PLOS Computational Biology
ISSN / EISSN : 1553-734X / 1553-7358
Current Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS) (10.1371)
Total articles ≅ 8,326
Latest articles in this journal
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008956
A major factor contributing to the etiology of depression is a neurochemical imbalance of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, which is caused by persistently high levels of circulating stress hormones. Here, a computational model is proposed to investigate the interplay between dopaminergic and serotonergic-kynurenine metabolism under cortisolemia and its consequences for the onset of depression. The model was formulated as a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations represented with power-law functions. Parameter values were obtained from experimental data reported in the literature, biological databases, and other general information, and subsequently fine-tuned through optimization. Model simulations predict that changes in the kynurenine pathway, caused by elevated levels of cortisol, can increase the risk of neurotoxicity and lead to increased levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylaceltahyde (DOPAL) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL). These aldehydes contribute to alpha-synuclein aggregation and may cause mitochondrial fragmentation. Further model analysis demonstrated that the inhibition of both serotonin transport and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase decreased the levels of DOPAL and 5-HIAL and the neurotoxic risk often associated with depression. The mathematical model was also able to predict a novel role of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites DOPAL and 5-HIAL in the ethiology of depression, which is facilitated through increased cortisol levels. Finally, the model analysis suggests treatment with a combination of inhibitors of serotonin transport and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase as a potentially effective pharmacological strategy to revert the slow-down in monoamine neurotransmission that is often triggered by inflammation.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008881
In this work, we describe the CRIMSON (CardiovasculaR Integrated Modelling and SimulatiON) software environment. CRIMSON provides a powerful, customizable and user-friendly system for performing three-dimensional and reduced-order computational haemodynamics studies via a pipeline which involves: 1) segmenting vascular structures from medical images; 2) constructing analytic arterial and venous geometric models; 3) performing finite element mesh generation; 4) designing, and 5) applying boundary conditions; 6) running incompressible Navier-Stokes simulations of blood flow with fluid-structure interaction capabilities; and 7) post-processing and visualizing the results, including velocity, pressure and wall shear stress fields. A key aim of CRIMSON is to create a software environment that makes powerful computational haemodynamics tools accessible to a wide audience, including clinicians and students, both within our research laboratories and throughout the community. The overall philosophy is to leverage best-in-class open source standards for medical image processing, parallel flow computation, geometric solid modelling, data assimilation, and mesh generation. It is actively used by researchers in Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. It has been applied to numerous clinical problems; we illustrate applications of CRIMSON to real-world problems using examples ranging from pre-operative surgical planning to medical device design optimization.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008937
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity for repair and regeneration following a variety of injuries. When successful, this highly orchestrated regenerative process requires the contribution of several muscle resident cell populations including satellite stem cells (SSCs), fibroblasts, macrophages and vascular cells. However, volumetric muscle loss injuries (VML) involve simultaneous destruction of multiple tissue components (e.g., as a result of battlefield injuries or vehicular accidents) and are so extensive that they exceed the intrinsic capability for scarless wound healing and result in permanent cosmetic and functional deficits. In this scenario, the regenerative process fails and is dominated by an unproductive inflammatory response and accompanying fibrosis. The failure of current regenerative therapeutics to completely restore functional muscle tissue is not surprising considering the incomplete understanding of the cellular mechanisms that drive the regeneration response in the setting of VML injury. To begin to address this profound knowledge gap, we developed an agent-based model to predict the tissue remodeling response following surgical creation of a VML injury. Once the model was able to recapitulate key aspects of the tissue remodeling response in the absence of repair, we validated the model by simulating the tissue remodeling response to VML injury following implantation of either a decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold or a minced muscle graft. The model suggested that the SSC microenvironment and absence of pro-differentiation SSC signals were the most important aspects of failed muscle regeneration in VML injuries. The major implication of this work is that agent-based models may provide a much-needed predictive tool to optimize the design of new therapies, and thereby, accelerate the clinical translation of regenerative therapeutics for VML injuries.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008983
Marine nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are an important source of fixed nitrogen in oceanic ecosystems. The colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium and diatom symbionts were thought to be the primary contributors to oceanic N2 fixation until the discovery of the unusual uncultivated symbiotic cyanobacterium UCYN-A (Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa). UCYN-A has atypical metabolic characteristics lacking the oxygen-evolving photosystem II, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the carbon-fixation enzyme RuBisCo and de novo biosynthetic pathways for a number of amino acids and nucleotides. Therefore, it is obligately symbiotic with its single-celled haptophyte algal host. UCYN-A receives fixed carbon from its host and returns fixed nitrogen, but further insights into this symbiosis are precluded by both UCYN-A and its host being uncultured. In order to investigate how this syntrophy is coordinated, we reconstructed bottom-up genome-scale metabolic models of UCYN-A and its algal partner to explore possible trophic scenarios, focusing on nitrogen fixation and biomass synthesis. Since both partners are uncultivated and only the genome sequence of UCYN-A is available, we used the phylogenetically related Chrysochromulina tobin as a proxy for the host. Through the use of flux balance analysis (FBA), we determined the minimal set of metabolites and biochemical functions that must be shared between the two organisms to ensure viability and growth. We quantitatively investigated the metabolic characteristics that facilitate daytime N2 fixation in UCYN-A and possible oxygen-scavenging mechanisms needed to create an anaerobic environment to allow nitrogenase to function. This is the first application of an FBA framework to examine the tight metabolic coupling between uncultivated microbes in marine symbiotic communities and provides a roadmap for future efforts focusing on such specialized systems.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008972
Metagenomics facilitates the study of the genetic information from uncultured microbes and complex microbial communities. Assembling complete genomes from metagenomics data is difficult because most samples have high organismal complexity and strain diversity. Some studies have attempted to extract complete bacterial, archaeal, and viral genomes and often focus on species with circular genomes so they can help confirm completeness with circularity. However, less than 100 circularized bacterial and archaeal genomes have been assembled and published from metagenomics data despite the thousands of datasets that are available. Circularized genomes are important for (1) building a reference collection as scaffolds for future assemblies, (2) providing complete gene content of a genome, (3) confirming little or no contamination of a genome, (4) studying the genomic context and synteny of genes, and (5) linking protein coding genes to ribosomal RNA genes to aid metabolic inference in 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. We developed a semi-automated method called Jorg to help circularize small bacterial, archaeal, and viral genomes using iterative assembly, binning, and read mapping. In addition, this method exposes potential misassemblies from k-mer based assemblies. We chose species of the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) to focus our initial efforts because they have small genomes and are only known to have one ribosomal RNA operon. In addition to 34 circular CPR genomes, we present one circular Margulisbacteria genome, one circular Chloroflexi genome, and two circular megaphage genomes from 19 public and published datasets. We demonstrate findings that would likely be difficult without circularizing genomes, including that ribosomal genes are likely not operonic in the majority of CPR, and that some CPR harbor diverged forms of RNase P RNA. Code and a tutorial for this method is available at https://github.com/lmlui/Jorg and is available on the DOE Systems Biology KnowledgeBase as a beta app.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008849
The COVID-19 outbreak has highlighted our vulnerability to novel infections. Faced with this threat and no effective treatment, in line with many other countries, the UK adopted enforced social distancing (lockdown) to reduce transmission—successfully reducing the reproductive number R below one. However, given the large pool of susceptible individuals that remain, complete relaxation of controls is likely to generate a substantial further outbreak. Vaccination remains the only foreseeable means of both containing the infection and returning to normal interactions and behaviour. Here, we consider the optimal targeting of vaccination within the UK, with the aim of minimising future deaths or quality adjusted life year (QALY) losses. We show that, for a range of assumptions on the action and efficacy of the vaccine, targeting older age groups first is optimal and may be sufficient to stem the epidemic if the vaccine prevents transmission as well as disease.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008941
In the year 2020, there were 105 different statutory insurance companies in Germany with heterogeneous regional coverage. Obtaining data from all insurance companies is challenging, so that it is likely that projects will have to rely on data not covering the whole population. Consequently, the study of epidemic spread in hospital referral networks using data-driven models may be biased. We studied this bias using data from three German regional insurance companies covering four federal states: AOK (historically “general local health insurance company”, but currently only the abbreviation is used) Lower Saxony (in Federal State of Lower Saxony), AOK Bavaria (in Bavaria), and AOK PLUS (in Thuringia and Saxony). To understand how incomplete data influence network characteristics and related epidemic simulations, we created sampled datasets by randomly dropping a proportion of patients from the full datasets and replacing them with random copies of the remaining patients to obtain scale-up datasets to the original size. For the sampled and scale-up datasets, we calculated several commonly used network measures, and compared them to those derived from the original data. We found that the network measures (degree, strength and closeness) were rather sensitive to incompleteness. Infection prevalence as an outcome from the applied susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS) model was fairly robust against incompleteness. At incompleteness levels as high as 90% of the original datasets the prevalence estimation bias was below 5% in scale-up datasets. Consequently, a coverage as low as 10% of the local population of the federal state population was sufficient to maintain the relative bias in prevalence below 10% for a wide range of transmission parameters as encountered in clinical settings. Our findings are reassuring that despite incomplete coverage of the population, German health insurance data can be used to study effects of patient traffic between institutions on the spread of pathogens within healthcare networks.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008974
The genome is packed into the cell nucleus in the form of chromatin. Biochemical approaches have revealed that chromatin is packed within domains, which group into larger domains, and so forth. Such hierarchical packing is equally visible in super-resolution microscopy images of large-scale chromatin organization. While previous work has suggested that chromatin is partitioned into distinct domains via microphase separation, it is unclear how these domains organize into this hierarchical packing. A particular challenge is to find an image analysis approach that fully incorporates such hierarchical packing, so that hypothetical governing mechanisms of euchromatin packing can be compared against the results of such an analysis. Here, we obtain 3D STED super-resolution images from pluripotent zebrafish embryos labeled with improved DNA fluorescence stains, and demonstrate how the hierarchical packing of euchromatin in these images can be described as multiplicative cascades. Multiplicative cascades are an established theoretical concept to describe the placement of ever-smaller structures within bigger structures. Importantly, these cascades can generate artificial image data by applying a single rule again and again, and can be fully specified using only four parameters. Here, we show how the typical patterns of euchromatin organization are reflected in the values of these four parameters. Specifically, we can pinpoint the values required to mimic a microphase-separated state of euchromatin. We suggest that the concept of multiplicative cascades can also be applied to images of other types of chromatin. Here, cascade parameters could serve as test quantities to assess whether microphase separation or other theoretical models accurately reproduce the hierarchical packing of chromatin.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008961
Patterns of cancer incidence, viewed over extended time periods, reveal important aspects of multistage carcinogenesis. Here we show how a multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) model for cancer can be harnessed to identify biological processes that shape the surprisingly dynamic and disparate incidence patterns of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the US population. While the dramatic rise in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the US has been largely attributed to reflux related increases in the prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), the premalignant field in which most EAC are thought to arise, only scant evidence exists for field cancerization contributing to ESCC. Our analyses of incidence patterns suggest that ESCC is associated with a premalignant field that may develop very early in life. Although the risk of ESCC, which is substantially higher in Blacks than Whites, is generally assumed to be associated with late-childhood and adult exposures to carcinogens, such as from tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and various industrial exposures, the temporal trends we identify for ESCC suggest an onset distribution of field-defects before age 10, most strongly among Blacks. These trends differ significantly in shape and strength from field-defect trends that we estimate for US Whites. Moreover, the rates of ESCC-predisposing field-defects predicted by the model for cohorts of black children are decreasing for more recent birth cohorts (for Blacks born after 1940). These results point to a potential etiologic role of factors acting early in life, perhaps related to nutritional deficiencies, in the development of ESCC and its predisposing field-defect. Such factors may explain some of the striking racial differences seen in ESCC incidence patterns over time in the US.
PLOS Computational Biology, Volume 17; doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008784
The interior of a eukaryotic cell is a highly complex composite material which consists of water, structural scaffoldings, organelles, and various biomolecular solutes. All these components serve as obstacles that impede the motion of vesicles. Hence, it is hypothesized that any alteration of the cytoskeletal network may directly impact or even disrupt the vesicle transport. A disruption of the vesicle-mediate cell transport is thought to contribute to several severe diseases and disorders, such as diabetes, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, emphasizing the clinical relevance. To address the outlined objective, a multiscale finite element model of the diffusive vesicle transport is proposed on the basis of the concept of homogenization, owed to the complexity of the cytoskeletal network. In order to study the microscopic effects of specific nanoscopic actin filament network alterations onto the vesicle transport, a parametrized three-dimensional geometrical model of the actin filament network was generated on the basis of experimentally observed filament densities and network geometries in an adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell. Numerical analyzes of the obtained effective diffusion properties within two-dimensional sampling domains of the whole cell model revealed that the computed homogenized diffusion coefficients can be predicted statistically accurate by a simple two-parameter power law as soon as the inaccessible area fraction, due to the obstacle geometries and the finite size of the vesicles, is known. This relationship, in turn, leads to a massive reduction in computation time and allows to study the impact of a variety of different cytoskeletal alterations onto the vesicle transport. Hence, the numerical simulations predicted a 35% increase in transport time due to a uniformly distributed four-fold increase of the total filament amount. On the other hand, a hypothetically reduced expression of filament cross-linking proteins led to sparser filament networks and, thus, a speed up of the vesicle transport.