Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International

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EISSN : 2454-7352
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 571
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, V. Victor
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 58-76; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i930309

Abstract:
This research work is aimed electrical resistivity survey for groundwater development conducted in Mubi and Maiha local government area of Adamawa State, in order to delineate the groundwater potential zones and determining the depth and thickness of sediments layers, and recommend suitable depth for drilling. Fourteen vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried out within the study area using Schlumberger electrodes configuration was used for the field data acquisition. The field data obtained was analyzed using IX1D computer software and, VES1-14 resistivity model indicate 3-4 layered earth models. The interpretation shows positive inference in terms of a well-defined weathered basement and as such, it is likely to possess requisite hydro-geological characteristics that could supply underground water in fair quantity to well when drilled. Therefore, VES number denoted (R) are recommended for drilling at approximate depths of 40±5 to 50±5 meters.
E. Wali, P. O. Phil-Eze, C. H. Wizor, M. Abdullahi, O. O. Afolabi, Ihunda. C. Eze, L. C. Bosco-Abiahu
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 46-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i930308

Abstract:
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as river, lake or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rain water on saturated ground in an area. To find out the most vulnerable communities, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and location data of selected communities were used. The Image Re-class and Map Overlay were performed on QGIS software to identify communities that are most affected. The result shows that the region has no river channel that discharge excess water easily. It also shows that four, out of twelve settlements were located at the high risk zone. The settlements are Uniport, Omuoda, Omuahunwo and Okparagwa. It was recommended that the high risk zone in the area should be provided with artificial water channel that will contain and convey surface sun-off to a nearby stream. The local authority should relocate the affected settlements to a safer zone.
Umar Wakil Adamu, , Isaac Sarfo, Edward Kweku Nunoo, Clement Kwang, Foster Kofi Addai, Collins Oduro, George Darko, Grace Chikomborero Ndafira, Michael Batame, et al.
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 31-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i930307

Abstract:
The present study assesses the impact of oil spillage in the Southwestern Niger Delta of Nigeria over the past fifty (50) years. It further sought to find out the driving forces and implications of oil spillage on vegetation, livelihoods and other key parameters. The study employed geospatial techniques and a secondary source of data to achieve the objectives set out in this study. The Global Moran I statistical tool was used to determine the spatial autocorrelation based on feature locations and attribute values. We observed built-up areas, bare land, and less dense vegetation had an overall increment of 1975.98 km2, 1370 km2 and 23805 km2, respectively. Dense vegetation had declension of 22058.33 km2 over the past five decades. Findings depict a declining trend in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, attributed to oil spillage as the key contributory factor. Occasioned by anthropogenic activities, the driving forces were traced to attacks on oil pipelines during conflicts and illegal means of creating leakages to siphon crude oil for sale. To achieve sustainability in oil spill management in the Delta, the study recommends further research to ascertain the cost of losses incurred apply geospatial techniques to monitor and predict environmental changes that inform decisions of key actors.
, Yao Koffi Blaise, Kouame Koffi Fernand, Oga Yéi Marie-Solange
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i930305

Abstract:
The North-East region (Bounkani) of Côte d'Ivoire is the least watered region of the country with an average annual rainfall of 945 mm. The rainfall deficits observed in Côte d'Ivoire since 1970s could constitute a real threat to the environment and to water resources in general, and to dam lakes in particular. The main aim of this study was to follow the evolution of the dam lakes in the region over the years, i.e,(1986, 2002 and 2017) with reference to their spatial distribution (their densities and their limnological ratios). The approach adopted consisted of mapping and monitoring through remote sensing technology which involves processing satellite images for automatic extraction of these agropastoral structures on the various images. The results showed that these dam lakes were unevenly distributed both at the level of the departments and the watersheds, with 73.43% in the Black Volta and 28.57% in the Comoé. The density was higher in Doropo and varied from one department to another from 1986 to 2017, for the department of Bouna, it ranged from 9.34.10-4 to 3.74.10-3 per km2. The departments of Doropo and Tehini showed 1.51.10-3 to 1.01.10-2 per km2 and 1.05.10-3 to 4.53.10-3 per km2 respectively. Nassian department displayed a value of 1.42.10-3 per km2 and remained constant from 2002 to 2017. Like the density, Doropo Department had the highest limnological ratio which changes from 7.09.10-5 to 2.71.10-4 per km2 over the same period. The mapping of these agropastoral structures showed 18 agropastoral structures where 57 (28.07%) were functional or even contained water in the dry season in the region in 2017 including 2 in Nassian; 4 in Tehini; 9 in Doropo and 3 in Bouna.
, Sukir Maryanto, Wiyono
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i930304

Abstract:
Research related to the geothermal system in the Tiris geothermal area (TGA) Probolinggo Regency has been conducted using the gravity method. This study aims to investigate the subsurface structure, with a target on estimating geothermal reservoir rocks from the study area. This study utilized the Gravity meter La Coste & Romberg type G-1503 on 116 acquisition points in an area of 2.16 km2, covering all geothermal manifestation points in TGA. The gravity measurement data obtained is then processed through gravity corrections, which include: conversion into milli-Gals (mGal) units, tidal correction, drift correction, latitude correction, free air correction, Bouguer correction, and terrain correction. These corrections to obtain a complete Bouguer anomaly (CBA) value. The study area shows the CBA value on a horizontal plane which ranges from 0.1 mGal to 4.2 mGal. The separation of the regional and residual Bouguer anomaly from the CBA on a horizontal plane employed the Moving Average method through spectrum analysis. The value of residual Bouguer anomaly ranges from -0.7 mGal to 2.7 mGal. The low anomalies are scattered in the northwest, and a small number are spread in the northeast and southeast, while the high anomalies are in the middle of the study area. The result of 3D inversion modeling finds that the study area's subsurface structure consists of four rock layers, namely lapilli tuff, tuffaceous breccia, volcanic breccia, and basalt. Volcanic breccia is approximated as geothermal reservoir rocks at a depth of 700 to 1000 meters below the acquisition point. In contrast, basalt is supposed to be intrusive igneous rock because it tends to break through the surface at a depth of 348 to 350 meters below the acquisition point. The presence of these intrusive rocks can be predicted through spectrum analysis result, which shows a regional anomaly source at a depth of 348 meters below the acquisition point. This intrusion rock is suspected to be a heat source rock in the geothermal system in the study area.
Emmanuel Nong Buh, Melle Ekane Maurice, Ukah Bonaventure Ngong, Okon Emmanuel Morio, Valentine Ngwoh Kum
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 43-53; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830303

Abstract:
With the increasing rate of global warming and climate change in the world and Limbe municipality in particular, tree nursery in the Limbe Botanic Garden and reforestation is of great importance to combat the negative environmental impacts. There are frequent landslides, flooding, rapid deforestation, and destruction of animal habitats leading to climate change and global warming in the town of Limbe. This study is focus on exploiting the challenges of tree nursery, reforestation and its impacts in order to reduce the increasing rate of carbon dioxide and other environmental disasters brought about by rapid deforestation. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to August 2021 using quantitative and qualitative approaches. With the use of a simple random sampling method, 400 questionnaires were administered. Focus group discussion (FGD) was held with tree growers, the chief of forest conservator in the Limbe Botanic Garden and also with the local population in charge of forest exploitation. The results obtained from the questionnaires indicated that 57% of the challenges of tree nursery and reforestation were as a result of limited species of trees being nursed and transplanted. In contrast, 24% and 19% of the respondents also indicated that the difficulty faced in the maintenance of Limbe Botanic Garden (LBG) is the fact that there is limited renovation strategies employed. And that the causes of deforestation in Limbe, is brought about by rapid exploitation of the forest for timber purposes. To overcome these challenges, a joint effort of government and stakeholder’s participation, together with the local population is urgently needed in order to achieve sustainable tree nursery and reforestation in the municipality.
, Sodiq Solagbade Oguntade, Idunnu Temitope Abiade
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 32-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830302

Abstract:
Land use assessment and land cover transition need remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS). Land use/land cover changes of Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were examined in this research. Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI were acquired for 1985, 2000, and 2015 respectively. Image scene with path 190 and row 055 was used for the three Landsat Images. A supervised digital image classification approach was used in the study, which was carried out using the ArcMap 10.4 Software. Five land use/land cover categories were recognised and recorded as polygons, including Built-up Areas, Bare surface, water body, Dense Vegetation and Sparse Vegetation. The variations in the area covered by the various polygons were measured in hectares. This study revealed that between 1985 and 2015, there was a significant change in Built-up areas from 1694 hectares to 5656 hectares. However, there was a reduction in water body from 25 hectares in 1985 to 19 hectares in 2015; there was a severe reduction in the bare surface from 4641 hectares in 1985 to 2237 hectares in 2015. Generally, the findings show that the number of people building houses in the study area has grown over time, as many people reside in the outskirts of the Local Government Area, resulting in a decrease in the vegetation and bare surfaces. The maps created in this research will be useful to the Ekiti State Ministry of Land, Housing, Physical Planning, and Urban Development to develop strategies and government policies to benefit people living in the Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of the State.
, Y. M. Ahmed
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 17-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830301

Abstract:
Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been increasingly used in characterization of drainage basin and prioritization of erosion prone watershed. This study uses remote sensing and GIS to characterise drainage basin morphometry and prioritize soil erosion prone sub watershed in the Lamurde watershed in Taraba state Nigeria. The study adopted standard formulae and methods to compute the morphometric parameters. The Lamurde watershed was delineated to fifteen sub-watersheds with each coded as WS1 to WS15. The result of the findings reveals that Lamurde watershed has a dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern with the smaller streams intersecting the main trunk at acute angles. The findings reveal that Lamurde is a ninth order stream with total area of 1,458.66 km2 and a perimeter of 395.93 km. The basin also has 258,493 total number of streams. The main soil types in the Lamurde basin are fluvisol, lithosol, ferric luvisols and humic nitosols. The surface soil texture of the area is mainly loamy type and particle size classes are fine loamy type. Depth of soil varies from shallow to very deep and having parent material derived from sandstones, mudstones and shales. The findings of the study reveals that watershed: WS7, WS8, WS5, WS11, WS15, WS14, WS2 and WS6 in ascending order are very highly vulnerable to soil erosion. Despite inherent limitation in the use of morphometric parameters to prioritize erosion prone sub watersheds, it is most suitable in the present circumstances because of inadequate information and lack of functional measurement station in the basin, since they have more stable and accessible data on which prioritization of the watersheds can be based on. This study contributes to the problem of dearth of information regarding the susceptibility to erosion in the Lamurde River Basin in Taraba State Nigeria. Based on this findings, these sub watersheds should be given higher priority on any soil conservation intervention measures in the study area. This will go a long way to help address the problem of soil erosion in the area.
, Philomena E. Asuquo, Honor T. Ifon, Peter U. Ekpang, Etim E. U. Ntekim
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830300

Abstract:
Globally, oil spills are known catastrophic events with harmful consequences that tend to endanger plant, animal and human life. The dispersion and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons levels were investigated to evaluate its effect on the quality and health of Aya stream, located in the Niger Delta sub region, south east Nigeria. Water samples were collected from the stream, which is the most available source of water in Ikot Ada Udo local community, five years after an extensive oil spillage between the months of June and November 2012. These samples were analyzed to assess the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and physicochemical enrichment using Spectrophotometric with 1g of Bonny Light and Bonny Medium Crude Oils dissolved in 1000 ml of tetrachloromethane were used as standards as well as insitu measurements of water temperature and dissolved oxygen. TPH concentrations ranged from 0.21mg/l in dry season (September, October, November) to a maximum level of 0.33 mg/l in wet season (June, July, August) during the study. The mean concentrations found for physicochemical parameters during wet and dry seasons respectively were: temperature (27.67±0.29 & 27.83±0.290C), DO (3.47±0.65 & 3.44±0.67 mg/l), Cd (0.03±0.003 & 0.03±0.01mg/l), Pb (0.17±0.06 & 0.18±0.04 mg/l), Ni (0.08±0.01 & 0.08±0.005 mg/l), V (0.02±0.01 & 0.02±0.01 mg/l).The distribution pattern of trace heavy metals in the stream water followed the sequence: Pb>Ni> Cd>V. In all cases, Pb was the most abundant and V the least abundant metal. Elevated levels of some physicochemical parameters shown to correlate significantly (p=0.05) and associate with the oil spill infer that Aya stream has been severely polluted. Statistical analysis (t-test) of seasonal levels of TPH in water samples showed positive relationship (t=0.55, p=0.05). The implication of these results is that the concentrations of the studied parameters did not depend on seasonal influence but were connected with the incessant exposure of the site to oil seeps from the well-head. The high levels of lead above permissible limits in the studied samples poses a health threat, hence, the removal of the well-head and future situation of such structures away from the source of communal water source should be implemented to preserve the quality and health of the water source.
, Ruth Benbella Madaki, Mohammed D. Kabiru
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/jgeesi/2021/v25i830299

Abstract:
Water is an essential element of the natural resource of the earth that sustains all living creatures on the planet, it`s fundamental importance can never be overemphasized. This study evaluates access to pipe-born water in Akwanga Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. The study identifies the sources of household water supply and identifies the presence of pipelines facilities in each household, to determine if the quantity of pipe water supply meets demands, also assesses the effects of the quantity of water supply on the socioeconomic activity of householders. This study adopted a survey research design. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered to households. A purposive sampling technique was employed to select the respondents. Five wards were selected within the study area, while 60 copies of questionnaires were distributed in each of the selected wards. Data were analyzed and presented using a descriptive form of statistics. The study revealed that most of the pipelines meant for the supply of water were old and inefficient. Therefore, no significant coverage (60%) of pipeline facilities in the study area. Pipe-borne water supply in the study area is not sufficient to meet the demands of the residents due to irregularity in the flow of water; 4.2% of these taps run every day, 8.8% of these taps run once a week, 11.7% of these taps run once in 3 days, 18.4% of these taps run once a year, 22.2% of these run once a month, while 37.7% water used for cooking, washing, drinking and sanitary purposes were mostly sourced from alternative sources that are energy and time consuming and costly to obtain. The average water consumed per person per day in the study area was 37.76 litres which are below the minimum absolute daily water needed 50 litres per person per day as stated by UNDP. Consequently, pipe-borne water supply in the study area does not have any significant impact on the socio-economic activities of residents as people still spent the better part of their time sourcing for water. This study, therefore, recommends that there should be constant monitoring of population growth rate and repairs of damaged pipes and taps in the study area.
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