Frontiers in Immunology

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ISSN / EISSN : 1664-3224 / 1664-3224
Current Publisher: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
Total articles ≅ 18,071
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Feihong Liang, Huiting Guan, Wenhua Li, Xue Zhang, Tingting Liu, Yu Liu, Jie Mei, Cheng Jiang, , , et al.
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.658715

Endogenous mechanisms underlying bacterial infection resolution are essential for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of inflammation caused by infection without unwanted side effects. Herein, we found that erythropoietin (EPO) promoted the resolution and enhanced antibiotic actions in Escherichia coli (E. coli)- and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-initiated infections. Levels of peritoneal EPO and macrophage erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) were elevated in self-limited E. coli-initiated peritonitis. Myeloid-specific EPOR-deficient mice exhibited an impaired inflammatory resolution and exogenous EPO enhanced this resolution in self-limited infections. Mechanistically, EPO increased macrophage clearance of bacteria via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-induced CD36. Moreover, EPO ameliorated inflammation and increased the actions of ciprofloxacin and vancomycin in resolution-delayed E. coli- and S. aureus-initiated infections. Collectively, macrophage EPO signaling is temporally induced during infections. EPO is anti-phlogistic, increases engulfment, promotes infection resolution, and lowers antibiotic requirements.
Chun Dang, , Xingyu Chen, Qian Li
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.650708

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS) and a CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is recognized as the major mechanism that regulates the differentiation and function of T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells, which are recognized as pivotal effector cells responsible for the development of EAE. We used baricitinib, a JAK 1/2 inhibitor, to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting the JAK/STAT pathway in EAE mice. Our results showed that baricitinib significantly delayed the onset time, decreased the severity of clinical symptoms, shortened the duration of EAE, and alleviated demyelination and immune cell infiltration in the spinal cord. In addition, baricitinib treatment downregulated the proportion of interferon-γ+CD4+ Th1 and interleukin-17+CD4+ Th17 cells, decreased the levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ t and T-bet mRNA, inhibited lymphocyte proliferation, and decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the spleen of mice with EAE. Furthermore, our results showed the role of baricitinib in suppressing the phosphorylation of STATs 1, 3, and 4 in the spleen of EAE mice. Therefore, our study demonstrates that baricitinib could potentially alleviate inflammation in mice with EAE and may be a promising candidate for treating MS.
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.666666

Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer has benefited patients with inherited diseases, such as hemophilia B, by achieving long-term expression of the therapeutic transgene. Nevertheless, challenges remain due to rejection of AAV-transduced cells, which in some, but not all, patients can be prevented by immunosuppression. It is assumed that CD8+ T cells induced by natural infections with AAVs are recalled by the AAV vector’s capsid and upon activation eliminate cells expressing the degraded capsid antigens. Alternatively, it is feasible that AAV vectors, especially if given at high doses, induce de novo capsid- or transgene product-specific T cell responses. This chapter discusses CD8+ T cell responses to AAV infections and AAV gene transfer and avenues to prevent their activation or block their effector functions.
Shiva Dahal-Koirala, Louise Fremgaard Risnes, Ralf Stefan Neumann, Asbjørn Christophersen, Knut E. A. Lundin, Geir Kjetil Sandve, Shuo-Wang Qiao,
Published: 13 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.639672

Gluten-specific CD4+ T cells are drivers of celiac disease (CeD). Previous studies of gluten-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires have found public TCRs shared across multiple individuals, biased usage of particular V-genes and conserved CDR3 motifs. The CDR3 motifs within the gluten-specific TCR repertoire, however, have not been systematically investigated. In the current study, we analyzed the largest TCR database of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells studied so far consisting of TCRs of 3122 clonotypes from 63 CeD patients. We established a TCR database from CD4+ T cells isolated with a mix of HLA-DQ2.5:gluten tetramers representing four immunodominant gluten epitopes. In an unbiased fashion we searched by hierarchical clustering for common CDR3 motifs among 2764 clonotypes. We identified multiple CDR3α, CDR3β, and paired CDR3α:CDR3β motif candidates. Among these, a previously known conserved CDR3β R-motif used by TRAV26-1/TRBV7-2 TCRs specific for the DQ2.5-glia-α2 epitope was the most prominent motif. Furthermore, we identified the epitope specificity of altogether 16 new CDR3α:CDR3β motifs by comparing with TCR sequences of 231 T-cell clones with known specificity and TCR sequences of cells sorted with single HLA-DQ2.5:gluten tetramers. We identified 325 public TCRα and TCRβ sequences of which 145, 102 and 78 belonged to TCRα, TCRβ and paired TCRαβ sequences, respectively. While the number of public sequences was depended on the number of clonotypes in each patient, we found that the proportion of public clonotypes from the gluten-specific TCR repertoire of given CeD patients appeared to be stable (median 37%). Taken together, we here demonstrate that the TCR repertoire of CD4+ T cells specific to immunodominant gluten epitopes in CeD is diverse, yet there is clearly biased V-gene usage, presence of public TCRs and existence of conserved motifs of which R-motif is the most prominent.
Gertraud Orend,
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.663902

Tenascin-C plays important roles in immunity. Toll-like receptor 4, integrin α9β1 and chemokines have already been identified as key players in executing the immune regulatory functions of tenascin-C. Tenascin-C is also found in reticular fibers in lymphoid tissues, which are major sites involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Did the “tool box” for reading and interpreting the immune-regulating instructions imposed by tenascins and tenascin-C co-evolve? Though the extracellular matrix is ancient, tenascins evolved relatively recently. Tenascin-like genes are first encountered in cephalochordates and urochordates, which are widely accepted as the early branching chordate lineages. Vertebrates lacking jaws like the lamprey have tenascins, but a tenascin gene that clusters in the tenascin-C clade first appears in cartilaginous fish. Adaptive immunity apparently evolved independently in jawless and jawed vertebrates, with the former using variable lymphocyte receptors for antigen recognition, and the latter using immunoglobulins. Thus, while tenascins predate the appearance of adaptive immunity, the first tenascin-C appears to have evolved in the first organisms with immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity. While a C-X-C chemokine is present in the lamprey, C-C chemokines also appear in the first organisms with immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity, as does the major histocompatibility complex, T-cell receptors, Toll-like receptor 4 and integrin α9β1. Given the importance of tenascin-C in inflammatory events, the co-evolution of tenascin-C and key elements of adaptive and innate immunity is suggestive of a fundamental role for this extracellular matrix glycoprotein in the immune response of jawed vertebrates.
Yayun Liu, Ying Luo, Tong Zhu, Meng Jiang, Zhaofeng Tian, Gusheng Tang,
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.653198

Interleukin (IL)-35-secreting B (IL-35+B) cells are critical regulators in autoimmune and infectious diseases and exert suppressive functions in parallel with IL-10-producing B (B10) cells. However, the role of IL-35+B cells in persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear. To elucidate the role of IL-35+B cells in the progress of chronic HBV infection, we determined the frequency of IL-35+B cells and their relationship with the classical human regulatory B cell (Breg) subsets, namely, CD19+CD24hiCD38hi and CD19+CD24hiCD27+. Then, the regulatory effect and mechanism of Bregs on effector T cells were investigated in vitro. Here, we found that compared with healthy controls, the frequency of IL-35+B cells was increased in patients with chronic HBV infection and was enriched in human classical Breg subset CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cells. Moderate correlation was observed between the frequency of IL-35+B cells and alanine aminotransferase levels (Spearman r = 0.401), but only mild correlation was noted between the frequency of IL-35+B cells and HBV DNA level (Spearman r = 0.314). The frequency of IL-35+B cells was negatively correlated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ cells but positively correlated with IL-4-producing T cells. Bregs dysregulated T cell function through an IL-35-dependent mechanism and depended on cell-to-cell contact. In conclusion, IL-35+ B cell was enriched in CD19+CD24hiCD38hi B cell subset during persistent HBV infection and Breg cells exerted dysregulation in T cell function through IL-35 dependent mechanism and depend on cell-to-cell contact. Clinical Trial Registration, identifier NCT03734783.
, Annika Westin, Jeremy Adler,
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.655753

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are rare and enigmatic cells that mainly reside in germinal centers (GCs). They are capable of capturing immune complexes, via their Fc (FcRs) and complement receptors (CRs) and storing them for long periods in non-degradative vesicles. Presentation of ICs on FDCs to B cells is believed to drive affinity maturation. CR1 and CR2 are expressed on B cells and FDCs. Cr2 knock out (KO) mice, lacking both receptors, have impaired antibody and GC responses. Utilizing a novel ImageJ macro to analyze confocal fluorescence microscopy images of spleen sections, we here investigate how FDCs in wild type (WT) and Cr2 KO mice behave during the first two weeks after immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Mice were immunized with SRBC i.v. and spleen and serum samples harvested at various time points. As expected, antibody and GC responses in Cr2 KO mice were impaired in comparison to WT mice. Fewer FDCs were identified in Cr2 KO mice, and these exhibited differential localization and organization in comparison to WT mice. WT FDCs were primarily located within GCs at the light zone/dark zone border. FDCs from WT but not Cr2 KO mice were actively dispersed in GCs, i.e. tended to move away from each other, presumably to increase their surface area for B cell interaction. FDCs from Cr2 KO mice were more often found on follicles outside of the GCs and those within the GCs were closer to the periphery in comparison to WT FDCs. Expression of CR1 and CR2, FcγRIIB, and FcµR increased in FDCs from WT mice during the course of immunization. The results suggest that decreased ability to capture ICs by FDCs lacking CR1 and CR2 may not be the only explanation for the impaired GC and antibody responses in Cr2 KO mice. Poor FDC organization in GCs and failure to increase receptor expression after immunization may further contribute to the inefficient immune responses observed.
Sarah E. Jackson, Kevin C. Chen, Ian J. Groves, George X. Sedikides, Amar Gandhi, Charlotte J. Houldcroft, Emma L. Poole, Inmaculada Montanuy, Gavin M. Mason, Georgina Okecha, et al.
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.657945

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is not cleared by the initial immune response but persists for the lifetime of the host, in part due to its ability to establish a latent infection in cells of the myeloid lineage. HCMV has been shown to manipulate the secretion of cellular proteins during both lytic and latent infection; with changes caused by latent infection mainly investigated in CD34+ progenitor cells. Whilst CD34+ cells are generally bone marrow resident, their derivative CD14+ monocytes migrate to the periphery where they briefly circulate until extravasation into tissue sites. We have analyzed the effect of HCMV latent infection on the secretome of CD14+ monocytes, identifying an upregulation of both CCL8 and CXCL10 chemokines in the CD14+ latency-associated secretome. Unlike CD34+ cells, the CD14+ latency-associated secretome did not induce migration of resting immune cell subsets but did induce migration of activated NK and T cells expressing CXCR3 in a CXCL10 dependent manner. As reported in CD34+ latent infection, the CD14+ latency-associated secretome also suppressed the anti-viral activity of stimulated CD4+ T cells. Surprisingly, however, co-culture of activated autologous CD4+ T cells with latently infected monocytes resulted in reactivation of HCMV at levels comparable to those observed using M-CSF and IL-1β cytokines. We propose that these events represent a potential strategy to enable HCMV reactivation and local dissemination of the virus at peripheral tissue sites.
Liangliang Wu, Shengzhi Xie, Lingxiong Wang, Jinfeng Li, Lu Han, Boyu Qin, Guoqing Zhang, Qiyan Wu, Wenjuan Gao, Lijun Zhang, et al.
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.665147

Antibodies against checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of multiple cancers. However, there are only a few studies on biomarkers for these targeted immunotherapies, especially in peripheral blood. We first studied the role of interferon-induced protein-10 (IP10) combined with interleukin-8 (IL-8) in peripheral blood as a biomarker of immune-combined chemotherapy for lung cancer and multiple cancers. We used the high-throughput cytokine detection platform and performed bioinformatics analysis of blood samples from 67 patients with lung cancer and 24 with multiple cancers. We selected the ratio of IP-10 to IL-8 (S2/S0, ratio of changes at 10–12 weeks after treatment to baseline) to predict the response to immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy and evaluate the survival of lung cancer patients and mixed cancer patients. In patients treated with the combination therapy, the specificity and sensitivity of IL-8 and IP10 together as predictors were improved compared with those of IL-8 and IP10 alone. Our conclusion was verified in not only lung cancer but also multiple cancer research cohorts. We then further validated the predictive effect of biomarkers in different histologic types of NSCLC and chemotherapy combined with different PD-1 drug groups. Subsequent validation should be conducted with a larger number of patients. The proposed marker IP10 (S2/S0)/IL-8 (S2/S0), as a predictive immunotherapy biomarker, has broad prospects for future clinical applications in treating patients with multiple intractable neoplasms.
Daniel B. Lowy, Preet G. S. Makker,
Published: 12 April 2021
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 12; doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.660203

Bidirectional interplay between the peripheral immune and nervous systems plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and responding to noxious stimuli. This crosstalk is facilitated by a variety of cytokines, inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides. Dysregulation of this delicate physiological balance is implicated in the pathological mechanisms of various skin disorders and peripheral neuropathies. The skin is a highly complex biological structure within which peripheral sensory nerve terminals and immune cells colocalise. Herein, we provide an overview of the sensory innervation of the skin and immune cells resident to the skin. We discuss modulation of cutaneous immune response by sensory neurons and their mediators (e.g., nociceptor-derived neuropeptides), and sensory neuron regulation by cutaneous immune cells (e.g., nociceptor sensitization by immune-derived mediators). In particular, we discuss recent findings concerning neuroimmune communication in skin infections, psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. We then summarize evidence of neuroimmune mechanisms in the skin in the context of peripheral neuropathic pain states, including chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia, HIV-induced neuropathy, as well as entrapment and traumatic neuropathies. Finally, we highlight the future promise of emerging therapies associated with skin neuroimmune crosstalk in neuropathic pain.
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