Computer and Information Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1913-8989 / 1913-8997
Total articles ≅ 900
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Laura Pryor, Jacob Mallet, Rushit Dave, Naeem Seliya, Mounika Vanamala, Evelyn Sowells-Boone
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n3p1

Abstract:
The amount of secure data being stored on mobile devices has grown immensely in recent years. However, the security measures protecting this data have stayed static, with few improvements being done to the vulnerabilities of current authentication methods such as physiological biometrics or passwords. Instead of these methods, behavioral biometrics has recently been researched as a solution to these vulnerable authentication methods. In this study, we aim to contribute to the research being done on behavioral biometrics by creating and evaluating a user authentication scheme using behavioral biometrics. The behavioral biometrics used in this study include touch dynamics and phone movement, and we evaluate the performance of different single-modal and multi-modal combinations of the two biometrics. Using two publicly available datasets - BioIdent and Hand Movement Orientation and Grasp (H-MOG), this study uses seven common machine learning algorithms to evaluate performance. The algorithms used in the evaluation include Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, Multilayer Perceptron, and Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks, with accuracy rates reaching as high as 86%.
Mengsi Sun, Jiarun Wu
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p78

Abstract:
Vehicles are becoming more and more connected today, with many direct interfaces and infotainment units widely deployed in in-vehicle networks. However, the increase in interfaces and units can also lead to an increase in cyberattacks surfaces. As the de facto standard for the in-vehicle network protocol, the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol provides an efficient, stable, and cost-effective communication channel between electric control units (ECUs). Nonetheless, it is increasingly threatened by cyberattack due to the lack of security mechanisms by design. This paper proposes a novel anomaly detection methodology based on graph pattern matching, which expresses CAN traffic in terms of graph structures. Given a base graph and window graph, we determine whether the window graph represents normal or anomaly by using the distance measure on the base graph. We have validated this anomaly detection methodology on public datasets and in an actual vehicle environment. Experimental results show that this methodology significantly improved the detection of unknown attacks and outperforms other CAN traffic-based approaches.
Chris Lee
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p89

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for Computer and Information Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2022
Nikolaos E Myridis
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p1

Abstract:
In this editorial, I decided to publish a review of mine regarding the scientific book Entropy and Information Optics - Connecting Information and Time, Yu F.T.S. The review is given in the following text. The scope of the book at hand is the mutual presentation of Information and Entropy through the prism of Optics; in other words, the transaction of Info­rmation and Information Processing Systems by the inherent characterizing identity of Entropy and by specific means of information processing, i.e. Optics. It is of course a resampling or re-exposition of scientific knowledge regarding the field of information and entropy, as well as optics. The aforementioned knowledge has already been exposed and written in essays, in excess.
Boniface Mwangi Wambui, Joyce W Gikandi, Geoffrey Mariga Wambugu
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p43

Abstract:
In response to the increased demand for more effective authentication methods, the usage of biometric authentication to secure systems against unwanted access has grown. Because of the recent COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, any direct physical contact with the system should be avoided. Furthermore, current authentication systems lack the necessary security features, making them vulnerable to cyber risks such as forgery by unethical employees and unauthorized users. The goal of this paper is to investigate the existing biometric authentication systems and propose the best security models to overcome the weaknesses of existing technologies. The study employed mixed methodology, which was qualitative and quantitative in nature and relied on primary and secondary sources of data. The researcher collected the data from a population of 300 staff of Mount Kenya University with a sample size of 169 respondents. The R2 value on the relationship between the studied dependent and independent variables was R2 = 0.792 showing a good fit of the model since is greater than 50% of the test item used in the case study. Therefore the study recommends that institutions to implement a contactless biometric system to eliminate physical contact and use multimodal system that will help overcome the existing challenges associated with unimodal systems. There are still gaps for future researchers where they need to focus on the various decision algorithms that are best efficient in verifying users before they are authenticated in the system.
Wei Wu
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p58

Abstract:
Anonymous credential (AC) systems allow users, obtaining a credential on a set of attributes, to anonymously prove ownership of the credential and then to selectively disclose a subset of attributes without leaking any other attributes. Recently, a new type of AC, called keyed-verification anonymous credential (KVAC), has been proposed, which indicates that the credential issuer is also the verifier. Conceptually, the KVAC system is suitable for being used as employee cards, library access cards or eIDs (electronic ID cards). However, since the limited process power of smart cards, most of the existing KVAC systems are hard to be implemented on them. In addition, none of the existing KVAC systems provide traceability to obtain the user’s identity if anyone tries to misbehave with KVAC. In this paper, we present the first efficient and traceable KVAC system designated for smart cards. Our scheme provides the following security properties: unforgeability, anonymity, traceability and unlinkability. To demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility, we present an implementation of our scheme on standard Multos smart cards. The implementation results show that our scheme is efficient enough for practical use.
Ye Yang
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p68

Abstract:
Attribute-based anonymous credential schemes allow users to obtain credentials from the issuer and prove the possession of their attributes interactively and anonymously with service providers. So far, most existing schemes only consider single-issuer, where some of them are extended to be traceable or revocable. In the reality, anonymous credential schemes under multi-issuer are more practical, since users could query for credentials from different issuers and use some of them simultaneously, which is more efficient than showing them individually. Although there are also multi-issuer schemes where users obtain credentials from different issuers and show an aggregated credential to service providers, however, these schemes lack practical properties, for example, revocation of invalid users. In this paper, we propose a multi-issuer attribute-based anonymous credential with traceability and revocation, which provides traceability of invalid users, and revocation of the specific users. Users receive credentials from multiple issuers and show an aggregated credential of selective disclosures of attributes. We provide the security model of our scheme of anonymity and unforgeability. Finally, we discuss the computational complexity, which shows the practicality and efficiency of our scheme.
Qing Li
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p38

Abstract:
It is difficult for us to discriminate the sizes of space and time as finite and infinite. In this article, an axiom is defined in which one infinitely small and infinitely great must exist if the sizes of space and time can be compared and it is undividedly 0 (zero) point (singularity) for this infinitely small. This axiom has some new characters distinct from current calculus, such as extension only can be executed in the way of unit superposition in the system, the decimal point is meaningless and there are only integers to exist in the system, and any given interval is finite quantities and cannot be ‘included’ or ‘equal divided’ infinitely and randomly. The geometry space we see is the non-continuum being made of countless 0 points.   
Satish Gajawada, Hassan M. H. Mustafa
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p6

Abstract:
The main purpose of writing this article is to unify all the OUT OF THE BOX ideas (under Artificial Intelligence) invented by the corresponding author of this work during the period (2013-2022) under a single umbrella titled “Out of the BOX Artificial Intelligence Field (OBAI Field)”. All the OUT OF THE BOX ideas which are proposed under Artificial Intelligence will come under new field titled OBAI Field which is defined in this work. A new Artificial Intelligence field titled “Artificial Cartoon Algorithms (ACA)” is invented in this work. ACA is a sub-field of OBAI field as it is an OUT OF THE BOX idea. Four new algorithms titled “Artificial Cartoon Popeye Algorithm”, “Artificial Cartoon Chhota Bheem Algorithm”, “Artificial Cartoon Jerry Algorithm” and “Artificial Cartoon Happy Kid Algorithm” are designed in this work.
Oleg V. Moroz, Oleksii O. Pysarchuk, Tetiana I. Konrad
Computer and Information Science, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.5539/cis.v15n2p15

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the analysis of the situation that has arisen in the practice of using artificial intelligence methods for software development. Nowadays there are many disparate approaches, models, and practices based on the use of narrow intelligence for decision-making at different stages of the life cycle of software products, and an almost complete lack of solutions brought to wide practical use. The article provides a comprehensive overview of the main reasons for the lack of the expected effect from the implementation of Agile and suggests a way to solve this problem based on the use of a self-organizing knowledge model. Based on the heuristic usage of transcendental logic in the terms of "ontological predicates", such a model makes it possible to create a formalism of the semantic representation of the requirements architecture of a software project, which could provide semantic interoperability and an executable semantic framework for automated ontology generation from unstructured informal software requirements text. The main benefit of this model is that it is flexible and ensures the accumulation of knowledge without the need to change the initial infrastructure as well as that the ontology inference engine is the part of the mechanism of collective interaction of active elements of knowledge and not some externally programmed system of rules that imitate the process of thinking.
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