ibrahim Anzoua, Mamadou Traore, Ismael Kalou Leh Bi, Ahou Bernadette N’Dri, Aka Gerard Kakou, Serge Amos Ekra, Blaise Amos Kouakou, Inza Bamba, Djahou Ezechiel Akowendo, et al.
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 164-173; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.133021

Abstract:
Background: Acute bowel obstruction is one of the main causes of non-traumatic gastro—intestinal surgical emergencies. When they occur in elderly patients, they seem to induce higher morbi-mortality. The aim of our study was to identify the causes of these bowel obstructions in elderly patients and to expose the results of their surgical management. Patients and Methods: Retrospective and analytical study of patients aged 65 years and over, operated on between January 2013 and December 2019 for acute bowel obstruction at the University Hospital of Bouake. Demographic, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary data were analysed. Results: The study involved 36 men and 23 women (sex ratio = 1.6). The mean age of these patients was 70 ± 4.6 years (65 and 90 years). A history and/or co-morbidities were found in 67.8% of them. Patients were classified as ASA I (20.3%), ASA II (42.4%), ASA III (33.9%) or ASA IV (3.4%). The average consultation time was 5.3 ± 4.1 days (2 days and 28 days). Bowel obstructions were due to colonic volvulus (38.9%), colonic cancer (22%), postoperative adhesions (18.6%), strangulated groin hernia (16.9%) or internal bowel hernia (3.3%). Volvulated or necrotic bowel and resectable cancers were resected followed by immediate anastomosis or stoma. Near upstream stomas were performed for unresectable cancers. A herniorrhaphy for groin hernias and a mesenteric breach suture for internal hernia were performed after bowel disinterment. Adhesions were released. The time to surgery was 22.3 ± 12.4 hours (2 hours and 72 hours). The post-surgery morbidity was 32.2%, marked by parietal suppurations (47.4%). The post-surgery mortality was 16.9%. Hemodynamic or septic shock, ASA score ≥ III, bowel necrosis and ICU stay were the significant risk factors. Conclusion: Acute bowel obstructions in the elderly are dominated by colonic volvulus. The high mortality is related to various factors highlighting the frailty of the elderly. A multidisciplinary management involving the geriatrician could improve the prognosis.
Guy Aristide Bang, Georges Bwele Motto, Marie Ange Ngo Yamben, Christel Teddy Chappi, Joseph Cyrille Chopkeng, Daniel Biwole Biwole, Bernadette Ngo Nonga
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 207-215; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.134026

Abstract:
Background: Traumatic ruptures of the diaphragm (TRD) are serious lesions that are often part of polytrauma. They pose a real diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in a disadvantaged environment such as ours. Methods: We conducted a descriptive observational study covering a period of 11 years in 3 referral hospitals in the city of Yaoundé (Cameroon). All patients who had undergone surgery for a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2020, and whose outcome within 30 days of surgery was known were included. Results: A total of 27 patients were collected. Their mean age was 36.4 ± 19.7 years. There was a strong male predominance with 22 cases (81.5%). The TRD occurred mainly after an assault (n = 9, 33.3%), was mainly on the left side (n = 25, 92.6%) and was most often part of a polytrauma (n = 17, 62.9%). The lesions associated with TRD were mainly visceral (n = 11) and bony (n = 6). The diagnosis was made preoperatively in only 13 patients (48.1%). The average length of the diaphragmatic breach was 6.4 ± 4.5 cm and a simple suture was most often used for the repair (26 cases or 96.3%). Four osteosynthesis procedures were performed at the same time as the diaphragmatic repair. The morbidity rate was 51.9%, with surgical site infection as the main complication. Six deaths (22.2%) were recorded; septic shock was the main etiology (n = 4). Conclusion: The hospital incidence of TRD remains low in our context. These lesions remain associated with significant morbidity and mortality and require a multidisciplinary approach.
Rani Alsairafi
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.131005

Abstract:
Bowel obstruction is one of the most common problems found in outpatient departments (OPDs) and emergency rooms. The challenge for surgeons is to be suspicious and recognizing rare disease that could cause bowel obstruction, such as paraduodenal hernia, without delaying the management as the risk of complications increase. This case study presents a patient with bowel obstruction secondary to a paraduodenal hernia.
Madiassa Konate, Amadou Traore, Moussa Samake, Abdoulaye Diarra, Boubacar Karembé, Amadou Bah, Boubacar Yoro Sidibé, Tany Koné, Amadou Maiga, Zakari Saye, et al.
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.131003

Abstract:
Introduction: Goitre is an increase in the volume of the thyroid gland. Goiters may be congenital or acquired, diffuse or nodular, functional or non-functional, benign or malignant. Purpose: The objectives of this work were to study and determine the frequency of benign goitre in the general surgery department of CHU Gabriel Touré, and to study epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects. Patients and Method: This was a retrospective and prospective study conducted in the general surgery department of CHU Gabriel Touré, from January 1999 to December 2019. Included in the study were all patients with benign goiter confirmed in histology, hospitalized and treated in the service. Patients with thyroid malignant tumours, strumite, thyroid tract cyst, cervical abscess and neck trauma were not retained. Socio-demographic, clinical, para-clinical, therapeutic and post-operative aspects were the study parameters. Word processing and tables were done with Microsoft Word and Excel 2016 software. Data analysis was performed with Epi info7 software, the statistical test used was the Khi2 test and a value of P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 253 patient files were collected. Thyroidectomy represented 5.02% (253/5036) of surgical procedures. The average age was 42.5 years with a standard deviation of 15.6 and extremes of 13.9 and 76 years. The sex ratio was 8.7 in favour of the female sex. Anterior cervical swelling was the most common reason for consultation with 90.0% (230/253). There were 118/253 cases of euthyroid goiter (46.6%), 132/253 cases of hyperthyroid goiter (52.2%) and 3/253 cases of Basedow’s disease (1.2%). Histology revealed (178/253) cases of micro and macro follicular colloid adenoma (70.3%), (27/253) cases of micro and macro follicular vesicular adenoma (10.7%) and (48/253) cases of micro and macro vesicular hyperplasia. The most performed surgical techniques were subtotal thyroidectomy with a rate of 138/253 (54.5%) isthmo-lobectomy with a rate of 102/253 (40.3%), lobectomy with a rate of 11/253 (4.3%) and isthmectomy 1/253 (0.4%). One-month follow-up was marked by 4 cases of surgical site infection (1.6%), 2 cases of transient hypocalcemia (0.8%). One-year follow-up was simple in 98.4% of cases, we noted 4 cases of keloid. The average length of hospitalization was 3.31 ± 0.1 days. Conclusion: Goiter surgery is relatively common in the general surgery department of CHU Gabriel Touré. Good preparation and better post-operative monitoring could help minimize post-operative complications.
Maïga Amadou, Diakité Ibrahima, Bah Amadou, Diallo Aly Boubacar, Traoré Bathio, Moussa Diassana, Sidibé Boubacar Yoro, Koné Tani, Doumbia Arouna Adama, Traoré Amadou, et al.
Surgical Science, Volume 13, pp 23-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/ss.2022.131004

Abstract:
Introduction: Emergency medico-surgical ileosigmoid node is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. Diagnosis and treatment must be prompt. Objective: To determine the frequency of NIS, to describe the diagnostic aspects, therapeutic aspects and to analyze the postoperative effects. Methodology: Retrospective and prospective study from January 2006 to December 2020 including all patients operated on for ileosigmoid node confirmed by the intraoperative diagnosis at the CHU Gabriel Touré. Results: From January 2006 to December 2020 (15 years), 30 cases of ileo-sigmoid node were recorded in the service. During this period NIS accounted for 0.19% of surgeries. Abdominal pain was present in (100%) of cases, vomiting was present in 80% and cessation of materials and gas (57%). All of our patients underwent ASP and CT (1 case). All of our patients were operated on, and exploration revealed intestinal necrosis in 97%. The surgical procedures performed were colostomy according to HARTMANN (63%), anastomosis resection (16%), devolvulation (10%). Restoration of continuity was achieved in (73%). The postoperative consequences were straightforward in (80%). Morbidity was 17% including infection of the lining. Mortality was 3% (1 case). Conclusion: NIS is an emergency, the diagnosis and the management must be fast and precise.
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