Archives of Current Research International

Journal Information
EISSN : 2454-7077
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 471
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Oladeji Olusola, Abdifatah Elmi Farah, Bukhari Sheik Aden, Anjola Oladeji, Adam Issack, Juweria Mohamed, Ann Robins, Mohamed Elabe, Abdifatah Ali Mohammed
Archives of Current Research International pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i6532

Abstract:
Birth registration is the process by which the event and characteristics of a child’s birth are recorded in a country’s civil registry. Ethiopia has one of the lowest levels of civil registration in general globally, and of birth registration in particular with only 3 per cent of children under the age 5 registered with civil authorities. In Somali Region of Ethiopia, only 1% of children under 5 have their births registered. A major gap identified in the civil registration system in Ethiopia is the linkage between the health and the civil registration sectors with most children delivered at the health facilities or in the communities not appropriately registered. This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to describe the process and outcome of a pilot project on improving birth registration using the health system (health facilities and the community health structures) in 2 project woredas (districts) in Somali region of Ethiopia where no birth had been registered more than five years prior the pilot. Within the one-year study period, all 577 births assisted by health extension workers were provided with birth notification slips and 795 (98%) newborns have their birth registered and received birth certificates out of 809 total births reported in the project sites. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of health workers and community structure (mentor mothers) through their community sensitization and mobilization and active reporting process in facilitating registration of births in the civil registration system.
K. Shailaja, S. Benita, G. Dinesh Kumar, D. Harshidha, M. V. Mousigan
Archives of Current Research International pp 9-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i630294

Abstract:
Background Information: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The WHO declared it a global pandemic on March 12th, 2020. Government initiatives play a major role in limiting the spread of infection by educating people. Objectives: To assess the awareness and knowledge of COVID-19 and vaccination among general public. Methodology: A cross-sectional study as an online survey over a period of 6 months with 601 respondents. The information regarding the demographics was subjected to descriptive analysis. The study was conducted using a pre-tested semi-structured online Google form and a consent form obtained. Results: Among 601 participants, nearly 77% of respondents were practicing preventive measures. Nearly 68% of the respondent’s knowledge and awareness about the COVID-19 vaccination was in moderate level. Conclusion: During this pandemic, there were increased worries and apprehensions among the public regarding acquiring the COVID-19 infection. The disease is not eradicated completely, so it is necessary to educate the public continuously. It is not mandatory to stop the awareness-creating program, and advertising about the disease once the severity of the disease is reduced.
, Collins Ohwonigho Adjekuko, Adams Matthew Okur, Evelyn M. Eze
Archives of Current Research International pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i630293

Abstract:
Exposure to cement dust has been serious public health concern with increasing industrial activities in Port Harcourt. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of cement dust exposure on haemostatic parameters on cement loaders in Port Harcourt. A total of 200 healthy males were recruited for the study; 100 of which were cement loaders and the other 100 were individuals not exposed to cement dust. These subjects were selected randomly at different cement depot in Port Harcourt after consenting to participate in the study. Venous blood was called via venipuncture technique and 5 mls of blood was collected for the laboratory analysis of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), International normalized ratio (INR), D-Dimer, Von-Willebrand factor and fibrinogen. The result showed that there was a significant increase (p-value0.05). This study has shown that exposure to cement dust affects haemostasis among cement loaders in Port Harcourt.
, Patrick Sunday Dakum, Charles Mensah, Olayemi Kinmilola Olupitan, Rogers Bariture Kanee, , Ufuoma Edewor
Archives of Current Research International pp 45-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i530292

Abstract:
Background: Rivers State had a huge burden of PLHIV, and the UNAIDS Spectrum 2019 model projected the total number of PLHIV in the State in 2020 to be 184,551. The semblance of HIV treatment care and support program, commencing after the diagnosis of the first reported case of HIV, dates as far back as 1989 when HIV was first diagnosed in the State. However, thirty years later, the treatment coverage had remained poor, despite the support of development partners. So, there was a strong need to strengthen the capacity of all critical actors in the program to achieve the objectives around the three-95s of the End AIDS Strategy, using strategic yet novel interventions such as the CMP. This research aims to determine how much of an effect a clinical mentorship program has had on enhancing Rivers State's HIV control efforts. Methodology: The clinical mentorship framework was implemented and amortized to strengthen all layers of ongoing interventions to catalyze better quality improvement. Clinical Mentors were recruited as indigenous medical experts knowledgeable in HIV service delivery and trained on quality improvement strategies and the use of virtual audiovisual systems, data management, team command system, and problem-solving models for the timeous impact of achieving key programme targets. Results: The Clinical Mentorship Programme (CMP) supported the achievement of a 690% & 23% increase in TX_CURR & PVLS, respectively, 27 months after its introduction. The TX_CURR improved by a factor of 7.9, and the PVLS increased by a factor of 1.23. The TX_CURR and PVLS achieved >100% of the target. The CMP was a success in the Rivers State HIV Control Programme. Conclusion: Though other ongoing cross-cutting interventions may mask any reported advances in key performance indicators, the introduction of the CMP appears to have corresponded with and largely (but not entirely) stimulated the observed achievements and impact on the monitored key program metrics. It is recommended for similar contexts and public health programs in places with limited resources and significant unmet needs.
, R. A. Olaoye, T. B. Adebayo, O. E. Onofua
Archives of Current Research International pp 34-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i530291

Abstract:
Nutrients and organic pollutants draining from agricultural fields are the leading sources of surface water quality impairment. Activated carbon (AC) produced from agricultural crop residues has great success in the sequestration of hazardous substances from wastewaters. This study evaluates the potential of coconut shell activated carbon for agricultural drainage water quality minimization; pH adjustment, and excess nitrate and sulphate adsorption. Agriculture drainage water samples were collected and analyzed for Electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, Sodium, Sulphate, Bicarbonate, Nitrate – Nitrogen, and pH. Coconut shells were sourced locally and carbonized at 500°C (± 5°C) for one hour in a muffle furnace. The char produced was ground, sieved, and activated with potassium hydroxide (KOH). The porosity and morphological structures of the AC were examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope. The effect of contact time (30, 60, 90, and 120 min), temperature (20 and 40°C), and adsorbent dosage (1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 g) were examined using batch studies. The analysis of the drainage water shows the water is highly alkaline and contains sulphate and nitrate above FAO benchmark values. The SEM analysis indicates that the stability and mesoporosity of the carbonaceous material were enhanced by KOH activation. The pH value of the treated water decreased from 9.94 (highly alkaline) to 7.92. The use of 1 g (10 g/l) of coconut shell AC has the highest amount of nitrate and sulphate per unit quantity of AC (4.1 and 2.98 mg/g respectively). The adsorption process peaked at 30 mins contact time with 99.8% and 98.8% nitrate and sulphate removal efficiency, respectively. The process is temperature dependent; nitrate adsorption performs slightly better at 40°C; sulphate adsorption at 20°C. More research effort is needed to ascertain the performance and applicability under continuous flow conditions.
, Ugo Okoli, A. Adetunji-Hassan, M. Ganama
Archives of Current Research International pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i530289

Abstract:
Background: Achieving Universal Health Coverage is one of the prerequisites for improved health outcomes, a decline in the rate of Impoverishment due to health expenditure (IHE), and achieving Sustainable Development Goals 1,2, and 3. While some countries (primarily those in Sub-Saharan Africa) are still battling to achieve Health Coverage for their populations, Western countries have achieved this feat using several strategies and models. This study aims to identify Universal Health Coverage implementation strategies adopted by different countries and how the strategies have contributed to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal targets. Method: A systematic literature review was employed, and a total of 10 studies conducted met our inclusion criteria. The sensitive search strategy was employed. The search was conducted with the use of appropriate keywords (guided by the research objective) in different databases such as MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), ProQuest, AMED (EBSCO), and PsycINFO. Articles were also retrieved through a manual search on google scholar. The search was also guided by the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome PICO framework. Findings: Studies identified health insurance schemes for the unemployed, self-employed, and private sector employees and implementation of user fee exemption or subsidized medical bills for a population sub-group deemed vulnerable as Universal Health Coverage implementation strategies in different countries. These strategies significantly increased health coverage and improved health outcomes as well. Conclusion and Recommendations: The majority of countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region are yet to achieve Universal Health Coverage, this will pose a challenge to their ability to attain the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The study recommends that tested strategies such as improved health financing, sustainable health system strengthening, and a holistic approach to quality of healthcare services should be contextualized and implemented in countries that are yet to achieve Universal health coverage for their populations.
Efsun Somay, Busra Yilmaz, Ahmet Kucuk,
Archives of Current Research International pp 12-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i530288

Abstract:
Head and neck cancers (HNC) account for 10–15% of all cancers globally. Curative radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with or without surgery are widely accepted standard treatment modalities for these patients. Radiation-induced fibrosis is one of the side effects of these treatments, and it causes degeneration, inflammation, pain, and atrophy of the masticatory muscle fibers and the temporomandibular joint, resulting in trismus. Trismus, also known as hypomobility of the mouth, is defined as a restricted opening of the mouth. Radiation-induced trismus (RIT) can occur within the first three months of treatment or up to 12–48 months later during the follow-up period. It has a significant negative influence on daily activities and vital oral functions, including speech problems, difficulty eating or drinking, psychological problems, malnutrition, dehydration, and difficulty with oral hygiene, reducing the quality of life (QoL). Given the underappreciated nature of trismus and its negative consequences in HNC patients receiving RT or C-CRT, the purpose of this review was to provide a concise review of the physical, social, and emotional implications of RIT and their impact on QoL measures, as well as the available evaluation methods for physicians in the related medical fields.
Masauso Chirwa, Lister Banda, Kusanthan Thankian
Archives of Current Research International pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i530287

Abstract:
This research sought to find out the lived experiences of married postgraduate students at UNZA regarding marriage mate selection. The study used a qualitative research methodology as well as a Case Study as its research design towards data collection. The data was collected using a semi-structured interview guided questions. The sample selection was 16 in total of postgraduate students at UNZA which included 8 males and 8 female participants. The general literature overview of this research indicated that marriage is a fundamental social institution that exists throughout the world. And that marriage mate selection is one of the most important decisions of people’s social life which determines their happiness in marriage. However, the findings in this study revealed that people looked for attributes or factors such as education in marriage mate selection because they believed that marrying a fellow educated person made it easy to relate as their thinking would be aligned to theirs. Secondly the financial stability of a potential marriage partner was also an important attribute that both males and females looked for in their prospective mate. Thirdly the study showed that a God-fearing partner was preferred unlike a non-believer because of the belief that Godly people were less likely to indulge in unholy conduct such as infidelity. The other perspectives includes some female preference of a man who is tall in height and dark in complexion, while some men preferred women who are beautiful with small and curvy body structure. Finally, the overall attributes in marriage mate selection included a man who is loving, caring and with good leadership qualities, while males preferred a woman who is respectful, intelligent, trustworthy, understanding and one who refrained from taking alcohol. For further studies, it is recommended that other research focus should be conducted in communities where there are less educated males and females.
, Bridget E. Diagi, David Edokpa, Okorondu J. Nnaemeka, Ekweogu C. Victoria
Archives of Current Research International pp 34-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430285

Abstract:
Air pollution is an environmental menace that has attracted a lot of concern both locally and globally. The Environment is very important to sustainability of life and air pollution has become of great concern to many countries across the world especially its impact on human health and ecosystem. This study thus, assessed perceived seasonal impact of air pollution on health and property of the inhabitants of Port Harcourt. Primary data in form of questionnaire was used to solicit information from the inhabitants of the study area. A cross-sectional research design was adopted using an online survey and a 24-question survey was designed on goggle documents website (doc.goggle.com). The link was active for three months and was strictly monitored, the link was disabled after receiving 400 responses. Data for the study were analyzed using cross-tabulation and bivariate percentage analysis. Results revealed that majority of the respondents were females (53.2%). However, 73.3% of the respondents have lived in Port Harcourt more than 11 years. This is an indication that they have high knowledge of the environment. Majority of the respondents (79.4%) have observed a change in air quality which was rated low and (80.1%) have attributed the source of the air pollution to illegal refining of crude oil within the city. Fifty percent of respondents identified two Climate seasons: raining and dry and (51.2%) observe the impact of air pollution to be more prominent during the dry season. Majority perceived that the associated health risk is very high (56.5%) and attributed health related issues such as difficulty in breathing, asthma, eye problem, heart problem, increase in cancer and headache to poor air quality in the city. It was also noted that the incidence of sooth affected their properties. Hence, there is an urgent need for government at all levels to put in place adequate enforcement institution that will work with community leaders (youth, women and other), health officials and academic researchers to implement the environmental policies and sanction offenders for the overall benefit of the wellbeing of the inhabitant towards achieving a sustainable environment in the state.
K. M. Onuoha, U. I. Obong, O. M. Oyewumi, I. J. Owolabi
Archives of Current Research International pp 29-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/acri/2022/v22i430284

Abstract:
Introduction: Bosworth fracture is an uncommon fracture that involves the distal fibula associated with a dislocation of the proximal fibula fragment being posterior to the tubercle of the tibia distally. As the proximal fibula fragment becomes entrapped behind the Tibia it subsequently makes it irreducible which then necessitates the correction of this fracture surgically. Making an initial diagnosis of this fracture is quite difficult as it is rare and few data in our setting have been recorded with only a handful of documented cases worldwide. Although attempts have been made to reduce this fracture with closed reduction, the outcomes are generally unfavourable and counterproductive. Bosworth fracture is well documented in medical literature but often not easily picked at presentation. Case Presentation: This case report evaluates a 19 year old female student who presented with a 2 hours history of pain and deformity to her right ankle after she had accidentally externally rotated her ankle with the foot in a prone position while running down the stairs. Examination revealed a deformed and swollen right ankle joint, overlying skin was intact, tender limitation of joint movement. She had a failed closed reduction and was subsequently counselled for open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws.
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