#### Journal of Transportation Technologies

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ISSN / EISSN : 2160-0473 / 2160-0481
Total articles ≅ 370
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Ayesha Umme, Kojima Aya, Kubota Hisashi
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 258-285; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.122016

Abstract:
Since public bus service is frequently available and reasonably priced in major cities of Bangladesh including Dhaka, the capital city, a significant number of economically active women regularly commute to work utilizing public buses. Since female commuters experience unique challenges compared to their male counterparts, a gap analysis on the perception of men and women, as well as the difference between the female commuters’ perceptions and expectations, could help to pinpoint the issues. The aim of this paper is to determine the gap between female commuters’ perceptions and expectations of bus service quality in Bangladesh, as well as the current perception of both male and female passengers. In this paper, the data obtained is studied to determine the service quality needs which should be improved by analyzing the perception and expectation gaps for female passengers. SERVQUAL models were used to examine the disparities between perceptions and aspirations in Bangladesh’s major cities. Tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy are the five dimensions of SERVQUAL. The data for this study was collected from 1500 commuters in Bangladesh’s largest cities, including Dhaka, Gazipur, and Narayanganj. Primary data was gathered using a purpose-built questionnaire survey. The Gap values are negative in all dimensions, according to the findings of the study. In the data analysis, a negative gap value indicates that the expectation exceeds the perception. According to the gap analysis, the quality of bus service for passengers is insufficient. Bus service quality is seen and expected to be quite varied. It is vital to improve bus service to meet the needs of women. The findings could be valuable in planning future transportation policies that take female commuters’ needs into account.
Chigozie Oguguo Amaechi, Callistus Chukwudi Ibe, Ejem Agwu Ejem, Geraldine Nkechinyere Okeudo
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 357-368; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.123022

Abstract:
Sustainability was investigated in the ability to reliably anticipate airline market share, which is critical for effective business strategy. As a result, a model was created to address the issue of airline market share across all Nigerian airport routes. The model took into account the explanatory variables average fares paid by various airlines passengers, number of competitors at each route, frequency of flight, and the total number of enplaned passengers. The model illustrated how it may be used to determine an airline’s sustainability. It was observed that all of the parameters in the model were statistically significant and exhibited the predicted signs. As a result, the market share of Nigerian airlines can assess the sustainability of Nigerian airlines. As a result, it is proposed that the federal government and aviation regulatory bodies provide a level playing field to all commercial airline operators, without any kind of protectionism. Airlines’ services should be completely deregulated, and the forces of perfect market competition should drive the airline’s overall health. The government should provide a fair and supportive climate for airline operators as soon as possible. The ease of doing airline business must be implemented honestly and competitively. The degree of competition has a detrimental impact on the airline’s market share, especially if the airline operates in a regulated market. As a result, perfect competition for the airline should be promoted.
Chigozie Oguguo Amaechi, Callistus Chukwudi Ibe, Ejem Agwu Ejem, Geraldine Nkechinyere Okeudo
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 369-387; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.123023

Abstract:
A firm’s profitability is critical to its competitiveness and sustainability. This research looked at the elements that influence airline profitability in Nigeria. From 2005 to 2019, two airlines were picked, and their data were retrieved from Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA). From estimated quarterly panel data using E-views 8 and SPSS 22, the overall findings of the regression study demonstrate that with ROA used as a proxy for profitability, the R-square is 83.6 per cent and 89.4 per cent, respectively for Aero contractors and Medview airline, representing 83.6 per cent and 89.4 per cent of the changes in profitability of the Aero contractors and Medview in the sample, respectively, could be explained by changes in the study’s independent variables, namely growth, liquidity, leverage, lease, tangibility, fuel cost and personnel cost. Besides the total of the explanatory variables, growth, leverage and tangibility are statically significant at a 5% level of significant Aero Contractors. Growth, leverage, leasing cost, fuel cost, and staff cost, on the other hand, are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance for Medview airlines. Profiteering, expansion, leverage, and tangibility are the primary activities of any airline firm. Lease cost, fuel cost, and staff cost show a statistically significant positive link with the profitability metric ROA. As a result, stakeholders of Nigerian airlines should prioritize profitability over other criteria in this study. Airline executives should do a comprehensive analysis of all potential elements impacting their company’s profitability in the literature, including aspects other than economic variables. According to the findings of this study, political issues account for a greater proportion of the reasons why airlines fail in Nigeria.
René Degen, Alexander Tauber, Alexander Nüßgen, Marcus Irmer, Florian Klein, Christian Schyr, Mats Leijon, Margot Ruschitzka
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 296-309; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.123018

Abstract:
Recently, virtual realities and simulations play important roles in the development of automated driving functionalities. By an appropriate abstraction, they help to design, investigate and communicate real traffic scenario complexity. Especially, for edge cases investigations of interactions between vulnerable road users (VRU) and highly automated driving functions, valid virtual models are essential for the quality of results. The aim of this study is to measure, process and integrate real human movement behaviour into a virtual test environment for highly automated vehicle functionalities. The overall system consists of a georeferenced virtual city model and a vehicle dynamics model, including probabilistic sensor descriptions. By motion capture hardware, real humanoid behaviour is applied to a virtual human avatar in the test environment. Through retargeting methods, which enable the independency of avatar and person under test (PuT) dimensions, the virtual avatar diversity is increased. To verify the biomechanical behaviour of the virtual avatars, a qualitative study is performed, which funds on a representative movement sequence. The results confirm the functionality of the used methodology and enable PuT independence control of the virtual avatars in real-time.
Omar Mohamed Haji, Kombo Hamad Kai, Sara Abdalla Khamis, Said Suleiman Bakar, Hassan Rashid Ali, Gharib Hamza Mohamed, Fatma Said Seif
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 453-474; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.123028

Abstract:
Climate change (CC) and variability have been world widely reported to pose number of risks in aviation industry including accidents, astray, and other operational difficulties. The impact of weather on landing and take-off performances has been several times experienced at Abeid Amani Karume International Airport (AAKIA); however, the influence of climate change and variability to the aircraft performance needs to be assessed. Thus, this study investigated the influence of climate change and variability on aircrafts take-off and landing performances. Specifically, the study investigated; i) the influence of climate change on Take-off Distance Required (TODR) and Maximum Take-off Mass (MTOM) for different types of aircraft; ii) the influence of climate variability to the aircraft landing performance on light, medium and heavy aircraft and lastly, iii) the study investigated the seasonal and annual variability on aircraft landing performance due to climate variability. The datasets used in this study include the eight years (2014-2021), aircraft operational records (diversion and missed approach events) and Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METAR) records which were utilized as the indicators for landing performance, the long-term (1990-2020) annual maximum temperatures (Tmax) which was used to determine the TODR and MTOM. Statistical tools including mean, percentage changes, correlations, regression, and the chi-square test were used for analysis and hypotheses testing. The results revealed that light and medium aircraft categories were significantly most affected on diversion events as compared to the heavy categories; however, for the missed approach events the impact was vice versa. Moreover, the seasonal and annual variability on diversion and missed approach events were significantly different (at p ≤ 0.001). As for the take-off performance, results show that the TODR and MTOM were significantly increasing and decreasing (at p ≤ 0.001), based on increasing air temperatures. Therefore, the study concludes that the changing climate has significantly affected aircraft by increasing the TODR and decreasing the MTOM, while the climate variability has significantly affected landing performance by influencing the diversion and missed approach events. Thus, the study recommends (i) further research works including the feasibility study on runway extension for the safety of future aircraft operations at the AAKIA and (ii) proper maintenance and improvement of the Instrumental Landing Systems (ILS) as an adaptation measures to the landing aircraft during bad weather events.
Justin Anthony Mahlberg, Jairaj Desai, Howell Li, Rahul Suryakant Sakhare, Timothy Wells, Darcy Michael Bullock
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 696-710; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.124040

Abstract:
The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) spends approximately $30 to$60 million a year on deicing salt and operates a fleet of 1,000 winter operations trucks distributed among 140 locations. The entire fleet is now instrumented with location telematics, and all new trucks have integrated dash cameras, salt spreader application rate and plow up/plow down integrated into the telematics link. When winter storms occur, they have varying regional impacts and INDOT monitors several data sources including National Weather Service (NWS) live doppler, National Severe Storms Laboratory’s (NSSL) Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) products, road weather monitoring stations, and connected vehicles (CV) that provide roadway segment operating speeds. This paper discusses how telematics has been integrated to provide a comprehensive view of conditions, truck asset locations, and material distribution maps. The telematics identified widely varying salt spreader rates for the same calibration settings and equipment in preliminary analysis. A calibration box is developed to allow offload calibration to occur within 10 minutes without weighing or transporting the fleet vehicle. The method is deployed across six districts at INDOT for over 1000 snowplows. A sampling of eight trucks in the fleet found the proposed calibration method reduced salt application on average of 45%. This paper describes a series of telematics dashboards for managing winter operations and details the methods developed for 140 geographically distributed truck units to conduct simple, fast, and effective calibration.
Devinder Kumar Yadav, Yingxue Zhao, Chunyi Gao, Yufei Wang, Tianzuo Dong, Dinesh Bhatia
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 209-227; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.122013

Abstract:
Automation of aircraft instrument displays enhances flight safety, but it also increases complexity and pilot workload. Executing changes in flight plan, navigation or communication during flight using flight instrument switches often increases pilots’ workload and this may also cause distraction that adds potential risks to flight safety. This study compares the conventional avionics panel and touchscreen avionic panel to find out the least distractive panel for the pilots. Thirty simulated flights using four different pilots were carried out; and aircraft speed, altitude and heading parameters using both avionics systems were observed to study the operational efficiency and pilot distraction resulted from each of the avionic systems. The distraction was examined by a parameter analysis based on the Mean Squared Error (MSE) mathematical model and visually by recording videos of each simulated flight. The results indicate that the touchscreen system is more efficient and less erroneous for the aircraft in maintaining the parameters as compared with the conventional system. There is also a clear relationship between task completion time and disruption level on the parameters control.
Boniphace Kutela, Nesley Orochena, Yang Jiao, Hualiang (Harry) Teng
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 228-244; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.122014

Abstract:
Bike-share systems have been installed in cities worldwide as a way to attract travelers to use transit rather than the automobile. This has been proved to be an effective way of mitigating congestion on the road. The objective of this study is to develop a method to determine the size of the bike-share program in terms of the number of bicycles, the number and location of the stations, the number of docks at each station. To achieve the objectives of this study, a literature review was conducted on university bike-sharing systems in the U.S. and abroad. Various cases of bike-share programs were analyzed, in which each case consisted of a different number and location of bike-share stations. The demand corresponding to these stations was used as the input to a simulation model developed in this study to determine the number of docks in stations and bicycles in the system on and around campus at UNLV. These sizing parameters of the bike-share system then were used in a cost and benefit analysis to determine which cases could achieve maximum benefit, given a limitation of the initial costs. It was found that provision of one peripheral station and three internal stations at strategic locations provide relatively higher benefit cost ratio at lower initial cost.
John Promise Chiparo, Marian Tukuta, Michael Musanzikwa
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 159-171; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.122010

Abstract:
The main objective of the study was to examine the influence of vehicle fleet management practices on service delivery in State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in Zimbabwe. The study adopted a pragmatism research philosophy together with a mixed method research paradigm. In addition, structured questionnaires were distributed to 344 respondents drawn from 86 SOEs. Stratified and purposive sampling was used. Descriptive statistics were calculated using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 20. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was done on all items of the study while research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in AMOS version 21. The study concluded that vehicle maintenance, fuel management, driver management and vehicle replacement positively influence service delivery. In addition, the study also established that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) moderate the influence of vehicle fleet management practices on service delivery. The study recommended that there is need for regular driver training and vehicle programs encompassing electronic spares tracking.
Fuat Ali Paker
Published: 1 January 2022
Journal of Transportation Technologies, Volume 12, pp 744-777; https://doi.org/10.4236/jtts.2022.124043

Abstract:
The global automotive industry is giving a difficult and common test in order to create advanced life models in the near future plans or scenarios that include current autonomous vehicle technologies. Therefore, the main purpose of the research is to comparatively evaluate the impact of autonomous vehicle technologies, which are newly included in the automotive manufacturing industry under sustainable competition, on lean product development processes, value acquisition and preservation, in different organizational structures in the approach. Although mergers or brand acquisitions in the global automotive industry create joint R & D (Research Development) or joint new P & D (Product Development) process structures for the development of autonomous vehicle technologies, heavy competition continues in the market. These new processes create different needs for the merger and partnership of the renewed traffic infrastructures under national and international regulations, and for the implementation of the new autonomous life model. Firm and brand marriages, mergers or acquisitions in today’s automotive industry have ensured the high diffusion of lean product development processes under the stream of value creation or preservation carried out specific to the company under competition. Brand mergers in automotive industry companies struggling to survive under high competition create new work disciplines, professions, and engineering flow steps in lean product development processes. However, lean product development processes driven by technological innovation under simplification have resulted in the integration of parts and systems within the autonomous vehicle design structure, as well as creating new interdisciplinary value streams or different stakeholders. Therefore, the research revealed the significant effects of lean product development processes on the value stream in the automotive industry, on the mixed and lean product development process structure formed by new or existing vehicle systems (conventional vehicle) under the penetration of each existing and new discipline. This research compares the efficient operation steps of the process stakeholders in the autonomous vehicle design parts or systems containing innovation and new technology together with the value stream in the lean product development process, and the new process stakeholder’s business-oriented global and local automotive industry companies. New autonomous vehicle technologies, together with their unique software, hardware and development analysis, have been involved in the lean product development process with their interdisciplinary studies or expertise. Therefore, the study firstly focused on the technologies in environmental use together with the new basic features of autonomous vehicles, and then examined in depth the new or existing disciplines and interdisciplinary basic structure that these innovations affect under the value stream in the lean product development process. In addition, micro-level results and recommendations were shared, shedding light on how autonomous vehicle levels will create changes in the new product development process.