ISSN / EISSN : 0006-2960 / 1520-4995
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 69,331
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Biochemistry, Volume 60; https://doi.org/10.1021/biv060i036_1512565
Cytochrome P450cam (CYP101A1) catalyzes the regio- and stereo-specific 5-exo-hydroxylation of camphor via a multistep catalytic cycle that involves two-electron transfer steps, with an absolute requirement that the second electron be donated by the ferrodoxin, putidaredoxin (Pdx). Whether P450cam, once camphor has bound to the active site and the substrate entry channel has closed, opens up upon Pdx binding, during the second electron transfer step, or it remains closed is still a matter of debate. A potential allosteric site for camphor binding has been identified and postulated to play a role in the binding of Pdx. Here, we have revisited paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy data and determined a heterogeneous ensemble of structures that explains the data, provides a complete representation of the P450cam/Pdx complex in solution, and reconciles alternative hypotheses. The allosteric camphor binding site is always present, and the conformational changes induced by camphor binding to this site facilitates Pdx binding. We also determined that the state to which Pdx binds comprises an ensemble of structures that have features of both the open and closed state. These results demonstrate that there is a finely balanced interaction between allosteric camphor binding and the binding of Pdx at high camphor concentrations.
Biochemistry, Volume 60; https://doi.org/10.1021/biv060i036_1512564
Methanobactins (Mbns) are ribosomally produced, post-translationally modified peptidic natural products that bind copper with high affinity. Methanotrophic bacteria use Mbns to acquire copper needed for enzymatic methane oxidation. Despite the presence of Mbn operons in a range of methanotroph and other bacterial genomes, few Mbns have been isolated and structurally characterized. Here we report the isolation of a novel Mbn from the methanotroph Methylosinus (Ms.) sp. LW3. Mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data indicate that this Mbn, the largest characterized to date, consists of a 13-amino acid backbone modified to include pyrazinedione/oxazolone rings and neighboring thioamide groups derived from cysteine residues. The pyrazinedione ring is more stable to acid hydrolysis than the oxazolone ring and likely protects the Mbn from degradation. The structure corresponds exactly to that predicted on the basis of the Ms. sp. LW3 Mbn operon content, providing support for the proposed role of an uncharacterized biosynthetic enzyme, MbnF, and expanding the diversity of known Mbns.
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative, pathogenic bacterium that causes campylobacteriosis, a form of gastroenteritis. C. jejuni is the most frequent cause of food-borne illness in the world, surpassing Salmonella and E. coli. Coating the surface of C. jejuni is a layer of sugar molecules known as the capsular polysaccharide that, in C. jejuni NCTC 11168, is composed of a repeating unit of d-glycero-l-gluco-heptose, d-glucuronic acid, d-N-acetyl-galactosamine, and d-ribose. The d-glucuronic acid moiety is further amidated with either serinol or ethanolamine. It is unknown how these modifications are synthesized and attached to the polysaccharide. Here, we report the catalytic activities of two previously uncharacterized, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes, Cj1436 and Cj1437, from C. jejuni NCTC 11168. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we determined that Cj1436 catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-serine phosphate to ethanolamine phosphate. Cj1437 was shown to catalyze the transamination of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to (S)-serinol phosphate in the presence of l-glutamate. The probable routes to the ultimate formation of the glucuronamide substructures in the capsular polysaccharides of C. jejuni are discussed.
Adenosylhopane is a crucial precursor of C35 hopanoids, which are believed to modulate the fluidity and permeability of bacterial cell membranes. Adenosylhopane is formed by a crosslinking reaction between diploptene and a 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical that is generated by the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) enzyme HpnH. We previously showed that HpnH from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) (ScHpnH) converts diploptene to (22R)-adenosylhopane. However, the mechanism of the stereoselective C–C bond formation was unclear. Thus, here, we performed biochemical and mutational analysis of another HpnH, from the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis (ZmHpnH). Similar to ScHpnH, wild-type ZmHpnH afforded (22R)-adenosylhopane. Conserved cysteine and tyrosine residues were suggested as possible hydrogen sources to quench the putative radical reaction intermediate. A Cys106Ala mutant of ZmHpnH had one-fortieth the activity of the wild-type enzyme and yielded both (22R)- and (22S)-adenosylhopane along with some related byproducts. Radical trapping experiments with a spin-trapping agent supported the generation of a radical intermediate in the ZmHpnH-catalyzed reaction. We propose that the thiol of Cys106 stereoselectively reduces the radical intermediate generated at the C22 position by the addition of the 5′-deoxadenosyl radical to diploptene, to complete the reaction.
Rupintrivir targets the 3C cysteine proteases of the picornaviridae family, which includes rhinoviruses and enteroviruses that cause a range of human diseases. Despite being a pan-3C protease inhibitor, rupintrivir activity is extremely weak against the homologous 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, the crystal structures of rupintrivir were determined bound to enterovirus 68 (EV68) 3C protease and the 3C-like main protease (Mpro) from SARS-CoV-2. While the EV68 3C protease–rupintrivir structure was similar to previously determined complexes with other picornavirus 3C proteases, rupintrivir bound in a unique conformation to the active site of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro splitting the catalytic cysteine and histidine residues. This bifurcation of the catalytic dyad may provide a novel approach for inhibiting cysteine proteases.
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are highly phosphorylated molecules that have emerged as central nutrient messengers in eukaryotic organisms. They can bind to structurally diverse target proteins to regulate biological functions, such as protein–protein interactions. PP-InsPs are strongly negatively charged and interact with highly basic surface patches in proteins, making their quantitative biochemical analysis challenging. Here, we present the synthesis of biotinylated myo-inositol hexakisphosphates and their application in surface plasmon resonance and grating-coupled interferometry assays, to enable the rapid identification, validation, and kinetic characterization of InsP– and PP-InsP–protein interactions.
Acid/base catalysis is an important catalytic strategy used by ribonucleases and ribozymes; however, understanding the number and identity of functional groups involved in proton transfer remains challenging. The proton inventory (PI) technique analyzes the dependence of the enzyme reaction rate on the ratio of D2O to H2O and can provide information about the number of exchangeable sites that produce isotope effects and their magnitude. The Gross–Butler (GB) equation is used to evaluate H/D fractionation factors from PI data typically collected under conditions (i.e., a “plateau” in the pH–rate profile) assuming minimal change in active site residue ionization. However, restricting PI analysis to these conditions is problematic for many ribonucleases, ribozymes, and their variants due to ambiguity in the roles of active site residues, the lack of a plateau within the accessible pL range, or cooperative interactions between active site functional groups undergoing ionization. Here, we extend the integration of species distributions for alternative enzyme states in noncooperative models of acid/base catalysis into the GB equation, first used by Bevilacqua and colleagues for the HDV ribozyme, to develop a general population-weighted GB equation that allows simulation and global fitting of the three-dimensional relationship of the D2O ratio (n) versus pL versus kn/k0. Simulations using the GPW-GB equation of PI results for RNase A, HDVrz, and VSrz illustrate that data obtained at multiple selected pL values across the pL–rate profile can assist in the planning and interpreting of solvent isotope effect experiments to distinguish alternative mechanistic models.