ISSN / EISSN : 2160-083X / 2160-0848
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)Former Publisher:
Total articles ≅ 287
Latest articles in this journal
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 33-51; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.112004
As labor markets have become increasingly volatile, more workers are susceptible to conditions that threaten their economic security. COVID-19 has further laid bare such economic insecurity with far-reaching implications for coping skills and strategies. Using a cross-sectional dataset collected in May 2020 in the United States, we examined how precarious jobs were associated with alcohol or substance use among parents during the pandemic and if mental distress could explain such a link. Our multivariate regression analysis confirms that holding a job with precarious characteristics, such as feeling defenseless to authoritarian treatment at the workplace, was significantly associated with mental distress and doubled the probability of using alcohol or substance amid COVID-19. And mental distress might help explain such an association. Our analysis underscored the vulnerability faced by our workforce and how a public health crisis magnified the dire consequences of precarious employment on risky health behaviors.
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 10-24; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.111002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological hardiness and resilience with mental health in athletic students of Guilan Provincial University. This research is a correlation study and the population includes all athletic students of Guilan Applied Science and Technology University. Sampling was done randomly from among the climbers in Rasht city (61 people). We used the Conner and Davidson Resource Scale(CD-RISC) questionnaire, Iran and the Ahvaz Hardiness questionnaire and also GHQ questionnaire for collecting information. There was a significant relationship between psychological hardiness and resiliency with mental health (p P s this variable can explain the research sample alongside the variable of mental health changes. Ultimately, the higher the tenacity of a person, the mental health also increases. The findings of this study showed the importance of psychological hardiness and resiliency in maintaining and improving mental health of students. Psychological hardiness and resilience can explain the variability of mental health in students.
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 1-9; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.111001
This article is investigating the development of the English language and its influence on global communication in the world. Globalization has both positive and negative effects on existing languages, integration between countries and cultures as it involves changes. Survey and interview methods are applied for the determination of various people’s level of foreign language knowledge and opinions about globalization. Practical implication in this work is to inform society about globalization through the foreign language expansion, the language transmission through lexicon or vocabulary, and the grammar.
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 25-31; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.111003
Between 1933 and 1941, approximately 30,000 Jewish refugees arrived on the coast of Shanghai. While some of them passed through to other countries for sanctuary, most of them stayed in Shanghai until the war ended. These refugees represented the Third Wave of Jewish migration into Shanghai. In the light of the Sino-Japanese war, the governing authorities in Shanghai tried to stem the influx of Jewish refugees. Despite this pressure, the Jewish refugees managed to not only enter Shanghai but quickly create thriving communities in the Tilanqiao area. This paper argues that they were able to do this because of extensive help provided by already established Jewish communities in Shanghai and overseas organizations such as the Joint Distribution Committee. The support provided by these entities is often underplayed in the official historical reports of this time. Using documentary evidence and refugee memoirs, this paper will argue that in the absence of this help from the Jewish communities and overseas organizations, the Jewish refugees would not have been able to enter Shanghai, escape Nazi persecution and thrive in the way that they did.
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 52-63; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.112005
Italy was reached by the pandemic 21 February 2020. Right away, Social Services launched initiatives to support and respond to the needs of vulnerable people, strengthening their professional experiences and changing, in a flexible manner, their ways of intervening. Social workers have woven the network, which now allows ensuring people the continuity of emergency interventions. By reorganizing their services, they have started innovative ways of being closer to people, to families and local communities, re-creating and strengthening relationships and social networks. In networking, social workers have a connecting role in creating links and synergies between various formal and informal resources in order to promote the well-being of the individual. The modus operandi of social workers is constantly evolving, as they are becoming promoters of the process of change and creators of new best practices that shape, with new professional awareness, the new social and historical context marked by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Sociology Mind, Volume 11, pp 65-80; doi:10.4236/sm.2021.113006
As a developing nation, Bangladeshi people had to work during lockdown which is the result of a sudden outbreak of COVID-19. It creates different problems in day to day life of common people. The present study, therefore, attempts to understand the socio-economic crisis and mental stress in managing the family within the limited resources of Bangladesh during the lockdown period. The data was collected via a snowball sampling survey method by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Datasets were analyzed through different statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, and percentage. Research shows that female and aged people are much anxious about being affected. Petty business runners are much worried about their basic earning. Affording food to a family within a foreseeable economic crisis, brunt from job loss, the propensity of commodity’s high price, wariness for child’s academic career through e-learning led people distressed. Insomnia, fatigue, helplessness, distress are notable problems during the time of lockdown. Research finds that mental pressure results from insufficient sleep are creating short temper and chaos in the family and social life also. Strengthening the medical system, creating mass consciousness, implicating time-oriented policy with psycho-social upshots can mitigate the fragility of psychological stress.
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 226-268; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.104015
This study examines the rapid growth of Africa’s population in the post-World War II era. The study finds that Africa’s population increased by over 1 billion, from 228.7 million in 1950 to 1.341 billion in 2020: 431 million in Eastern Africa; 404 million in Western Africa; 247.5 million in Northern Africa; 193.5 million in Middle Africa; and 64.5 million in Southern Africa. There are four countries in Africa with populations of 100 million or more: 214 million in Nigeria; 108 million in Ethiopia; 104 million in Egypt; and 101.8 million in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Of the 1.341 billion people in Africa in 2020, 755.92 (56.4%) million are aged 24 and younger; and 533.5 (39.8%) million are under the age of 15. Some factors cited for this phenomenon are: high birth rates; high fertility rates; childbirth at a young age; low rates of contraceptive use; decline in infant mortality rates; decline in overall deaths rates; decline in maternal mortality rates; increase in life expectancy; and decline in HIV/AIDS related deaths. Some implications cited as a result of this phenomenon include increase in GDP and GDP per Capita in Africa; increase in the numbers of billionaires and millionaires in Africa; increase in political influence of African nations in the international community; and increase in the number of educated Africans, including those enrolled in college and college graduates. Finally, the study recommends that African nations should make the African Union a fully-fledged federal entity to be responsible for providing healthcare for the entire continent. The African Union should also represent all member states in the international community, including negotiating trade contracts or agreements.
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 187-199; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.104012
Background: On 12 March 2020, Slovenia formally declared the presence of a pandemic of COVID-19 disease, followed by measures to stop the spread of the virus. Scope: The aim of this study was to explore how people experienced the progress of events related to the COVID-19 epidemic. Method: We conducted a general adult population survey by an online questionnaire that included—among others—three open-ended questions. Thematic analysis was applied for each question separately to identify key patterns in the data. Results: The first topic (questions about the epidemic) resulted in four core themes: concerns about the disease, concerns about the future, concerns about measures, and concerns about well-being and daily life. The second topic (positive changes during the epidemic) resulted in three core themes: changes in oneself, changes in close relationships, and changes in the environment and society. Lastly, the third topic (requests for psychological support during the epidemic) resulted in three core themes: direct help and support, information and awareness raising, and media activity. Conclusion: Overall, the themes that emerged from our study provide information that can help in understanding how people perceive the influence on their mental health and well-being of the negative and (some) positive effects of the COVID-19 epidemic. This may be helpful in the general preparedness to a feared second wave of the pandemic.
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 149-164; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.103010
Students of sociology first encounter an analysis of relations among social structures in the introductory sociology class where they learn that social realities are the products of social structures. And, throughout their academic journey in the acquisition of knowledge in the discipline, sociology students are expected to develop a deep understanding of the nature of the relationships among social structures and the consequences of such relationships to human realities. In this endeavor, students learn the causal relations of substructures and superstructures proffered by Karl Max (deterministic economic infrastructure) and Max Weber (deterministic ideological infrastructure). In both economic and ideological determinisms, one particular social structure is determinant of all other social structures and human social realities. In this study, the ideas of both Marx and Weber are critiqued for causal reductionism or the fallacy of a single cause which is antithetical to sociological reasoning of multi-factor causality. For a better understanding of causal relations among social structures and social realities, this study offers the Multi-Institutional Substructure-Superstructure Model (MISSMOD) as a more comprehensive causal explanation of society’s infrastructure and superstructure relations, which nullifies the distinction (claimed by Marx and Weber) between the infrastructure and the superstructure.
Sociology Mind, Volume 10, pp 127-148; doi:10.4236/sm.2020.103009
The lack of validated evaluation tools on African continent is detrimental to the development of action research, particularly in entrepreneurship. The challenge is to reinforce existing mechanisms that can promote entrepreneurial behavior and at the same time capture the personal dynamics involved in transforming entrepreneurial intention into action. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate measurement tools to evaluate the opinions of Cameroonians in the face of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial occupation. The results, obtained from a sample of 2552 students, self-made men and women, revealed a three-dimensional scale (factor 1: Benefactor, 36.68% of the variance; factor 2: Commitment and capacities, 25.7% of the variance; factor 3: availing, 16.64% variance) whose internal validity (.89) and the stability of the factor structure ensure good psychometric qualities to the tools.