Achievements in the Life Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN : 2078-1520
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 70
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Sheetal Jha, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Rishabha Malviya
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 161-167; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.004

Abstract:
Over the past decades, cancer is the major cause of incidence of death increasing every day. Different forms of tumor therapy including radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used to treat cancer. However, hyperthermia is the technique that neglects the use of chemicals or harmful radiations. The elevated body temperature can damage the cancerous cells with minimum injury to the normal cells. Successful therapy method in combination with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is provided to the cancer patient which proved to be beneficial to the patients. In this review, different studies of the clinical trials are reported on the patients with tumor and the therapy associated with it
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Rekha Jiwane, Tanwir Alam, Sadawarte Sahebrao Kishanrao
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 168-174; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.008

Abstract:
BackgroundHand grip strength is often considered may predict cognitive functioning and has been established as associates of cognitive performance with individual differences in some particular cross-sectional studies. However, little is known about hand grip strength and cognitive performance in the elderly individuals, and it is not known whether changes in hand grip strength may be associated with preservation/decline in cognitive functioning.ObjectivesWe have studied the impact of hand grip strength on cognition function in healthy kitchen workers.MethodsParticipants (n=90, age range: 25–40years) randomly assigned in to two groups according to their nature of work: Group I-Control group (n=47) - workers recruited for simple work such as dusting, cleaning dining tables and floor. Group II-Study group (n=43) - workers recruited for firm work such as cooking large quantity of food, kneading dough, rolling chapattis, cut and sauté the vegetables and dish washing. For the analyses, we used at dominant and non- dominant hand; hand grip strength (HGS), reaction time task, sensory disability test (SDT) and cognitive function test (CFT) among both the groups.ResultWe observed that visual reaction time (VRT) and auditory reaction time (ART) were significantly improved in dominant hand of study group, when compare to control group; however it was comparable in non-dominant hand among both the groups. In addition to; among all control and study group female workers there was significant positive correlation between VRT & ART and significant negative correlation between at dominant hand HGS & VRT as well as between at dominant hand HGS & ART. We also observed that dominant hand HGS was a significant predictor of VRT and ART and however there was no any significant variation in body mass index (BMI), sensory disability test (SDT) and cognitive function test (CFT) among both groups.ConclusionWe found that muscle strength (as measured by hand grip strength) was associated with improved reaction time. Hence by using a simple muscle strength test; is one way of obtaining useful information for the development of nerve-muscle coordination. Increased handgrip strength would be associated with preservation of cognitive function
Pa Chintaka T. Perera, Thenmoli V. Sundarabarathy, Thavananthan Sivananthawerl, Suranga P. Kodithuwakku, Udeni Edirisinghe
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 144-160; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.002

Abstract:
The upper Malwathu Oya is a seasonal river. The main livelihood of people living in the immediate vicinity of the river is paddy cultivation, and chronic kidney disease is reported among them. Farmers utilize different types of agricultural chemicals in their fields expecting bumper harvests. Several agricultural chemicals have been reported to contain toxic trace elements in Sri Lanka. Therefore, arsenic and cadmium might end up in the river water. The presence of these trace elements in the river water and sediments can result in their bioaccumulation in fish tissues. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of two trace elements in water and sediments, as well as in fish tissues (gills, kidney, liver and muscle) of three food fish species, Etroplus suratensis, Anabas testudineus and Channa striata during cultivating and non-cultivating seasons of the year. Further, the level of bioaccumulation of two trace elements in fish tissues in relation to the contamination level of water and sediments was assessed. Data were gathered for 43months. Arsenic and cadmium concentration in water showed a significant (P<0.05) seasonal variation. Generally, the two trace elements in the river water were highest during the cultivating seasons than in other seasons. In all species, both trace elements in the gills highly depended on the concentration in the water. In all species, two trace elements in water and sediment did not significantly affect the levels in muscle tissue. Therefore, the trace element levels in the edible parts of these three fish were well below the maximum permissible levels of international institutions
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 125-135; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.001

Abstract:
Blebs are spherical plasma membrane protrusions formed when the membrane detaches from the underlying cortex as a result of actomyosin contractility-powered increase of hydrostatic pressure in the cytoplasm. Different tumour cells metastasize using blebbing as alternative mode of migration by squeezing through pre-existing pores in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This study investigated the role of the lipid signalling phospholipases D1 and D2 (PLD1/PLD2) in bleb formation in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line in the extracellular matrix, and reports that pharmacological inhibition of PLD1 and PLD2 with a potent universal PLD inhibitor potently inhibited bleb formation in HT1080 cells embedded in three-dimensional (3D) matrigel matrix. Use of smartpool small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that target PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms at four different sequences revealed that PLD2, but not PLD1 is involved in blebbing of HT1080 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLD2-mediated bleb formation is via the PA-LPAR-Rho-ROCK signalling pathway. Thus, PLD2 is a promising therapeutic target in combating metastasis of cancers of fibrous connective tissues.
Nejash Abdela
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 187-196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.006

Abstract:
Dairy producer increase milk production by over feeding grain diets that are high in starch and low in fiber to increase intake of energy and met dietary requirements of the high yielding dairy cows. However, these diets increase the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Thus, maximizing milk production without incurring Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is a challenging most dairy producers. The main aims of this paper were to review available article on general aspects of Sub-acute ruminal acidosis and its consequence in dairy cattle by focusing on past and recent article and helping to update the current knowledge for early recognition and limit the associated negative impact in dairy industry. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis is a well-recognized and economically important digestive disorder found particularly in well-managed dairy cattle. It is a consequence of feeding high grain diets to dairy cows and characterized by daily episodes of low ruminal which generally occurs when ruminal pH stays in the range of 5.2 and 6 for a prolonged period resulting in depresses fiber digestion and possibly milk production. There is no typical clinical sign of illness in SARA affected cows. However, SARA is said to be associated with inflammations of different organs and tissues in dairy cows. Rumenocentesis remains the most reliable means of diagnosing SARA. The cow at risk to develop SARA includes cows in the early lactation, Primiparous cows and Cows grazing or fed with rapidly fermentable low fiber grass. SARA has long-term health and economic consequences, which include feed intake depression, fluctuations in feed intake, reduced diet digestibility, reduced milk yield, reduced milk fat percent, gastrointestinal damage, liver abscesses, and lameness. Apart from compromises to dairy cow health and economics, SARA is of concern for animal welfare reasons, since lameness and laminitis impact significantly on cow comfort and general well-being. Thus, it represents a significant concern for dairy industry and the cattle should be regularly monitored to facilitate early recognition of the condition and limit the associated economic losses
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 175-186; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.007

Abstract:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously initiated, small non-coding RNAs and typically regulate the expression of mRNAs in post transcriptional level either via translational repression or mRNA degradation. Aberrant expression of miRNAs is observed in diverse disease and altered physiological states. Recently, it has been revealed that miRNAs are not only present in cells but also in extracellular milieu especially in different bio-fluids including blood plasma, follicular fluid and even in cell culture media. Such extracellular miRNAs (ECmiRNAs) are remarkably stable in the extracellular harsh environment with the presence of high RNAse activity. Although the precise mechanisms of release of cellular miRNAs to extracellular environment remain largely unknown, recent studies suggest that the expression of these ECmiRNAs can be associated with patho-physiological condition of an organism. Moreover, these ECmiRNAs may deliver to the recipient cells via certain pathways where they can regulate translational activity of target genes. This review will discuss the nature and stability of ECmiRNAs along with their release mechanisms. Furthermore, based on recent evidences, it also summarizes the possible function of these ECmiRNAs in distant cell-to-cell communication and the difficulties we may face during ECmiRNA research
Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Published: 1 December 2016
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 136-143; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.11.003

Abstract:
The symbiotic diazotrophs comprise with a very diverse group of Gram negative soil bacteria, collectively called as rhizobia found in nodule of legume plant. Rhizobia adopt themselves in different environment including soil, rhizosphere and grown within legume roots, where they fix nitrogen. The establishment of symbiosis is a very complicated process involving a coordinated exchange of signal between legume plants and the symbionts. The nodule development requires synthesis of signal molecules such as Nod factors that are important for induction of nodule development. There are different types of surface polysaccharides such as lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, neutral and acidic polysaccharides found in rhizobia. The production of symbiotically active polysaccharides may allow rhizobial strains to adapt themselves to changing environmental conditions and interact efficiently with legume plants. Despite extensive research, the actual molecular function of the surface polysaccharides of rhizobia in symbiosis remains unclear. This review emphasized on the structural composition of extracellular polysaccharide of different rhizobia isolated from different legume plants. The compositions of extracellular polysaccharides are different in different rhizobia. The various compositions of extracellular polysaccharides produced by the symbionts are considered as the signaling molecules essential for determining host plant specificity. The present status of the biological functions of the exo-polysaccharide in symbiosis such as host specificity, successful invasion, formation of infection thread and induction of nodule formation in legume plants is also summarized here
Keyuri Mokashi, Vishaka Shetty, Sangeetha Annie George, G. Sibi
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 111-117; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.05.011

Abstract:
Chlorella vulgaris was isolated from sewerage treatment plant and grown in the presence of sodium bicarbonate as carbon source at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g L− 1. Highest specific growth rate (0.653 μ d− 1) was obtained with 1 g L− 1 bicarbonate followed by 0.5 g L− 1 (0.641 d− 1) on 15th day culturing. Total chlorophyll content of microalgae has increased in a dose dependent fashion with bicarbonate addition and maximum level recorded in 1 g L− 1 (0.769 ± 0.09 g L− 1). The biomass productivity was in the range of 0.237–0.996 g d− 1 L− 1. Rate of CO2 fixation and carbon content, in terms of quantity was estimated. Results showed that at 1 g L− 1 sodium bicarbonate concentration, maximum CO2 fixation (0.497 g/dry weight) and carbon content (0.69 g mL− 1 day− 1) was found. Biomass concentration was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultures (1.54 g L− 1) supplemented with 1 g L− 1 bicarbonate whereas there was no much difference in cellular lipid concentration (16 mg mL− 1). GC–MS analysis of fatty acids showed highest amounts of palmitic acid, myristic and stearic acid. In summary, the addition of sodium bicarbonate increases cellular abundance, chlorophyll content and to some extent in the case of lipid content in C. vulgaris integrated with CO2 sequestration.
I.M. Adeniyi, O.R. Adejoba, F.M. Akinlabi, O.J. Alao
Achievements in the Life Sciences, Volume 10, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.als.2016.05.001

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