Healthcare

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2227-9032 / 2227-9032
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 1,980
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 24 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070794

Abstract:
New technology has dramatically changed online games and blurred the boundary between active and passive activities. This study aims to explore the meanings and values of augmented reality online games by examining users’ Pokémon Go experiences through the means-end chain theory. Using data from interviews with 34 Pokémon Go users, this study adopts the soft laddering method to identify Pokémon Go’s potential attributes, consequences, and values, and to construct a hierarchical value map. The results indicated that Pokémon Go users pursue social relationships through play, and these relationships are triggered by the benefits of making new friends, maintaining current relationships with friends and family, and the attributes of prevalence, childhood memory, game design, and augmented reality. Subsequently, this study describes how Pokémon Go can be considered an active leisure activity because of its social, mental, and physical benefits and assesses the implications of its findings.
Published: 24 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070792

Abstract:
Post-analysis of predictive models fosters their application in practice, as domain experts want to understand the logic behind them. In epidemiology, methods explaining sophisticated models facilitate the usage of up-to-date tools, especially in the high-dimensional predictor space. Investigating how model performance varies for subjects with different conditions is one of the important parts of post-analysis. This paper presents a model-independent approach for post-analysis, aiming to reveal those subjects’ conditions that lead to low or high model performance, compared to the average level on the whole sample. Conditions of interest are presented in the form of rules generated by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOGA). In this study, Lasso logistic regression (LLR) was trained to predict cardiovascular death by 2016 using the data from the 1984–1989 examination within the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD), which contained 2682 subjects and 950 preselected predictors. After 50 independent runs of five-fold cross-validation, the model performance collected for each subject was used to generate rules describing “easy” and “difficult” cases. LLR with 61 selected predictors, on average, achieved 72.53% accuracy on the whole sample. However, during post-analysis, three categories of subjects were discovered: “Easy” cases with an LLR accuracy of 95.84%, “difficult” cases with an LLR accuracy of 48.11%, and the remaining cases with an LLR accuracy of 71.00%. Moreover, the rule analysis showed that medication was one of the main confusing factors that led to lower model performance. The proposed approach provides insightful information about subjects’ conditions that complicate predictive modeling.
Published: 24 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070791

Abstract:
During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a general decrease in the presentations to emergency departments (ED) was reported. However, we suspect that there was a lower number but an unchanged pattern of ED visits for urgent conditions in 2020 compared to 2019. This retrospective study assessed the change in the number of presentations in the ED of a tertiary level university hospital in Milano (Lombardia, Italy). Compared to 2019, a significant drop in ED presentations occurred (−46.4%), and we recorded a −15.7% difference in the proportion of patients admitted with white codes. The pattern of hourly presentations to the ED was unchanged, with overcrowding during the working daytime. COVID-19 changed ED flows, likely causing an overall reduction in the number of deferrable conditions. However, the pattern associated with urgent conditions did not change abruptly in 2020.
Published: 24 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070793

Abstract:
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the main obstacles to communities’ development. The disease mostly involves active and productive population groups. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of pregnant women regarding HIV prevention and rapid HIV tests. Pregnant women who were referred to the local health centers and who were willing to participate in the study were interviewed. To collect data, a standard questionnaire was used among 200 pregnant women in eight local health centers of Kermanshah, Iran. The survey contained 50 questions on demographic characteristics and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS prevention and rapid tests for pregnant women. Although the majority (82.5%) of the pregnant women knew that mother-to-child HIV transmission during pregnancy was possible, fewer than half (48.2%) of them knew that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breastfeeding. Only 22.5% of pregnant women knew that a Cesarean section for HIV-positive mothers is recommended. The mean attitudes of pregnant women toward HIV prevention and HIV rapid testing were 4.5 (SD = 0.4) and 4 (SD = 0.3), respectively. Of the women, 11.5% had participated in an HIV rapid test counseling class, and 25.5% had participated in HIV education and counseling classes. The low knowledge of mothers regarding HIV transmission highlights the need for education and counseling classes and campaigns to improve knowledge and behaviors related to HIV prevention, especially during pregnancy for women in marginal regions.
Published: 24 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070795

Abstract:
The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between residents’ physical activity, health values, and well-being during isolation. On the basis of the physical activity rating scale, health values scale, subjective well-being scale, and the satisfaction with life scale, we collected 505 valid questionnaires online from 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China. A series of multiple linear regression models were established to study the relationship between variables, and the bootstrap confidence interval was selected to test the mediating effect. The results showed that during the period of isolation, physical activity directly (b = 0.463, p< 0.001) or indirectly (b = 0.358, p< 0.001) had a positive impact on residents’ well-being through the mediating effect of health values. There was a positive correlation between physical activity and health values (b = 0.710, p< 0.001), while health values had a direct positive association on well-being (b = 0.504, p< 0.001). In addition, a moderate amount of physical activity was found to be more associated with the well-being of residents during home isolation compared to small and large amounts of physical activity. This study shows the importance of residents’ physical activities in home isolation. Moderate exercise at home and regular physical activity are beneficial to our physical and mental health, especially in terms of improving overall well-being.
Published: 23 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070788

Abstract:
Early research into the implications concerning the evolution of the infection caused by the new coronavirus in people with glucose metabolism dysfunction, in this case diabetics, shows that severe forms of the disease predominate in this risk category. Moreover, it seems that even in patients with normal glycaemic status, COVID-19 may predispose to the development of hyperglycaemia which modulates immune mechanisms and inflammatory responses, with direct effects on morbidity and mortality. Thus, taking into account these scientific data, as well as the increased frequency of diabetes in the general population, we aimed to assess the risk of an unfavourable outcome of diabetic patients, which is in a strong connection with the presence and severity of pulmonary disease such as interstitial pneumonia/bronchopneumonia, as well as the effectiveness of Tocilizumab administration. The results of our study indicate a three-fold higher risk of death in patients with diabetes and COVID-19 (RR = 3.03; IC95%: 2.37–3.86; p = 0.001),compared to nondiabetic patients, and the risk of developing severe forms of acute respiratory failure was 1.5 times higher in the first studied category. In conclusion, we can say that the diabetic diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection is more predisposed to immunological and organic dysfunctions that may ultimately result in death, and treatment with monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibodies was more effective in diabetic patients than non-diabetics (p< 0.05). The effectiveness of Tocilizumab was significant in both studied groups, but diabetic patients responded better to this therapy compared to non-diabetes-mellitus (DM) ones (76.7% vs. 35% p = 0.001).
Published: 23 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070789

Abstract:
Palliative care is on the global health agenda, as only approximately 14% of people who require palliative care receive it
Published: 23 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070787

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating role of life satisfaction in the relationship between fourteen coping strategies and depressive symptoms in the Portuguese population. To undertake this work, 313 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 70 years (M = 30.73; SD = 10.79) were invited to participate in this study. Their participation was completely voluntary, and participants granted and signed informed consent previously to the filling of the validated Portuguese questionnaires. These questionnaires measured depressive symptoms, coping, and life satisfaction. The results revealed that life satisfaction displayed a mediating role in the relationship between adaptive coping mechanisms, specifically between active coping, planning, reinterpretation, and acceptance and depressive symptoms, showing a negative and significant indirect effect. Maladaptive coping mechanisms of self-blame, denial, self-distraction, disengagement, and substance use had a significant positive association with depressive symptoms, considering the mediating role of satisfaction with life. Current investigation provides initial evidence of how each coping mechanism is associated with satisfaction with life and depressive symptoms. This study clearly demonstrates that not all coping strategies are capable of influencing well-being indicators and that health professionals should focus on endorsing those that are significantly associated with lowering depressive symptoms and increasing overall satisfaction with life.
Published: 23 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070790

Abstract:
In the history of surgery, 1911 was a sentinel year. In that year, Ernest Codman resigned his staff position at the Massachusetts General Hospital to found the “End Result Hospital”.
Published: 22 June 2021
Healthcare, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/healthcare9070781

Abstract:
Several preventive measures have been applied to limit the COVID-19 pandemic, including successful the development and introduction of vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate adherence to preventive measures and vaccination intentions among nursing students in three European countries and the factors associated with vaccination intention and advising vaccination. A cross-sectional study using convenience/snow-ball sampling strategy was performed in Slovenia, Poland, and Serbia between 12 February and 5 March 2021. Data from 872 eligible respondents were analyzed (mean age 23.5 ± 6.5 years, 89% female). Higher adherence to preventive behavior was declared by those working in healthcare (p< 0.001), engaged in COVID-19 departments (p< 0.001), had not had the disease yet (p< 0.001), and had children (p = 0.01). Those groups also expressed higher vaccination intention and advised vaccination to others. Higher vaccination intention and advising vaccination were mostly associated with belief in benefits of vaccine, trust in institutions, perceived effectiveness of vaccine, influence of social environment, protection of patients and perceived health care professionals’ duty. Fear of side effects and general refusal of vaccines are the main reasons for vaccination hesitancy. The results of the study indicate how higher education institutions can support the development of appropriate professional attitudes and behaviors among nursing students.
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