Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1424-8220 / 1424-8220
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 36,853
Current Coverage
SCOPUS
SCIE
INSPEC
COMPENDEX
MEDICUS
MEDLINE
PUBMED
PMC
DOAJ
Archived in
EBSCO
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

Published: 27 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196436

Abstract:
Research on carbon dioxide (CO2) geological and biogeochemical cycles in the ocean is important to support the geoscience study. Continuous in-situ measurement of dissolved CO2 is critically needed. However, the time and spatial resolution are being restricted due to the challenges of very high submarine pressure and quite low efficiency in water-gas separation, which, therefore, are emerging the main barriers to deep sea investigation. We develop a fiber-integrated sensor based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy for in-situ CO2 measurement. Furthermore, a fast concentration retrieval model using exponential fit is proposed at non-equilibrium condition. The in-situ dissolved CO2 measurement achieves 10 times faster than conventional methods, where an equilibrium condition is needed. As a proof of principle, near-coast in-situ CO2 measurement was implemented in Sanya City, Haina, China, obtaining an effective dissolved CO2 concentration of ~950 ppm. The experimental results prove the feasibly for fast dissolved gas measurement, which would benefit the ocean investigation with more detailed scientific data.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196420

Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of control through a semi-reliable communication channel, such as wireless sensor networks (WSN). Particularly, the case investigated is the one where the packet loss rate of the network is time-varying due to, for instance, variation in the distance between the nodes. Considering this practical motivation, the control system is modeled using a formulation based on discrete-time Markov jump linear systems (MJLS) with non-homogeneous Markov chains (time-varying transition probabilities). New control design conditions based on parameter-dependent linear matrix inequalities are proposed in order to solve this problem. The purpose is to demonstrate that this strategy is suitable to handle the networked control problem by comparing the temporal behavior of the closed-loop system with the Markovian controller and a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The case study presented in the paper considers the problem of the remote control of a Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) vehicle through a wireless communication channel. The network packet loss model employed in the case study is based on data collected on a wireless network workbench, which was previously developed and validated by the authors.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196419

Abstract:
The need to estimate the orientation between frames of reference is crucial in spacecraft navigation. Robust algorithms for this type of problem have been built by following algebraic approaches, but data-driven solutions are becoming more appealing due to their stochastic nature. Hence, an approach based on convolutional neural networks in order to deal with measurement uncertainty in static attitude determination problems is proposed in this paper. PointNet models were trained with different datasets containing different numbers of observation vectors that were used to build attitude profile matrices, which were the inputs of the system. The uncertainty of measurements in the test scenarios was taken into consideration when choosing the best model. The proposed model, which used convolutional neural networks, proved to be less sensitive to higher noise than traditional algorithms, such as singular value decomposition (SVD), the q-method, the quaternion estimator (QUEST), and the second estimator of the optimal quaternion (ESOQ2).
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196421

Abstract:
Recent years have brought dynamic developments in surveying equipment and techniques. These include reflectorless electromagnetic distance measurement (RL EDM), which is used in a range of devices, especially total stations. Studies concerning the influence of the reflecting surface on the accuracy of RL EDM tend to focus on the colour of the measurement surface, while the influence of the density and thickness of materials is usually neglected. Therefore, this study undertook to examine 53 samples representing various materials of dissimilar features: colour, type of surface and density. The results show that dark and mat surfaces cause higher RL EDM errors than bright, gloss materials. Nonetheless, 76% of the results were in compliance with equipment specifications. Moreover, it was found that the density of the samples had significant impact on the overall accuracy. RL EDM to EPS (expanded polystyrene sheets, low-density material, commonly called Styrofoam) involved a significantly higher error rate. It demonstrates that total station measurements and laser scanning should be performed cautiously, especially with regard to materials of low density (e.g., EPS) and on short distances, where the value of relative error is high.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196426

Abstract:
The article presents methods of long range distance measurements using pulsed lasers and the Time of Flight principle. Various algorithms of laser distance measurements with digital acquisition of echo pulses (acquisition of a signal’s full waveform) are presented. The main focus of work is concentrated on the method of distance measurements developed by the authors. With this method, during laboratory trials, a total measurement error of one centimeter was achieved using a 905 nm pulsed laser diode and pulse width of 39 ns. The maximum range of measurements with such high precision is limited only by a signal to noise ratio, duration of measurements and atmospheric conditions. All algorithms were implemented in a laser rangefinder module developed by the authors. Simulations and laboratory experiments were conducted and algorithm’s accuracy and precision were tested for various SNR conditions and changing distances.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196432

Abstract:
This paper surveys the deep learning (DL) approaches for intrusion-detection systems (IDSs) in Internet of Things (IoT) and the associated datasets toward identifying gaps, weaknesses, and a neutral reference architecture. A comparative study of IDSs is provided, with a review of anomaly-based IDSs on DL approaches, which include supervised, unsupervised, and hybrid methods. All techniques in these three categories have essentially been used in IoT environments. To date, only a few have been used in the anomaly-based IDS for IoT. For each of these anomaly-based IDSs, the implementation of the four categories of feature(s) extraction, classification, prediction, and regression were evaluated. We studied important performance metrics and benchmark detection rates, including the requisite efficiency of the various methods. Four machine learning algorithms were evaluated for classification purposes: Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Therefore, we compared each via the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The study model exhibits promising outcomes for all classes of attacks. The scope of our analysis examines attacks targeting the IoT ecosystem using empirically based, simulation-generated datasets (namely the Bot-IoT and the IoTID20 datasets).
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196429

Abstract:
Video coding technology makes the required storage and transmission bandwidth of video services decrease by reducing the bitrate of the video stream. However, the compressed video signals may involve perceivable information loss, especially when the video is overcompressed. In such cases, the viewers can observe visually annoying artifacts, namely, Perceivable Encoding Artifacts (PEAs), which degrade their perceived video quality. To monitor and measure these PEAs (including blurring, blocking, ringing and color bleeding), we propose an objective video quality metric named Saliency-Aware Artifact Measurement (SAAM) without any reference information. The SAAM metric first introduces video saliency detection to extract interested regions and further splits these regions into a finite number of image patches. For each image patch, the data-driven model is utilized to evaluate intensities of PEAs. Finally, these intensities are fused into an overall metric using Support Vector Regression (SVR). In experiment section, we compared the SAAM metric with other popular video quality metrics on four publicly available databases: LIVE, CSIQ, IVP and FERIT-RTRK. The results reveal the promising quality prediction performance of the SAAM metric, which is superior to most of the popular compressed video quality evaluation models.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196424

Abstract:
We discuss interesting effects that occur when strongly focusing light with mth-order cylindrical–circular polarization. This type of hybrid polarization combines properties of the mth-order cylindrical polarization and circular polarization. Reluing on the Richards-Wolf formalism, we deduce analytical expressions that describe E- and H-vector components, intensity patterns, and projections of the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum (SAM) vector at the strong focus. The intensity of light in the strong focus is theoretically and numerically shown to have an even number of local maxima located along a closed contour centered at an on-axis point of zero intensity. We show that light generates 4m vortices of a transverse energy flow, with their centers located between the local intensity maxima. The transverse energy flow is also shown to change its handedness an even number of times proportional to the order of the optical vortex via a full circle around the optical axis. It is interesting that the longitudinal SAM projection changes its sign at the focus 4m times. The longitudinal SAM component is found to be positive, and the polarization vector is shown to rotate anticlockwise in the focal spot regions where the transverse energy flow rotates anticlockwise, and vice versa—the longitudinal SAM component is negative and the polarization vector rotates clockwise in the focal spot regions where the transverse energy flow rotates clockwise. This spatial separation at the focus of left and right circularly polarized light is a manifestation of the optical spin Hall effect. The results obtained in terms of controlling the intensity maxima allow the transverse mode analysis of laser beams in sensorial applications. For a demonstration of the proposed application, the metalens is calculated, which can be a prototype for an optical microsensor based on sharp focusing for measuring roughness.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196415

Abstract:
The generation of the mix-based expansion of modern power grids has urged the utilization of digital infrastructures. The introduction of Substation Automation Systems (SAS), advanced networks and communication technologies have drastically increased the complexity of the power system, which could prone the entire power network to hackers. The exploitation of the cyber security vulnerabilities by an attacker may result in devastating consequences and can leave millions of people in severe power outage. To resolve this issue, this paper presents a network model developed in OPNET that has been subjected to various Denial of Service (DoS) attacks to demonstrate cyber security aspect of an international electrotechnical commission (IEC) 61850 based digital substations. The attack scenarios have exhibited significant increases in the system delay and the prevention of messages, i.e., Generic Object-Oriented Substation Events (GOOSE) and Sampled Measured Values (SMV), from being transmitted within an acceptable time frame. In addition to that, it may cause malfunction of the devices such as unresponsiveness of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), which could eventually lead to catastrophic scenarios, especially under different fault conditions. The simulation results of this work focus on the DoS attack made on SAS. A detailed set of rigorous case studies have been conducted to demonstrate the effects of these attacks.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196417

Abstract:
With the development of blockchain technologies, many Ponzi schemes disguise themselves under the veil of smart contracts. The Ponzi scheme contracts cause serious financial losses, which has a bad effect on the blockchain. Existing Ponzi scheme contract detection studies have mainly focused on extracting hand-crafted features and training a machine learning classifier to detect Ponzi scheme contracts. However, the hand-crafted features cannot capture the structural and semantic feature of the source code. Therefore, in this study, we propose a Ponzi scheme contract detection method called MTCformer (Multi-channel Text Convolutional Neural Networks and Transofrmer). In order to reserve the structural information of the source code, the MTCformer first converts the Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) of the smart contract code to the specially formatted code token sequence via the Structure-Based Traversal (SBT) method. Then, the MTCformer uses multi-channel TextCNN (Text Convolutional Neural Networks) to learn local structural and semantic features from the code token sequence. Next, the MTCformer employs the Transformer to capture the long-range dependencies of code tokens. Finally, a fully connected neural network with a cost-sensitive loss function in the MTCformer is used for classification. The experimental results show that the MTCformer is superior to the state-of-the-art methods and its variants in Ponzi scheme contract detection.
Back to Top Top