Frontiers in Neuroscience
ISSN / EISSN : 1662-453X / 1662-453X
Published by: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 10,272
Latest articles in this journal
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.695268
Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in humans is more predominant in the cochlea than in the vestibule. Neither definite nor substantial vestibular dysfunction after cisplatin treatment has been consistently reported in the current literature. Inner ear hair cells seem to have intrinsic characteristics that make them susceptible to direct exposure to cisplatin. The existing literature suggests, however, that cisplatin might have different patterns of drug trafficking across the blood-labyrinth-barrier, or different degrees of cisplatin uptake to the hair cells in the cochlear and vestibular compartments. This review proposes an explanation for the preferential cochleotoxicity of cisplatin based on current evidence as well as the anatomy and physiology of the inner ear. The endocochlear potential, generated by the stria vascularis, acting as the driving force for hair cell mechanoelectrical transduction might also augment cisplatin entry into cochlear hair cells. Better understanding of the stria vascularis might shed new light on cochleotoxic mechanisms and inform the development of otoprotective interventions to moderate cisplatin associated ototoxicity.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.700729
Increased blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability and extensive neuronal changes have been described earlier in both healthy and pathological aging like apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB-100) and amyloid precursor protein (APP)–presenilin-1 (PSEN1) transgenic mouse models. APOB-100 hypertriglyceridemic model is a useful tool to study the link between cerebrovascular pathology and neurodegeneration, while APP–PSEN1 humanized mouse is a model of Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the current study was to characterize the inflammatory changes in the brain with healthy aging and in neurodegeneration. Also, the cerebro-morphological and cognitive alterations have been investigated. The nose-to-brain delivery of a P-glycoprotein substrate model drug (quinidine) was monitored in the disease models and compared with the age-matched controls. Our results revealed an inflammatory balance shift in both the healthy aged and neurodegenerative models. In normal aging monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, stem cell factor and Rantes were highly upregulated indicating a stimulated leukocyte status. In APOB-100 mice, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were induced (vascular reaction), while in APP–PSEN1 mice resistin, IL-17A and GM-CSF were mostly upregulated. The nasal drug absorption was similar in the brain and blood indicating the molecular bypass of the BBB. The learning and memory tests showed no difference in the cognitive performance of healthy aged and young animals. Based on these results, it can be concluded that various markers of chronic inflammation are present in healthy aged and diseased animals. In APOB-100 mice, a cerebro-ventricular dilation can also be observed. For development of proper anti-aging and neuroprotective compounds, further studies focusing on the above inflammatory targets are suggested.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.648724
Melodic intonation therapy (MIT) positively impacts the speech function of patients suffering from aphasia and strokes. Fixed-pitch melodies and phrases formulated in MIT provide the key to the target language to open the language pathway. This randomized controlled trial compared the effects of music therapy-based MIT and speech therapy on patients with non-fluent aphasia. The former is more effective in the recovery of language function in patients with aphasia. Forty-two participants were enrolled in the study, and 40 patients were registered. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: the intervention group (n = 20; 16 males, 4 females; 52.90 ± 9.08 years), which received MIT, and the control group (n = 20; 15 males, 5 females; 54.05 ± 10.81 years), which received speech therapy. The intervention group received MIT treatment for 30 min/day, five times a week for 8 weeks, and the control group received identical sessions of speech therapy for 30 min/day, five times a week for 8 weeks. Each participant of the group was assessed by a Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE) at the baseline (t1, before the start of the experiment), and after 8 weeks (t2, the experiment was finished). The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were also measured on the time points. The best medical care of the two groups is the same. Two-way ANOVA analysis of variance was used only for data detection. In the spontaneous speech (information), the listening comprehension (right or wrong, word recognition, and sequential order) and repetitions of the intervention group were significantly higher than the control group in terms of the cumulative effect of time and the difference between groups after 8 weeks. The intervention group has a significant time effect in fluency, but the results after 8 weeks were not significantly different from those in the control group. In terms of naming, the intervention group was much better than the control group in spontaneous naming. Regarding object naming, reaction naming, and sentence completing, the intervention group showed a strong time accumulation effect. Still, the results after 8 weeks were not significantly different from those in the control group. These results indicate that, compared with speech therapy, MIT based on music therapy is a more effective musical activity and is effective and valuable for the recovery of speech function in patients with non-fluent aphasia. As a more professional non-traumatic treatment method, MIT conducted by qualified music therapists requires deeper cooperation between doctors and music therapists to improve rehabilitating patients with aphasia. The Ethics Committee of the China Rehabilitation Research Center approved this study (Approval No. 2020-013-1 on April 1, 2020) and was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Registration number: Clinical Trials ChiCTR2000037871) on September 3, 2020.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.687157
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that accounts for 60–70% of dementia and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. The pathogenesis of this debilitating disorder is still not completely understood. New insights into the pathogenesis of AD are needed in order to develop novel pharmacologic approaches. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that insulin resistance plays a significant role in the development of AD. Over 80% of patients with AD have type II diabetes (T2DM) or abnormal serum glucose, suggesting that the pathogenic mechanisms of insulin resistance and AD likely overlap. Insulin resistance increases neuroinflammation, which promotes both amyloid β-protein deposition and aberrant tau phosphorylation. By increasing production of reactive oxygen species, insulin resistance triggers amyloid β-protein accumulation. Oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance also dysregulates glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK-3β), which leads to increased tau phosphorylation. Both insulin and amyloid β-protein are metabolized by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE). Defects in this enzyme are the basis for a strong association between T2DM and AD. This review highlights multiple pathogenic mechanisms induced by insulin resistance that are implicated in AD. Several pharmacologic approaches to AD associated with insulin resistance are presented.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.694402
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) have gained considerable attention in recent years due to their ability to model temporal event streams, be trained using unsupervised learning rules, and be realized on low-power event-driven hardware. Notwithstanding the intrinsic desirable attributes of SNNs, there is a need to further optimize their computational efficiency to enable their deployment in highly resource-constrained systems. The complexity of evaluating an SNN is strongly correlated to the spiking activity in the network, and can be measured in terms of a fundamental unit of computation, viz. spike propagation along a synapse from a single source neuron to a single target neuron. We propose probabilistic spike propagation, an approach to optimize rate-coded SNNs by interpreting synaptic weights as probabilities, and utilizing these probabilities to regulate spike propagation. The approach results in 2.4–3.69× reduction in spikes propagated, leading to reduced time and energy consumption. We propose Probabilistic Spiking Neural Network Application Processor (P-SNNAP), a specialized SNN accelerator with support for probabilistic spike propagation. Our evaluations across a suite of benchmark SNNs demonstrate that probabilistic spike propagation results in 1.39–2× energy reduction with simultaneous speedups of 1.16–1.62× compared to the traditional model of SNN evaluation.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.680214
The biogenic amine, histamine, has been shown to critically modulate inflammatory processes as well as the properties of neurons and synapses in the brain, and is also implicated in the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders. Indeed, a reduction in the synthesis of this neuromodulator has been associated with the disorders Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder, with evidence that this may be through the disruption of the corticostriatal circuitry during development. Furthermore, neuroinflammation has been associated with alterations in brain development, e.g., impacting synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis, and there are suggestions that histamine deficiency may leave the developing brain more vulnerable to proinflammatory insults. While most studies have focused on neuronal sources of histamine it remains unclear to what extent other (non-neuronal) sources of histamine, e.g., from mast cells and other sources, can impact brain development. The few studies that have started exploring this in vitro, and more limited in vivo, would indicate that non-neuronal released histamine and other preformed mediators can influence microglial-mediated neuroinflammation which can impact brain development. In this Review we will summarize the state of the field with regard to non-neuronal sources of histamine and its impact on both neuroinflammation and brain development in key neural circuits that underpin neurodevelopmental disorders. We will also discuss whether histamine receptor modulators have been efficacious in the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders in both preclinical and clinical studies. This could represent an important area of future research as early modulation of histamine from neuronal as well as non-neuronal sources may provide novel therapeutic targets in these disorders.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.706105
Background: Among the effective approaches developed for blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, ultrasound is recognized as a non-invasive technique that can induce localized BBB opening transiently and repeatedly. This technique has aroused broad attention from researchers worldwide, and numerous articles have been published recently. However, no existing study has systematically examined this field from a scientometric perspective. The aim of this study was to summarize the knowledge structure and identify emerging trends and potential hotspots in this field. Methods: Publications related to ultrasound-induced BBB opening published from 1998 to 2020 were retrieved from Web of Science Core Collection. The search strategies were as follows: topic: (“blood brain barrier” OR “BBB”) AND topic: (ultrasound OR ultrason* OR acoustic* OR sonopora*). The document type was set to articles or reviews with language restriction to English. Three different analysis tools including one online platform, VOS viewer1.6.16, and CiteSpace V5.7.R2 software were used to conduct this scientometric study. Results: A total of 1,201 valid records were included in the final analysis. The majority of scientific publication was produced by authors from North America, Eastern Asia, and Western Europe. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology was the most prominent journal. The USA, China, and Canada were the most productive countries. Hynynen K, and Mcdannold N were key researchers with considerable academic influence. According to analysis of keywords, four main research directions were identified: cluster 1 (microbubbles study), cluster 2 (management of intracranial tumors), cluster 3 (ultrasound parameters and mechanisms study), and cluster 4 (treatment of neurodegenerative diseases). The current research hotspot has shifted from the basic research of ultrasound and microbubbles to management of intracranial tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. Burst detection analysis showed that Parkinson's disease, doxorubicin, gold nanoparticle, glioblastoma, gene therapy, and Alzheimer's disease may continue to be the research frontiers. Conclusion: Ultrasound-induced BBB opening research is in a period of robust development. This study is a starting point, providing a comprehensive overview, development landscape, and future opportunities of this technology, which standout as a useful reference for researchers and decision makers interested in this area.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.681085
Neuroscience research into how complex brain functions are implemented at an extra-cellular level requires in vivo neural recording interfaces, including microelectrodes and read-out circuitry, with increased observability and spatial resolution. The trend in neural recording interfaces toward employing high-channel-count probes or 2D microelectrodes arrays with densely spaced recording sites for recording large neuronal populations makes it harder to save on resources. The low-noise, low-power requirement specifications of the analog front-end usually requires large silicon occupation, making the problem even more challenging. One common approach to alleviating this consumption area burden relies on time-division multiplexing techniques in which read-out electronics are shared, either partially or totally, between channels while preserving the spatial and temporal resolution of the recordings. In this approach, shared elements have to operate over a shorter time slot per channel and active area is thus traded off against larger operating frequencies and signal bandwidths. As a result, power consumption is only mildly affected, although other performance metrics such as in-band noise or crosstalk may be degraded, particularly if the whole read-out circuit is multiplexed at the analog front-end input. In this article, we review the different implementation alternatives reported for time-division multiplexing neural recording systems, analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and suggest strategies for improving performance.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.696440
Reducing α-synuclein pathology constitutes a plausible strategy against Parkinson’s disease. As we recently demonstrated, the β-wrapin protein AS69 binds an N-terminal region in monomeric α-synuclein, interferes with fibril nucleation, and reduces α-synuclein aggregation in vitro and in a fruit fly model of α-synuclein toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AS69 also reduces α-synuclein pathology in mammalian neurons. To induce α-synuclein pathology, primary mouse neurons were exposed to pre-formed fibrils (PFF) of human α-synuclein. PFF were also injected into the striatum of A30P-α-synuclein transgenic mice. The extent of α-synuclein pathology was determined by phospho-α-synuclein staining and by Triton X-100 solubility. The degeneration of neuronal somata, dendrites, and axon terminals was determined by immunohistochemistry. AS69 and PFF were taken up by primary neurons. AS69 did not alter PFF uptake, but AS69 did reduce PFF-induced α-synuclein pathology. PFF injection into mouse striatum led to α-synuclein pathology and dystrophic neurites. Co-injection of AS69 abrogated PFF-induced pathology. AS69 also reduced the PFF-induced degeneration of dopaminergic axon terminals in the striatum and the degeneration of dopaminergic dendrites in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. AS69 reduced the activation of astroglia but not microglia in response to PFF injection. Collectively, AS69 reduced PFF-induced α-synuclein pathology and the associated neurodegeneration in primary neurons and in mouse brain. Our data therefore suggest that small proteins binding the N-terminus of α-synuclein monomers are promising strategies to modify disease progression in Parkinson’s disease.
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 15; doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.709436
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established form of neuromodulation with a long history of promising applications. Earliest reports of VNS in the literature date to the late 1800’s in experiments conducted by Dr. James Corning. Over the past century, both invasive and non-invasive VNS have demonstrated promise in treating a variety of disorders, including epilepsy, depression, and post-stroke motor rehabilitation. As VNS continues to rapidly grow in popularity and application, the field generally lacks a consensus on optimum stimulation parameters. Stimulation parameters have a significant impact on the efficacy of neuromodulation, and here we will describe the longitudinal evolution of VNS parameters in the following categorical progression: (1) animal models, (2) epilepsy, (3) treatment resistant depression, (4) neuroplasticity and rehabilitation, and (5) transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS). We additionally offer a historical perspective of the various applications and summarize the range and most commonly used parameters in over 130 implanted and non-invasive VNS studies over five applications.