Molecules

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ISSN / EISSN : 1420-3049 / 1420-3049
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
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Published: 27 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
This work aimed to synthesize a new antihyperglycemic thiazolidinedione based on the spectral data. The DFT\B3LYP\6-311G** level of theory was used to investigate the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), chemical reactivity and map the molecular electrostatic potentials (MEPs) to explain how the synthesized compounds interacted with the receptor. The molecular docking simulations into the active sites of PPAR-γ and α-amylase were performed. The in vitro potency of these compounds via α-amylase and radical scavenging were evaluated. The data revealed that compounds (4–6) have higher potency than the reference drugs. The anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities for thiazolidine-2,4-dione have been investigated in vivo using the alloxan-induced diabetic rat model along with the 30 days of treatment protocol. The investigated compounds didn’t show obvious reduction of blood glucose during pre-treatments compared to diabetic control, while after 30 days of treatments, the blood glucose level was lower than that of the diabetic control. Compounds (4–7) were able to regulate hyperlipidemia levels (cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteins and low- and very-low-density lipoproteins) to nearly normal value at the 30th day.
Published: 27 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Cosmetic-containing herbals are a cosmetic that has or is claimed to have medicinal properties, with bioactive ingredients purported to have medical benefits. There are no legal requirements to prove that these products live up to their claims. The name is a combination of “cosmetics” and “pharmaceuticals”. “Nutricosmetics” are related dietary supplements or food or beverage products with additives that are marketed as having medical benefits that affect appearance. Cosmetic-containing herbals are topical cosmetic–pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance the health and beauty of the skin. Cosmetic-containing herbals improve appearance by delivering essential nutrients to the skin. Several herbal products, such as cosmetic-containing herbals, are available. The present review highlights the use of natural products in cosmetic-containing herbals, as natural products have many curative effects as well as healing effects on skin and hair growth with minimal to no side effects. A brief description is given on such plants, their used parts, active ingredients, and the therapeutic properties associated with them. Mainly, the utilization of phytoconstituents as cosmetic-containing herbals in the care of skin and hair, such as dryness of skin, acne, eczema, inflammation of the skin, aging, hair growth, and dandruff, along with natural ingredients, such as for hair colorant, are explained in detail in the present review.
Published: 27 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
The first stage of the drug discovery process involves the identification of small compounds with biological activity. Iboga alkaloids are monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) containing a fused isoquinuclidine-tetrahydroazepine ring. Both the natural products and the iboga-inspired synthetic analogs have shown a wide variety of biological activities. Herein, we describe the chemoenzymatic preparation of a small library of novel N-indolylethyl-substituted isoquinuclidines as iboga-inspired compounds, using toluene as a starting material and an imine Diels–Alder reaction as the key step in the synthesis. The new iboga series was investigated for its potential to promote the release of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) by C6 glioma cells, and to inhibit the growth of infective trypanosomes. GDNF is a neurotrophic factor widely recognized by its crucial role in development, survival, maintenance, and protection of dopaminergic neuronal circuitries affected in several neurological and psychiatric pathologies. Four compounds of the series showed promising activity as GDNF releasers, and a leading structure (compound 11) was identified for further studies. The same four compounds impaired the growth of bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei brucei (EC50 1–8 μM) and two of them (compounds 6 and 14) showed a good selectivity index.
Published: 27 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
A determination method for trace 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) in plant tissues was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The plant tissue samples were extracted using a methanol–formic acid solution, and the corresponding supernatant was purified with ODS C18 solid-phase extraction column. The extracts were separated using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) column with methanol and 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. The ion source for the mass spectrometry was an electrospray ionization source with positive ion mode detection. The linear range of the target compound was 0.7~104 μg/kg, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.11~0.37 μg/kg, the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.36~1.22 μg/kg, the recovery rate was 84.0~116.3%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) was 0.8~10.5. The samples of maize plumule, brassica rapeseed flower, and marigold leaf were detected using the external standard method. The optimization of the extraction method and detection method of EBL improved the detection sensitivity, laid a foundation for the artificial synthesis of EBL, improved the extraction rate of EBL, and provided a theoretical basis for the study of EBL in many plants.
Published: 26 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Molecular perovskites are promising practicable energetic materials with easy access and outstanding performances. Herein, we reported the first comparative thermal research on energetic molecular perovskite structures of (C6H14N2)[NH4(ClO4)3], (C6H14N2)[Na(ClO4)3], and (C6H14ON2)[NH4(ClO4)3] through both calculation and experimental methods with different heating rates such as 2, 5, 10, and 20 °C/min. The peak temperature of thermal decompositions of (C6H14ON2)[NH4(ClO4)3] and (C6H14N2) [Na(ClO4)3] were 384 and 354 °C at the heating rate of 10 °C/min, which are lower than that of (C6H14N2)[NH4(ClO4)3] (401 °C). The choice of organic component with larger molecular volume, as well as the replacement of ammonium cation by alkali cation weakened the cubic cage skeletons; meanwhile, corresponding kinetic parameters were calculated with thermokinetics software. The synergistic catalysis thermal decomposition mechanisms of the molecular perovskites were also investigated based on condensed-phase thermolysis/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy method and DSC-TG-FTIR-MS quadruple technology at different temperatures.
Published: 26 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
The human population is still facing appalling conditions due to several outbreaks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The absence of specific drugs, appropriate vaccines for mutants, and knowledge of potential therapeutic agents makes this situation more difficult. Several 1, 2, 4-triazolo [1, 5-a] pyrimidine (TP)-derivative compounds were comprehensively studied for antiviral activities against RNA polymerase of HIV, HCV, and influenza viruses, and showed immense pharmacological interest. Therefore, TP-derivative compounds can be repurposed against the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) protein of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to ensure the genomic variability and stability of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp protein. The molecular docking of natural and synthetic TP compounds to RdRp and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were performed to analyse the dynamic behaviour of TP compounds at the active site of the RdRp protein. TP compounds were also docked against other non-structural proteins (NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP5, NSP8, NSP13, and NSP15) of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the inhibition potential of TP compounds was compared with Remdesivir and Favipiravir drugs as a positive control. Additionally, TP compounds were analysed for inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV RdRp protein. This study demonstrates that TP analogues (monomethylated triazolopyrimidine and essramycin) represent potential lead molecules for designing an effective inhibitor to control viral replication. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies will strengthen the use of these inhibitors as suitable drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
Published: 26 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common type of gynecological malignancy. Platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapy is the standard of care for OC, but toxicity and acquired chemoresistance has proven challenging. Recently, we reported that sensitivity to platinum was significantly reduced in a co-culture of OC cells with MSC. To discover compounds capable of restoring platinum sensitivity, we screened a number of candidates and monitored ability to induce PARP cleavage. Moreover, we monitored platinum uptake and expression of ABC transporters in OC cells. Our results showed that 2-hydroxyestradiol (2HE2), a metabolite of estradiol, and dasatinib, an Abl/Src kinase inhibitor, were significantly effective in overcoming MSC-mediated platinum drug resistance. Dasatinib activity was dependent on ERK1/2 activation, whereas 2HE2 was independent of the activation of ERK1/2. MSC-mediated platinum drug resistance was accompanied by reduced intracellular platinum concentrations in OC cells. Moreover, MSC co-cultured with OC cells resulted in downregulation of the expression of cellular transporters required for platinum uptake and efflux. Exposure to 2HE2 and other modulators resulted in an increase in intracellular platinum concentrations. Thus, 2HE2 and dasatinib might act as sensitizers to restore platinum drug sensitivity to OC cells and thus to limit TME-mediated chemoresistance in OC.
Published: 26 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Nowadays, increasingly more attention is being paid to a holistic approach to health, in which diet contributes to disease prevention. There is growing interest in functional food that not only provides basic nutrition but has also been demonstrated to be an opportunity for the prevention of disorders. A promising functional food is soybean, which is the richest source of the isoflavone, genistein. Genistein may be useful in the prevention and treatment of such disorders as psoriasis, cataracts, cystic fibrosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. However, achievable concentrations of genistein in humans are low, and the use of soybean as a functional food is not devoid of concerns, which are related to genistein’s potential side effects resulting from its estrogenic and goitrogenic effects.
Published: 26 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) is strongly related with gastric, glaucoma, tumors, malignant brain, renal and pancreatic carcinomas and is mainly involved in the regulation of the bicarbonate concentration in the eyes. With an aim to develop novel heterocyclic hybrids as potent enzyme inhibitors, we synthesized a series of twelve novel 3-phenyl-β-alanine 1,3,4-oxadiazole hybrids (4a–l), characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR with the support of HRESIMS, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against CA-II. The CA-II inhibition results clearly indicated that the 3-phenyl-β-alanine 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives 4a–l exhibited selective inhibition against CA-II. All the compounds (except 4d) exhibited good to moderate CA-II inhibitory activities with IC50 value in range of 12.1 to 53.6 µM. Among all the compounds, 4a (12.1 ± 0.86 µM), 4c (13.8 ± 0.64 µM), 4b (19.1 ± 0.88 µM) and 4h (20.7 ± 1.13 µM) are the most active hybrids against carbonic CA-II. Moreover, molecular docking was performed to understand the putative binding mode of the active compounds. The docking results indicates that these compounds block the biological activity of CA-II by nicely fitting at the entrance of the active site of CA-II. These compounds specifically mediating hydrogen bonding with Thr199, Thr200, Gln92 of CA-II.
Published: 26 January 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Clarification of the musts is carried out to remove particles that cause turbidity, oxidizable polyphenols, and eliminate excess of proteins. However, an excessive clarification of the musts can lead to the reduction of volatile compound concentrations and, as a consequence, modify the sensorial properties of the wines. Therefore, in this study, the influence of two pre-fermentation clarification techniques (static settling and flotation) on the concentrations of volatile compounds has been assessed in Albariño and Treixadura wines. Fermentations were performed at an industrial scale. Volatile compounds have been identified and quantified by gas chromatography (FID and mass spectrometry detection) and expert panelists assessed the sensory properties of the final wines. The results showed effects of the clarification techniques on the volatile composition of wines from both varieties. Flotation significantly increased the concentrations of benzyl alcohol in Treixadura wines, whereas this technique increased the concentration of 1-hexanol, octanoic acid, and furfural in Albariño wines, but without exceeding the corresponding perception thresholds. Panelists tended to score higher the wines coming from flotation, which, together with the shorter application time, makes this technique suitable for clarifying the musts of these two white varieties.
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