World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2161-6795 / 2161-6809
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 245
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Balireddy Vasundhara, Pottumuthu Hemalatha, Pakalapati Satya Sarath Kumar Raju
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.121002

Abstract:
Context: Positron emission tomography is a nuclear medicine imaging that deals with physiological function using radioisotopes. With the most PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scanners in integration with the CT scanners of late, this technology has registered phenomenal growth. The small amount of radioactive material is called Radiotracers. Objective: Like 18F- Fluro-deoxy-2-glucose has widely used. In this article, the author introduced clinical applications of PET out of 25 patients who studied hypermetabolic lesions in lymph nodes. Methods: PET imaging is coincidence imaging which is different from the other imaging technique PET image formed from multiple rings of detector crystals. Each decay positron travel in tissue annihilation reaction is going on. FDG is the most commonly used radiotracer to detect and stage various types of malignancies. Result: The field of PET/CT imaging cares for many oncology patients. PET improved localization of malignant lesions. It improved staging biopsy and therapy. Conclusion: Finally, studies to data showed 4% to 10% improvement in the overall accuracy of staging/restaging in lesions. If we use Monte Carlo simulation, OLINDA/EXM software may improve further with widely used.
Adji Yaram Diop, Magatte Diagne, Ndeye Arame Boye Faye, Mamadou Moustapha Dieng
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 28-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.121004

Abstract:
Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) are indicators that allow assessing the quality of equipment and procedures from the point of view of the doses delivered to patients and subsequently initiate corrective actions if necessary. The purpose of this study is to encourage health professionals to investigate patient radiation doses and to determine whether those doses comply with the principles of radiation protection in medical fields so as to improve practices by reducing patient exposure without reducing clinical effectiveness. To perform this work, we have investigated patient doses for different radiological examinations from six (6) medical centers in Dakar, including the following nine routine types: chest (PA), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), cervical spine (AP), lumbar spine (AP, Lat), hip (AP), thoracic spine (AP, Lat). Three types of data were collected, i.e., X-ray tube machine data, patient data and output measurements. The data were analyzed statistically and the median, minimum, maximum, and third quartile values were calculated and displayed throughout boxplots graphs for all exams and medical centers. The two sigma range (95% confidence interval) was also checked. Comparison of third quartiles of Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and Dose Area Product (DAP) by type of examination with recommended international DRLs was performed. The third quartile of ESD for pelvis (AP) and thoracic spine (AP) was up to 16% and 38% higher, respectively than their corresponding DRLs in the European Commission Report RP 180 Part 2. For all exams, except thoracic spine (lat), the third quartiles of the dose area product were higher than the corresponding DRLs in the above report. The source of dose variability between medical centers was related to many parameters such as poor radiographic techniques, lack of modern X-ray machines and adequately documented radiation protection practices. The results show the need to develop protocols for dose measurement as well as to carry out quality assurance programs and dose optimization in Senegal.
Olkalé Jean-Claude Brigui, Tekpo Paul Amewe Dali, Koudou Djagouri, Bogbé Douo Louis Huberson Gogon, Samafou Penabei, Aka Antonin Koua, Georges Alain Monnehan
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.121005

Abstract:
Sand is an important natural material for the construction of houses, work buildings and other public spaces. This work, which is one of the first contributions to the environmental quality of construction materials, concerns the measurement of natural radioactivity in the lagoon sands collected in the district of Abidjan. Nineteen (19) samples of these sands are analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry equipped with HPGe detector. The mean values obtained for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are respectively 7.76 ± 1.84 Bq·kg-1, 5.21 ± 1.36 Bq·kg-1, and 217.31 ± 5.03 Bq·kg-1. The estimated average value of radium equivalent (Raeq) is 31.94 Bq·kg-1. The results show that the average values obtained are far lower than the global limits of 35, 30, and 400 Bq·kg-1 for the concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively, and 370 Bq·kg-1 for the equivalent radium established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Therefore, the use of the analyzed lagoon sand samples in the different construction sectors should not cause serious radiological effects on the populations living in the District of Abidjan. Our results provide new data on building materials radioactivity in Côte d’Ivoire and all over the World. They can also be used as a reference for future work.
Frederick Agyemang, Stephen Yamoah, Seth Kofi Debrah
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 69-87; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.122007

Abstract:
Effect of pseudocritical rapid energy dissipation (PRED) from Pressurizer in nuclear steam supply system of Pressurized Water Reactor, where a single event as common cause failure, of considerable reduction of base-load electricity demand causes the temperature of the reactor coolant system (RCS) to increase, and corresponding pressure increases in pressurizer and steam generators above set-points. The study employed the uses of MATLAB/Simulink library tools, to experimentally modelled pressure control as PRED, where the momentum of transport of kinematic viscosity fraction above pseudocritical point dissipated as excess energy, to maintain the safety of the Pressurizer and RCS and keep the water from boiling. The result demonstrated the significance of pressure vector and Prandlt number as heat transfer coefficients that provided detailed activities in 2-D contour and 3-D graphics of specific internal energy and other parameterization of fluid in the pressurizer.
Epi Zita Tatiana Kocola Achi, Bogbé Douo Louis Huberson Gogon, Koudou Djagouri, Marie Chantal Kouassi Goffri
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 55-68; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.121006

Abstract:
The radioactive isotopes of the decay series of uranium-238 (238U), thorium-232 (232Th) and potassium-40 (40K) occur naturally in varying amounts in groundwater. They are the subject of many measures, mainly because of the risk they represent from a public health point of view. The purpose of this study is to measure the radioisotope content of borehole waters from the north riviera (NR) catchment field of the Ivorian drinking water distribution company (SODECI). These measurements will make it possible to assess the absolute levels of radioisotopes in the water from SODECI’s boreholes used directly for drinking or swimming, and possibly the associated risk from a public health point of view. To achieve this, a sampling campaign from the seven functional boreholes and the control or treatment tower took place in July 2018 at the NR well field. The analysis of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry was carried out in the laboratory of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The naturally occurring radionuclides identified during the borehole water samples analysis are 238U, 232Th, and 40K. The results reveal that the specific activities of uranium vary from 0.45 ± 0.18 Bq/L to 0.55 ± 0.17 Bq/L with an average of 0.49 ± 0.15 Bq/L. Those of thorium vary from 0.66 ± 0.14 Bq/L to 0.78 ± 0.18 Bq/L with an average of 0.72 ± 0.16 Bq/L and potassium of 4.14 ± 0.53 Bq/L at 5.87 ± 0.60 Bq/L with an average of 5.32 ± 0.58 Bq/L.
Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Trinh Van Giap, Bui Duc Ky
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.121003

Abstract:
Lithium aluminate (LiAlO2) powder was synthesized by sol-gel with EDTA method. The resultant powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) techniques. In addition, several thermoluminescence properties of synthesized LiAlO2 powder were reported. The results from X-ray diffraction (XRD), the powder prepared by sol-gel with EDTA method showed pure γ-phase when it was calcined at >900°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the size of the lithium aluminate particles depended strongly on calcination temperature. The linearity is observed of synthesized LiAlO2 powder by sol-gel with EDTA with regression coefficient (R2) is 0.9971.
Kyeong Mo Hwang, Dong Jin Lee, Hun Yun, Seung Chang Yoo, Ji Hyeon Kim
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2022.121001

Abstract:
Recently, damage caused by liquid droplet impingement erosion (LDIE) in addition to flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) has frequently occurred in the secondary side steam piping of nuclear power plants, and the damage-occurring frequency is expected to increase as their operating years’ increase. In order to scrutinize its causes, therefore, an experimental study was conducted to understand how the behavior of LDIE-FAC multiple degradation changes when the piping of nuclear power plants is operated for a long time. Experimental results show that more magnetite was formed on the surface of the carbon steel specimen than on the low-alloy steel specimen, and that the rate of magnetite formation and extinction reached equilibrium due to the complex action of liquid droplet impingement erosion and flow-accelerated corrosion after a certain period of time. Furthermore, it was confirmed at the beginning of the experiment that A106 Gr.B specimen has more mass loss than A335 P22 specimen. After a certain period of time, however, the mass loss tends to be the opposite. This is presumed to have resulted from the magnetite formed on the surface playing a role in suppressing liquid droplet impingement erosion. In addition, it was confirmed that the amount of erosion linearly increases under the conditions in which the formation and extinction of magnetite reach equilibrium.
Jianyong Zhang, Xiaohu Mo, Xiao Cai
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 100-108; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2021.112007

Abstract:
High purity germanium detectors have important applications in many fields. Detector’s performance deteriorated significantly due to radiation of neutron. The annealing of damaged HPGe detector is expounded in this monograph. The experiment results indicate that raising the temperature to 70°C for five days, the restoration efficiency can reach 90%.
Alfred Djoman Djama Agbo, Koudou Djagouri, Jean-Claude Olkalé Brigui, Konin Pierre-Claver Kakou
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 109-118; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2021.112008

Abstract:
Eight water bottles from Ebrie lagoon with pollution potency were studied using nuclear chemistry technique and Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This pollution is characterized by pH and conductivity parameters, concentrations average in mg/L of metals such Fe (0.731), Mn (0.345), Cr (0.070), Cu (0.014) and concentrations of nutrients known to be pollutants and toxic for living or-ganisms. These heavy metals are dangerous to the lives, the local inhabitants and also a threat to aquatic life since this water is essential for the economical town, Abidjan. According to the Manganese concentration average (0.345 mg) values that higher than WHO (0.05 mg) value, the main likely source of pollu-tants is anthropogenic, industrial and agricultural. This study also shows the use of materials and lubricants near the lagoon that pollute this water.
Arif Jahan Sarawer, M. Ajijul Hoq, M. Abu Khaer, M. Shafiqul Islam, M. Mominur Rahman, M. Tareque Chowdhury
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 119-131; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjnst.2021.113009

Abstract:
The assessment of the radiological concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs owing to hypothetical accident of TRIGA Mark-II research Reactor at AERE, Savar, Bangladesh is presented here in this work. The concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs was estimated in different pathways consisting of the ingestion of plants, milk, and meat. The highest air concentration has been determined at 65 m distance from the core of the reactor. The maximum concentration passed off without delay simply after the accident in various directions. Local meteorological information such as average wind velocity and wind frequency were analyzed. Considering all directions, the highest concentration has been observed in the “S” direction. The concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs were determined in ground, vegetation, milk and meat. The concentration of 137Cs is investigated to be higher than the 134Cs. The concentration of 134Cs and 137Cs was found to be lower in vegetation, milk, and meat than that of ground concentration. Overall, in this study, the concentration in meat has been investigated to be lower. In case of a reactor accident, the concentration assessment due to the ingestion of vegetables, milk, and meat will be a valuable guide for insuring radiological protection across the research reactor at AERE, Savar, Bangladesh.
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