Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University

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ISSN / EISSN : 2311-0155 / 2413-2349
Total articles ≅ 365
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Mariola Wojciechowska
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 144-155; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.144-155

The paper examines the importance of the family as an educational environment for the formation of the value system of the young generation. It is an outcome of cyclical research on the values of the younger and older generation in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in Poland. The research data refer to the value examination questionnaire "100 Sentences - 100 Opinions" by Mirosław J. Szymański and the Value Scale by Milton Rokeach. The results confirm significant similarity of axiological systems for both respondent groups. The comparison of research results from three study stages (1994, 2003 and 2017) proves that the values systems in both younger and older generation are more constant than variable. Therefore, it can be concluded that in spite of disruptions experienced by a contemporary family, it is still considered the source of principles and values for a younger generation. The author proves that the first positions in the young people's and their parents axiological systems are held by the allocentric and prosocial values. This is also confirmed by the appreciation of the value of "true friendship" and "mature love”. It is beyond doubt that these values make it possible today to establish close and rewarding relationships that are extremely helpful to the sense of security and recognition. Furthermore, the studies prove that the participants in both research groups perceived the civic and material values as least important. The research studies a rather moderate acceptance by the respondents of the views representing family values. Young people in particular, still refer to the family with reluctance, criticising the various areas of the family's life, and they do not hesitate to point out the factors that disorganise the life of this community. They also clearly indicate their expectations of the family and, as can be anticipated, construct their own visions of the family. Although there are some changes in the order of values, they are not clear enough to suggest that the hierarchy of values and reference to family values of younger and older respondents has changed significantly over the years. The results with regard to the meaning of the family as a source of the young generation's values somewhat undermine the common theses about the little impact of family socialisation on the development and upbringing of the young generation and the loss of the family's basic duties.
Аnna Ziętek
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 93-101; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.93-101

The paper presents the essence and needs of support in the lives of people with disabilities. It shows that in order to adapt support to the individual needs of people with disabilities it is necessary to introduce elements improving the aid system. It indicates the tasks and importance of factors of the system supporting people with disabilities individually and in the social and professional environment. Legislative solutions in force were presented, which are aimed at stimulating professional activity and integrating disabled people and their families into the environment. The paper offers solutions to improve the system of equalization of opportunities in social and professional life of people with special needs. The importance of supporting professional activity and employment in the labour market was discussed. An attempt was made to assess the factors determining the effectiveness of the system, taking into account the implemented aid programs, grants, benefits and tasks of organizations and institutions supporting people with disabilities in social and professional life. The importance of integration, family support, support of the environment as well as adaptation of the system to the needs of people with disabilities was presented. Among the listed factors relating to people with disabilities, the importance of preparation, professional development and adaptation to the open labour market was presented. The social perception of disability is also of particular importance, which, if properly shaped, can reduce the problem of functioning of people with disabilities in social and professional life. People with disabilities show differing levels of need for safety, independence or accessibility to social infrastructure. This diversity depends on the support of families of people with disabilities, their caregivers and aid institutions and organizations, including those providing education, rehabilitation and vocational activity services. The paper presents activities, which are the starting point for looking for new solutions and improving current solutions for adapting support to the individual needs of people with disabilities
Oksana Kondur, Halyna Mykhailyshyn, Nataliia Ridei, Oksana Katsero
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 7-14; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.7-14

With the help of analysis the recommendations of major international conferences, treaties and conventions over the last two decades of reforming the education system for sustainable development have substantiated that the range of scholars interested in addressing the issues of progress towards sustainability has expanded from economists to scientists and economists. Businessmen, educators and representatives of governments, politicians, managers who are trying to bring sustainable development ideas into practice with all stakeholders. Attention is directed to finding new solutions to the problems of sustainability of the biosphere and society. The main solution to the problems is the formation of national educational systems for sustainable development, which should include environmental, social and economic, organizational and managerial aspects of shaping the quality of training of specialists and the quality of life of humankind, using formal, non-formal inclusive democratically oriented models of education and science. In all areas with public awareness, broad access to education and a reorientation of the entire education system to take into account sustainable issues of development. Education for sustainable development should be at the forefront of the concepts and strategies for moving towards sustainability, which provided for the development of a National action plan for the implementation of the United Nations Strategy for education for sustainable development. It is established that activities to disseminate his ideas will help to improve the quality of education and to implement the principles of “Education for All”. Sustainable development issues should be included more actively in higher education institutions (HEI) curricula and science, at all levels to promote the formation of a national education system for sustainable development, and to formulate five- and ten-year framework programs and National action plans for the implementation of the UN Strategy. Transformation of HEI curricula and curriculum, primarily those providing pedagogical education, to form sustainable development competencies for future and contemporary teachers (academics) should be a priority of the National Action Plan for the implementation of the Strategy. We describe the basic requirements for the preparation of a modern teacher who would possess communication managerial, qualitative competencies.
Olha Pylypiv
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 214-222; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.214-222

The current stage of reforming the Ukrainian national school is characterized by a complication of the сontent of education, an increase in the amount of information and a reduction in the time allotted for its learning. Today, the development of education as a system must be realized through systemic knowledge, which is necessary for forming holistic and systemic thinking. This knowledge can be obtained through the integration of the humanities and fundamental disciplines and should be guided by the global level of science development. This approach contributes to the formation of holistic ideas about the world and a human as a whole. These ideas are outlined by the author in the article. The search for ways to improve the education system at school has helped revive the notion of integration of learning, which is gradually being implemented in primary school practice. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main aspects of an integrated approach to teaching at elementary school and to reveal the pedagogical value of thematic days. At the moment, the main task of education in the 21st century is to improve, develop and shape attention, imagination, thinking and memory. However, in general, today's level of the development of education in Ukraine does not give an opportunity to fully fulfill the function of the key resource of the socio-economic development of the country and increase the welfare of citizens. The prestige of education and science in society remains low nowadays. Today, in Ukraine different legislative and regulatory acts provide the implementation of cardinal changes aimed at “a comprehensive development of a person as a personality and the highest value of society, shaping his or her talents, mental and physical abilities, upbringing high moral qualities, forming the citizens capable of a conscious public choice, enrichment on this basis of intellectual, creative, cultural potential of the nation, raising the educational level of the people, providing the national economy with qualified specialists. Ukraine recognizes education as a priority area of socio-economic, spiritual and cultural development of society” [7, p. 65].
Iryna Myhovych
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 134-143; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.134-143

The article represents an attempt to investigate the development of the national higher education system of Slovak Republic (as part of former Czechoslovakia) starting from the first known data of the medieval times up to the beginning of the XXI century when the period of intense Europeanization and internationalization started. Considerable attention has also been paid to the development of higher education in Slovak Republic after 1989 with the emphasis on relevant legislation, students’ enrollment numbers, overall institutional setting. The aim of the paper is to present theoretical review of the Slovak national higher education system development as determined by the processes of socio-political transformations in the country, including the final stage integration to the European Union and European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Theoretical provisions of the paper are supported with relevant statistical data on the number of higher education institutions and the number of students, including the number of those who participate in mobility schemes within EHEA (statistical indicators are gender-sensitive). Attention has also been paid to development of the country’s higher education legislation system after the so-called disintegration of Czechoslovakia to Czech and Slovak Republics, which allowed for the establishment and development of private sector within national higher education system. The research is based on the comprehensive analysis of original sources – open-accessed national legal framework for higher education, as well as theoretical and practical research works by Slovak scholars. The topicality of research is determined by the similarity of the Slovak and Ukrainian national systems of higher education at the end of the XX century, which allows to state that consideration of the Slovak context is relevant to the current reforming Ukrainian national higher education system.
Kateryna Fomin
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 112-121; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.112-121

The article substantiates the necessity to study the criterion-content and level structure regarding the formation of readiness of future elementary school teachers to organize dialogic teaching. While creating the program of the experimental work the author has taken into account the basic postulations of psychological and pedagogical science, concerning the problem of the readiness of future specialists to organize dialogic teaching, professionalism of activity and communication and dialogic pedagogical communication. The article offers indicative criteria for studying the readiness of future elementary school teachers to organize dialogic teaching of students: need-motivational, cognitive, social-communicative, reflexive-value and operational-activity, as well as indicators of their detection. The levels of readiness of future elementary school teachers to organize dialogic training are determined - high, medium and low. The author presents the results of the empirical study of the state of students' readiness for dialogic teaching of primary school students according to the need-motivational criterion. The results of diagnostics of future teachers' motivation of achievement, understanding of their motivational structure of dialogic teaching, internal motivation of their readiness for self-development, resistance to external influences (in particular, results of ranking by the degree of importance of motives of future pedagogical professional activity) are presented. It is proved that the introduction into the process of training of primary school teachers of the author’s model allows to change substantially the motivation of future specialists for future professional activity.
Yaroslav Ersteniuk, M. I. Gasyuk, Anna Boryschak, Petro Yakubovskyi
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 156-165; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.156-165

Based on many years of experience in the organization of the third stage of Ukrainian National Astronomy Olympiad, the authors of the article attempt to formulate general principles for the selection and compilation of astronomy olympiad problems, as well as to demonstrate the application of the described principles on the example of astronomy olympiads in Ivano-Frankivsk region. The peculiarities of school Olympiad in astronomy, the purpose of their conduct, the specificity of task packages, including necessity for differentiation by complexity and topics, were analyzed. A characteristic feature of the Olympiad tasks is their non-standard nature, necessity to use methods that are unusual for students to solve problems. On the other hand, such tasks should match intellectual development of the competition participants, and the course of the solution should be accessible to understanding and should not require knowledge of a university program. In particular, on the basis of the analysis by the authors of the process of compiling astronomy Olympiad tasks, which were offered to students in the past years at the regional stage of the student Olympiads, were identified, the methods of their creation were systematized and characterized. Each method contains a detailed explanation, justification for its use and examples, both analytical and practical. For the sake of clarity, the topic “Kepler Laws” was choosen for Olympiad problems, which were analyzed and methods used to create them were described. This topic is one of the fundamental in the schoolar astronomy, which determines both the need to include such tasks in the Olympiad program and the complexity of their choice, and creation, because the topic is narrow enough and is qualitatively covered in various textbooks and collections of problems.
Mariа Kopchuk-Kashetska
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 171-176; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.171-176

The article provides a theoretical substantiation of the specificity of formation of Ukrainian national moral and ethical values of younger students’ personality. The comparative analysis of existing points of view on the nature of moral and ethical values and their functional significance in the formation of personality is carried out. The content of national moral and ethical values as a historical property of the people, which determine its mentality and national character, is revealed. Ukrainian national moral and ethical values are as imperative entities, developed and formed, which exist throughout the life of the Ukrainian people, they have an intransitive character, moral requirements, regulate the regulatory function and use the necessary knowledge regarding their free species and personality. Ukrainian ethnology has shown that it is possible to preserve Ukrainian national moral and ethical factors by growing up in childbirth, defining enrichment and updating the most up-to-date elementary education. The younger school age becomes more sensitive in the development of moral and ethical and the qualities that determine the patterns, moral behavior is formed. The goals and content of the process of formation of moral and ethical values of junior students by means of the sciences are specified through adequate tasks, which reflect the main directions of educational influence on the personality of the student. In the formation of the system of moral and ethical values in the younger students pedagogical efforts and actions of the primary school teacher should be directed to the development of moral and ethical needs and motives of behavior, formation of ethical knowledge and education of ethical feelings, development of appropriate skills, habits, as well as strengthening of will qualities. In formation of moral and ethical values of people do not matter indirect educational actions, but the attitude of the pupil to them, transformation of external influences into the internal moral and psychological sphere of personality, internal perception of external influences, including educational ones.
Leszek Aftyka, Piotr Mazur
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 129-133; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.129-133

The Catholic Church in the Polish lands in the XIX century has had numerous charity works. The charitable activities were seen as the task of God's commandment of love. The purpose of this activity was to support poor people in the form of satisfying basic material needs and achieving adequate personal development. The article discusses the most important forms of assistance provided by religious orders, as well as clerical and lay organizations. The author draws attention to the charity's impact on education and the formation of humanistic values in society. Many priests set up organisations that had such names as: “Star”, “Aurora”, “Fatherland”, “Rock”. Their main objective was to raise up education standards and stimulate patriotism and solidarity among young people. Therefore, cooperation between educational institutions, families, non-governmental organizations, volunteer movements, charitable foundations for the expansion of active charitable activities, and the creation of a humanistic society is required. Nowadays it is extremely important to revive philanthropy and altruism in every country. Currently, there are foundations, organizations aimed at carrying out charitable activities and attracting to the charity all who wish to serve the cause of raising Christian morality, culture, education, art, support of the poor. Thus, this is important to promote it in the educational field as well. After all, many young people are ready to help financially or spiritually those who need it; they seek to invest time, money and talent into a rapidly growing charity. Here we see an important role of the Catholic Church, which influences the development of the spirituality of the individual.
Krzysztof Polak
Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Volume 7, pp 24-31; doi:10.15330/jpnu.7.1.24-31

The author deals with issues of the subjectivity of the teacher he treated as an idea of the past, which today is not found in the educational realities. Subjectivity, being receptive to decision-making and willingness to bear responsibility, is understood by the author as the ability of the teacher to engage in dialogue with himself. The author characterizes the main features of such a dialogue, indicating its determinants (power, market, ideological illusions, conventions and school culture). He stresses the negative impact of transformations in the field of education, among which the prevalence of the economic-political model of the educational system nullifying the subjectivity of the teacher dominates.
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