EISSN : 2306-5710
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 399
Latest articles in this journal
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020023
Ethanol is a complex stimulus that elicits multiple gustatory and chemesthetic sensations. Alcoholic beverages also contain other tastants that impact flavour. Here, we sought to characterize the binary interactions between ethanol and four stimuli representing the dominant orosensations elicited in alcoholic beverages: fructose (sweet), quinine (bitter), tartaric acid (sour) and aluminium sulphate (astringent). Female participants were screened for thermal taste status to determine whether the heightened orosensory responsiveness of thermal tasters (n = 21–22) compared to thermal non-tasters (n = 13–15) extends to these binary mixtures. Participants rated the intensity of five orosensations in binary solutions of ethanol (5%, 13%, 23%) and a tastant (low, medium, high). For each tastant, 3-way ANOVAs determined which factors impacted orosensory ratings. Burning/tingling increased as ethanol concentration increased in all four binary mixture types and was not impacted by the concentration of other stimuli. In contrast, bitterness increased with ethanol concentration, and decreased with increasing fructose concentration. Sourness tended to be reduced as ethanol concentration increased, although astringency intensity decreased with increasing concentration of fructose. Overall, thermal tasters tended to be more responsive than thermal non-tasters. These results provide insights into how the taste and chemesthetic profiles of alcoholic beverages across a wide range of ethanol concentrations can be manipulated by changing their composition.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020022
The purpose of this research was to investigate Mid-Atlantic USA wine consumers’ preferences for front wine label attributes for a lesser-known/unknown local wine variety. The wine consumer base in this part of the USA exceeds that of California. Although the mid-Atlantic is experiencing an increase in the number of wineries, there is a lack of region-specific consumer research that could be the basis for marketing strategies that may differ from those in more established wine regions, such as CA. We recruited 1011 mid-Atlantic consumers who drank wine (at least 1×/month) to view variations of a wine label, differing in wine tag, location description, font types, and images in a choice-based conjoint experiment. A greater percentage of consumers selected the “White Wine” tag and scripted fonts than the other options, with a generalized county text (“Proudly produced in Lehigh County, PA”) being selected by more participants than the American Viticultural Area (AVA) (“Lehigh Valley AVA”) or state (“Pennsylvania”) texts; however, the location text had a lower importance than the wine tag variable. This study implies that a generalized county text that describes a more specific location where the grapes were grown may be more favorable to mid-Atlantic consumers in comparison to AVA or state texts, and that traditional images and generic wine labels are more preferable than wine labels they have not seen before and more contemporary label styles. Wineries in the mid-Atlantic region may want to add generalized county texts to their labels to appeal to the regional audience. As AVAs are used to promote specific wine regions in the USA, and only some consumers choose wines based on these designations, governments and marketing organizations may want to increase education on local AVAs to increase consumer awareness and interest. In addition, consumer differences in variety-seeking behavior and subjective as well as objective wine knowledge, but not attitudes toward locally produced foods, affected wine label choice: Consumers scoring higher in variety-seeking and wine knowledge preferred the specific wine varietal over the generic wine tag; similarly, consumers that indicated familiarity with the wine varietal also preferred the specific wine tag over the generic label. Differences in consumer psychographics appear to modulate front wine label preferences.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020021
There is a large economic interest to characterize heads, hearts and tails fractions during fruit spirit distillation by simple, fast, low-volume and low-cost analytical methods. This study evaluated the potential of ultraviolet (UV)-visible-infrared spectroscopy (230–1000 nm) to characterize and differentiate these distillate fractions. Heads, hearts and tails fractions of 10 different fruit spirits were separated by sensory evaluation and investigated by absorbance spectroscopy. Principal component analysis indicated that UV spectroscopy at a wavelength range from 230 to 310 nm had the highest potential to differentiate all three distillate fractions. While all tails fractions showed significantly different UV spectra, a clear differentiation between heads and hearts fractions was limited. However, an additional UV spectroscopy of 100 mL subfractions sampled during the shift from heads to hearts in three additional distillations did reveal significant differences. The calculated integrals of the according best-fit trendline functions of the spectra indicated a trend towards reduced area-under-the-curve and zero-point values during the shift. This could be a new lead to implement an analytical method for in-line process control during fruit spirit production.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020020
Background: The positive effect of carbohydrates from commercial beverages on soccer-specific exercise has been clearly demonstrated. However, no study is available that uses a home-mixed beverage in a test where technical skills were required. Methods: Nine subjects participated voluntarily in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. On three testing days, the subjects performed six Hoff tests with a 3-min active break as a preload and then the Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) until exhaustion. On test days 2 and 3, the subjects received either a 69 g carbohydrate-containing drink (syrup–water mixture) or a carbohydrate-free drink (aromatic water). Beverages were given in several doses of 250 mL each: 30 min before and immediately before the exercise and after 18 and 39 min of exercise. The primary target parameters were the running performance in the Hoff test and Yo-Yo IR1, body mass and heart rate. Statistical differences between the variables of both conditions were analyzed using paired samples t-tests. Results: The maximum heart rate in Yo-Yo IR1 showed significant differences (syrup: 191.1 ± 6.2 bpm; placebo: 188.0 ± 6.89 bpm; t(6) = −2.556; p = 0.043; dz = 0.97). The running performance in Yo-Yo IR1 under the condition syrup significantly increased by 93.33 ± 84.85 m (0–240 m) on average (p = 0.011). Conclusions: The intake of a syrup–water mixture with a total of 69 g carbohydrates leads to an increase in high-intensive running performance after soccer specific loads. Therefore, the intake of carbohydrate solutions is recommended for intermittent loads and should be increasingly considered by coaches and players.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020019
Wine is a product that can be characterized both as a commodity but also as a luxury, depending on its price
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020018
This work proposes the elaboration of a product based on the maceration of Sherry Vinegar together with pineapple in order to extract certain volatile compounds that can be found in pineapples, giving a final product with new organoleptic properties and increased polyphenolic content. Maceration trials were carried out with the application of microwaves and ultrasound, which reduced the maceration time from the traditional three-day solid-liquid maceration to just a few minutes. In addition, through maceration, the total polyphenol index increased significantly with respect to unmacerated vinegar, and the volatile profile of the vinegars was significantly modified. The tasting scores placed the pineapple macerated vinegar sample obtained by traditional maceration in the first place with respect to pineapple aroma; however, the microwave extraction samples were better rated in terms of overall quality. It can be concluded that the application of extracting energies, such as microwaves, can be a viable alternative for the production of sherry vinegar macerated with pineapple.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020017
In 2015, the journal Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710) was launched to provide insight into the beverage industry
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7020016
Agro-industrial wastes can be valorized as biorefinery raw materials through innovative, environmentally friendly bioprocessing for added value products. In this study, a process for citrus waste valorization within the biorefinery concept is proposed, including the development of an effective biocatalyst, based on immobilized cells, for aromatic beer production, and an alternative yeast extract (AYE) production in the same unit. Specifically, orange pulp from discarded oranges was applied as an immobilization carrier of the alcohol-resistant and cryotolerant yeast strain S. cerevisiae AXAZ-1. The yeast culture was produced by minor nutrient supplementation using diluted molasses as substrate. An effective Citrus Waste Brewing Biocatalyst (CWBB) was produced and applied for beer fermentation. The aroma-related compounds in beer produced with free yeast cells or the CWBB were evaluated by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The analysis showed that the beers produced by the CWBB had a more complex volatile profile compared with beer fermented by the free cells. More specifically, the CWBB enhanced the formation of esters and terpenes by 5- and 27-fold, respectively. In the frame of the proposed multiprocessing biorefinery concept, the spent CWBB, after it has completed its cycle of brewing batches, was used as substrate for AYE production through autolysis. The produced AYE significantly affected the yeast growth when compared to commercial yeast extract (CYE). More specifically, it promoted the biomass productivity and biomass yield factor by 60–150% and 110–170%, respectively. Thus, AYE could be successfully used for industrial cell growth as an efficient and cheaper substitute of CYE. Within a circular economy framework, the present study highlights the potential use of citrus waste to produce aromatic beer combined with AYE production as an alternative way to valorize these wastes.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010015
Despite the great relevance of sustainable development, the absence of a shared approach to sustainable vitiviniculture is evident. This review aimed to investigate sustainability along the entire wine chain, from primary production to the finished wine, with specific attention to three key dimensions of sustainability (environmental, social, and economic) and relating measures. Therefore, it was decided to: investigate the ways in which sustainability is applied in the various stages of the production chain (wine growing, wineries, distribution chain, and waste management); analyse the regulations in force throughout the world and the main labelling systems; provide numerical information on sustainable grapes and wines; study the objective quality of sustainable wines and that perceived by consumers, considering that it affects their willingness to pay. The research highlighted that rules and regulations on organic production of grapes and wines are flanked by several certification schemes and labelling systems. Although sustainable wines represent a niche in the market, in recent years, there has been an increase in vineyards conducted with sustainable (mainly organic and biodynamic) methods, and a consequent increase in the production of sustainable wines both in traditional and emerging producing countries. Although (or perhaps precisely for this reason) no significant differences in quality are found among sustainable and conventional wines, consumers are willing to pay a premium for sustainably produced wines. This finding should encourage wineries to both put in place environmental activities and intensify their communication.
Beverages, Volume 7; doi:10.3390/beverages7010014
The 2020 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, also referred to as the COVID-19 [named for the disease caused by the virus] pandemic, shook the world to its core. Not only were populations hurt by the virus physically, the pandemic had deep repercussions economically as well. One of the industries severely impacted by the implications of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic was the brewing industry, particularly that of the United States. The economic turmoil and uncertainty were felt by both macro and micro brewers alike. Draft beer sales virtually dried up overnight as state-imposed shutdowns closed bars, restaurants, and taprooms as a means to curb the spread of the virus. There were supply chain and logistical issues that arose during the pandemic due to not only closures within the brewing industry but supporting industries such as printers and shippers. In some cases, entire business models had to be turned completely on their head in an instant and business pivots had to be made. The year 2020 was wrought with challenges faced by the brewing industry. There was one saving grace however that kept many breweries afloat during the pandemic, and that was packaged beverage sales, especially those packages intended for off-site consumption. Set forth by trends of the pre-pandemic years aluminum cans and canning reigned supreme for the craft brewing market and allowed breweries to get product into the hands of consumers and ultimately allowed some breweries to stay open. Other options breweries had included the use of glass growlers or aluminum crowlers as a means to sell draft products to-go. The resourcefulness of many brewery owners was tested in 2020 and many rose to the challenge. This report aims to examine several of the challenges, pivots, and solutions packaging provided to the beer industry during the pandemic.