Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences

Journal Information
EISSN : 2322-5017
Published by: Academic World Research (10.14196)
Total articles ≅ 5
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Chen-Wei Chiu, Chi-Sheng Huang, Chiun-Hsun Chen
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 6, pp 312-322; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjes.v6i11.2290

Abstract:
This study used the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) to simulate a fire in a 5000 meters long section of the Hsuehshan tunnel (12.9km in total length). Actual distances were considered in jet fan simulations and steady-state velocity profiles were simulated in tunnel portals. A worst-case analysis was performed for the area between two vertical shafts in the tunnel. To prevent the smoke from becoming an obstacle in the Hsuehshan tunnel, fans located 250 meters upwind and 500 meters downwind of the fire source were deactivated. The smoke control system currently used in the Hsuehshan tunnel includes activation of four jet fans upwind of the fire and intermittent operation of jet fans downwind of the fire. This system was examined in this study as benchmark model Eva1 and compared with the alternative evacuation plans Eva2, Eva3 and Eva4. The results indicated that, regardless of fan activation, the downwind area of the fire remained dangerous. With regard to upwind safety, it was calculated that adults with an average walking speed of 1.2m/s and weak evacuees with an average walking speed of 0.64m/s would need 205 and 227 seconds respectively to traverse 30 meters. In Eva1 and Eva2, for 15MW, 30MW and 65MW heat release rates (HRRs), tunnel users situated within 30 meters from the fire source would not be able to escape safely.
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 6, pp 304-311; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjes.v6i9.2293

Abstract:
A mathematical model for microbial depolymerization is described. An inverse problems for a molecular factor and a time factor of degradation rate are formulated. Numerical techniques for inverse analysis are illustrated, and numerical results are presented.
Farai Madzimure
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 6, pp 298-303; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjes.v6i7.2371

Abstract:
This study established the temporal determinants of human-elephant conflict in Victoria Falls town, Hwange West communal area and the resettlement areas of Don Rovin, Mubiya and Kalala. Interviews were the main instruments adopted for the study. Results indicate that, elephants which cause conflict in Hwange communal areas come from the Fuller forest concession area. During the cropping season elephants come to this area to raid food crops. The elephants stay in the Fuller forest during the day. As night falls elephants wait until it gets dark, then enter human settlements where they cause different human-elephant conflict manifestations. During the day, elephants seek refuge in the protected areas where they avoid contact with people. People in the area sleep in fields guarding crops to prevent elephants raids. During the dry season elephants come to drink water from the perrenial streams in the Hwange communal area. The riparian vegatation and fruits in the perrernial streams also attract elephants to the communal areas. Elephants are attracted to these areas during the dry season by the availability food and water. The perrenials streams sustain fruits such as savanna dwala berry, monkey finger and wild medra. Mopane and acacia vegetation which is elephants's favourite also attract elephants to this area during the dry season. The bark of mopane trees is eaten by elephants during the dry season. Elephants opportunistically raid crops from fields at the fringes of rivers when they enter the settlements. Some elephants also hide in the forest remnants and attack people during the night. It is therefore recommended that there is need for participation of all stakeholders such as scientists, elephant managers, policy makers and local communities in addressing the issues of human-elephant conflict effectively.
Farai Madzimure
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 6, pp 294-297; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjes.v6i5.2370

Abstract:
Predicting the factors which determine the probability of elephant presence is critical in land use planning. Such information enables stakeholders to integrate development issues with elephant conservation concerns. This study tested the factors which significantly predict the probability of elephant presence in the resettlement areas of Kalala, Don Rovin and Mubiya near Victoria Falls Airport. To achieve this, elephant presence or absence data and land use were collected using a GPS Garmin. The Logistic Regression function in SPSS was used to test whether there is a significant relationship between human land uses and elephant presence/absence. Results indicate that the probability of elephant presence could be predicted significantly with distance from human settlement and agriculture. These results imply that relevant stakeholders need to take cognisance of the position of settlements and agricultural fields when planning. Such an approach is critical as it can act as a long term solution to the problem of human-elephant conflict.
Farai Madzimure
Scientific Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 6, pp 290-293; https://doi.org/10.14196/sjes.v6i3.2369

Abstract:
Google has emerged as a critical tool in land use mapping. The free remotely sensed satellite imagery availed in Google earth plays a crucial role in land use/cover mapping. This study, therefore mapped the land cover types for Victoria Falls. To achieve this, land cover data was obtained through digitizing satellite images made available through Google earth. Land cover classification was achieved through on screen digitizing. Land uses were classified through visual interpretation of satellite imagery availed through Google earth. The land covers were converted into polygons, point and vector data formats which are compatible with GIS software. The GIS vector and polygon data was imported into ILWIS where it was georefenced to UTM coordinates system. Map showing the spatial distribution of different land cover types was produced using ILWIS GIS. Results indicate that the major land uses in Victoria Falls include settlement, national parks and roads. It is recommended that informed land use planning decisions should take cognicence of the land use map. This may assist land use planners to integrate elephant conservation issues and infrastructural development in the area.
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