Bone Marrow Transplantation
ISSN / EISSN : 0268-3369 / 1476-5365
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1038)
Total articles ≅ 10,670
Latest articles in this journal
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01462-z
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are at risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Two prognostic scores have been proposed to predict the risk of progression from upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and death. This was a multicentre study of allogeneic HSCT recipients diagnosed with an RSV infection between 2010 and 2019 who were retrospectively stratified by the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) and the severe immunodeficiency (SID) score. Endpoints were overall survival, RSV-attributable mortality and progression to LRTI after URTI. Prognostic analyses were performed using Cox regression models. We included 147 consecutive patients, including 94 (63.9%) initially diagnosed with URTI and 53 (36.1%) with LRTI. At 90 days, 14 patients had died (survival rate, 90.5%; 95% CI: 85.9–95.3), and nine deaths were attributable to RSV (attributable mortality rate, 5.4%; 95% CI: 2.5–10.0). The cumulative 90-day incidence of LRTI after URTI was 13.8% (95% CI: 7.8–21.6). Neither score showed prognostic value for mortality, while the ISI allowed the prediction of progression to LRTI (p = 0.0008). Our results do not fully replicate the results previously reported in cohorts of HSCT recipients. This may reflect the recent epidemiology of RSV infections in this HSCT cohort.
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01460-1
Alemtuzumab is used as part of reduced-intensity and reduced-toxicity transplant conditioning regimens for nonmalignant diseases. Prior studies identified an ideal target concentration range of 0.15–0.6 mcg/mL at day 0. However, only 24% of patients fall within this window using standard intermediate dosing. We performed a pilot study of a novel target concentration intervention strategy to target day 0 alemtuzumab concentrations to 0.15–0.6 mcg/mL. Twelve patients received model-informed alemtuzumab dosing of 0.5–0.6 mcg/kg divided over days –14 to –12. Alemtuzumab concentrations were measured, and pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling was performed on day –5 to predict day 0 concentrations. If the day 0 alemtuzumab concentration was predicted to fall below 0.15 mcg/mL, simulations were performed to identify the individual “top-up” dose needed to achieve the target day 0 concentration window. Six (50%) patients achieved day 0 alemtuzumab concentrations between 0.15 and 0.6 mcg/mL (4 received a top-up dose). Five patients had day 0 concentrations above the target window (no top-up doses). One patient had a day 0 concentration below the target range in the presence of anti-alemtuzumab antibodies. A concentration intervention strategy approach to alemtuzumab treatment can successfully target a greater proportion of patients into the ideal therapeutic window. Additional dose-reduction studies are needed to further optimize the initial dosing and achieve target attainment in all patients.
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01453-0
Haploidentical hematopoietic-cell transplantation using post-transplant cyclophosphamide(Haplo-PTCy) is a feasible procedure in children with haematologic malignancies. However, data of a large series of children with acute leukaemia(AL) in this setting is missing. We analysed 144 AL Haplo-PTCy paediatric recipients; median age was 10 years. Patients had acute lymphoblastic(ALL; n = 86) or myeloblastic leukaemia(AML; n = 58) and were transplanted in remission(CR1: n = 40; CR2: n = 57; CR3+: n = 27) or relapse (n = 20). Bone marrow was the graft source in 57%; donors were father (54%), mother (35%), or sibling (11%). Myeloablative conditioning was used in 87%. Median follow-up was 31 months. At day +100, cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery and acute GVHD (II–IV) were 94% and 40%, respectively. At 2-years, CI of chronic GVHD and relapse, were 31%, 40%, and estimated 2-year overall survival (OS), leukaemia-free survival (LFS) and graft-versus-host-relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 52%, 44% and 34% respectively. For patients transplanted in remission, positive measurable residual disease (MRD) prior to transplant was associated with decreased LFS (p = 0.05) and GRFS (p = 0.003) and increased risk of relapse (p = 0.02). Mother donor was associated with increased risk of chronic GVHD (p = 0.001), decreased OS (p = 0.03) and GRFS (p = 0.004). Use of PBSC was associated with increased risk of chronic GVHD (p = 0.04). In conclusion, achieving MRD negativity pre-transplant, avoiding use of mother donors and PBSC as graft source may improve outcomes of Haplo-PTCy in children with AL.
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-2; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01440-5
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01461-0
Patients with β-thalassemia suffer from severe anemia, iron overload and multiple complications, that affect their quality of life and well-being. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an HLA-matched sibling donor, performed in childhood, has been the gold standard for thalassemic patients for decades. Unfortunately, siblings are available only for the minority of patients. Fully matched unrelated donors have been the second choice for cure, with equal results as far as overall survival is concerned, having though the cost of frequent and serious complications. On the other hand, haploidentical transplantation is performed more frequently during the last decade, with promising results. Gene therapy represents a novel therapeutic approach, with impressive results from clinical trials, both from gene addition strategies, as well as from the emerging gene editing tools. After reviewing current critical points of HSCT using alternative donors and assessing recently reported safety issues of gene therapy methods, we conclude that, although a breakthrough, the safety of gene therapy remains to be established.
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01361-3
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01459-8
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a critical complication after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation induced by genetic differences in donor–recipient pairs. Rigorous HLA matching has reduced GVHD, but severe GVHD still occurs. Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) are another source of GVHD inducers. We designed a multi-mHA panel with 35 valid mHA loci and retrospectively analyzed 391 donor–recipient pairs with the anticipation of implementing mHA typing into clinical practice to optimize donor selection. Results showed the total mismatching in mHA loci in this panel, as well as mismatching in the GVH direction in unmatched-related recipients (UMRs) were 1.8 times and 1.3 times as those in matched-sibling recipients (MSRs) (p = 4.1e-4, p = 0.012, respectively). There was no significant association between mHA loci mismatching and grades II-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD), III-IV aGVHD, extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD), or relapse in neither group. UMRs had an increased cumulative incidence of II-IV aGVHD (p = 0.002), but there was no statistical difference of the incidences in severe aGVHD or cGVHD (p = 0.093; p = 0.930). This is a preliminary study to explore GVHD risks brought by mHA loci mismatching in both unmatched-related recipients and matched-full-sibling recipients. Our results confirmed that stringent HLA matching is the key to reduce the risks for GVHD.
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01457-w
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01446-z
Cytogenetic abnormalities are a major risk factor for relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We aimed to evaluate the value of the five-group cytogenetic classification according to the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (R-IPSS) for predicting the outcome after HSCT in pediatric patients with MDS. We retrospectively analyzed the Japanese registration data of 242 pediatric patients with MDS. According to the R-IPSS classification, 112 (45.5%) patients had good, 55 (22.7%) had intermediate, 64 (26.4%) had poor, and 11 (4.6%) had very poor cytogenetics. The 5-year overall survival (5yOS) was 72%, 69%, 59%, and 30% in the good, intermediate, poor, and very poor cytogenetic subgroups (p = 0.026), respectively. The very good, good, and intermediate subgroups were grouped into a “standard” subgroup and reclassified into three subgroups (standard, poor, and very poor). Patients with very poor risk had worse 5yOS (hazard ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–4.61; p = 0.04) and a much higher 5yCIR (hazard ratio 2.52, 95% CI 1.05–6.04; p = 0.04) than those of patients in the standard group in the multivariate analysis, indicating that very poor risk cytogenetic characteristics independently predicted worse outcome after HSCT in pediatric patients with MDS.
Bone Marrow Transplantation pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01447-y
Myeloablative conditioning with fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu4) prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is effective for acute myeloid leukemia. However, the effectiveness of Flu/Bu4 for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains poorly understood. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed nationwide registry data in Japan from 2006 to 2018 and compared transplant outcomes of adult MDS patients receiving Flu/Bu4 and busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu4/Cy) using propensity score (PS) matching. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Among 2,482 MDS patients, 153 patients were assigned each to the Flu/Bu4 and Bu4/Cy groups. The 3-year OS rates were 52.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.8–60.8%) and 49.5% (95% CI, 40.8–57.6%) in the Flu/Bu4 and Bu4/Cy group, respectively (P = 0.548). The 3-year progression-free survival (P = 0.858), the cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.536), and cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (P = 0.684) were not significantly different between the two groups. According to the findings of subgroup analyses, no patient had a favorable OS when using either of the two regimens. In conclusion, although our PS-matched cohort mainly comprised older patients who had a low hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index and low-risk disease status, Flu/Bu4 could be an alternative to Bu4/Cy for MDS patients prior to allo-HSCT.