Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2165-7424 / 2165-7432
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 242
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Basmat Amal Chouhani, Yassine Allata, Wafae Chouhani, Ghita Elberdai, Nadia Kabbali, Tarik Sqalli Houssaini
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 103-111; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.124008

Abstract:
Hypercalcemia is a common disorder that can cause acute kidney failure, neurological damage up to coma, arrhythmia and cardiac arrest. The management of hypercalcemia is based on intravenous hydration with normal saline, when insufficient, bisphosphonate treatment is used. More recently, denosumab has shown significant benefit. Hemodialysis is an additional option in the treatment of severe refractory hypercalcemia when medical treatment is deemed ineffective or unavailable. It allows rapid correction of calcium levels, especially in patients with renal failure or cardiac co-morbidities, where hydration cannot be performed safely. The aim of our study was to compare hemodialysis as a therapeutic tool, to more conservative treatments. Our study is retrospective, descriptive, analytical and comparative, sprawling from January 2015 to June 2019 at the university hospital Hassan II in Fez. 78 patients with hypercalcemia were studied. The mean age was 55 ± 15 years and sex ratio M/F of 1.1. The mean corrected serum calcium at admission was 144 mg/l ± 23 mg/l. Malignancies represented 72.7% of all etiologies. Kidney injury was observed in 50 of our patients (64%). Mortality was noted in 16.6% of all cases. When comparing the 2 groups (patient on dialysis versus patient under other treatments), electrocardiogram abnormalities, patient who had high levels of calcium and those who had hyperparathyroidism were more likely to be on dialysis rate. In our study, even though we used relatively high calcium dialysate, we were able to achieve a decrease of 39% in patient’s calcemia in the hemodialysis group versus 27% decrease when using a combination of forced saline dieresis and bisphosphonate without a difference in term of mortality.
Waibode Peter Alabrah, Mieebi Martins Wankasi, Jackson Borobuebi Okutu, Eni-Yimini Solomon Agoro
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 83-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.123006

Abstract:
Hirsutism is an endocrine disorder where women develop excess growth of terminal hairs in a male pattern. This study evaluated the concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and testosterone in bearded women in the Amassoma metropolis of Bayelsa state. In a view to determining whether hirsutism has an effect/relationship with the biochemical parameters estimated, a total of 50 bearded and 50 non-bearded women were recruited for this study. Based on a cross-sectional study, group A and B were appropriately matched for age and BMI. The concentrations of the biochemical parameters were measured using WHO-approved method. Bearded females had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) cholesterol concentration (4.41 ± 1.09 mmol/L) when compared with the non-bearded (control) women. Furthermore, the mean concentrations of testosterone and glucose were higher in the bearded female group when compared with the non-bearded. The study established that women with hirsutism have associated hypertestosteronemia, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia.
Chisom Adaobi Nri-Ezedi, Henry Chima Okpara, Kenneth Nchekwube Okeke, Ezinne Ifeyinwa Nwaneli, Emeka Stephen Edokwe, Sylvia Tochukwu Echendu, Thomas Obiajulu Ulasi
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.122002

Abstract:
Background: Adiponectin possesses essential physiological functions that protect against the onset of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Although several studies have discussed the association between adiponectin and Blood Pressure (BP) in adults and older adolescents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the relationship between adiponectin and BP among children in Africa. Significance: This novel discovery is expected to serve as a benchmark for future local studies in examining the role of adiponectin in cardiovascular disorders among Africans. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 86 healthy children aged 4 to 11 years with normal BMI. BP values were measured and percentiles derived from the 2017 revised clinical practice guidelines of the American Academy of Paediatrics. Fasting blood adiponectin values were determined with ELISA, and the level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Result: 86 children were comprised of 42 (48.8%) males and 44 (51.2%) females. The mean age of all subjects was 7.5 ± 2.3 years, while that of fasting adiponectin was 4.8 ± 2.1 ng/dl. There were no significant differences in the age, Body Mass Index, BP and adiponectin concentrations across gender. 69 (80.2%) participants had normal BP while 5 (5.8%) and 12 (14.0%) had elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension. Mean adiponectin values for normal BP, elevated BP and stage 1 hypertension were 5.1 ± 2.1 ng/ml, 3.3 ± 1.2 ng/ml and 4.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml respectively (p-value = 0.039). A significant negative correlation was observed between adiponectin and systolic BP independent of age, sex, and BMI. Although a negative correlation was noted between adiponectin and diastolic blood pressure, this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Adiponectin correlates negatively with systolic BP in young Nigerian children independent of age, Body Mass Index and gender. More studies are indicated to investigate this relationship in association with vital metabolic factors across different age groups in Africa.
Diallo Ibrahima Mané, Diédhiou Demba, Ndour Michel Assane, Sow Djiby, Dieng Mouhamed, Gadji Fatou Kiné, Thioye El Hadji Mamadou Moussa, Bassène Joseph, Ndiaye Ndeye Fama Mody, Sarr Anna, et al.
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 91-102; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.124007

Abstract:
Introduction: SARS-COV2 infection is a major public health problem and diabetes mellitus is a serious factor. The objective was to determine the characteristics of COVID-19 in diabetics at the Epidemic Treatment Center (ETC) of the Abass Ndao Hospital Center. Observation: This was a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study carried out at Abass Ndao Hospital from March 01, 2021 to September 31, 2021. We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics. Results: Among 333 patients infected with COVID-19, 203 were diabetic (60.96%). The sex ratio was 0.70 and the mean age 60.18 years. Diabetes was type 2 (84.2%) and inaugural (15.8%). Arterial hypertension was the main comorbidity (86.96% of cases). The RT-PCR test was positive in 86.21% of cases. The main clinical signs were: asthenia (90.14%), dyspnea (78.81%), cough (52.21%) and body aches (52.21%). Oxygen saturation was alanced in 71.43% with an average blood sugar of 2.02 ± 4 g/l. At the paraclinical, the D dimer was ≥1000 ng/l (71.52%) and the C-reactive protein ≥100 mg/l (32.01%). Chest CT scan found mild to moderate (55.17%), severe (21.67%) and critical (17.24%) lung lesions. Pulmonary embolism was found in 4 diabetics. The treatment of diabetes was represented by insulin therapy (85.82%) and oral antidiabetics (24.11%). Anti-COVID-19 treatment was dominated by azithromycin (89.11%), corticosteroid therapy (92.11%), anticoagulants (99%), hydroxychloroquine (21.29%). Mortality was found in 14.36% (n = 29) and significantly correlated with age ≥ 60 years (OR = 3.013 [1.266 - 7.173], P = 0.005), short duration of hospitalization (OR = 3.154 [1.149 - 8.663], P = 0.009), C-reactive protein > 100 mg/l (OR = 6.370 [2.704 - 15.006], P [2.633 - 15.222], P [3.367 - 18.322], P Conclusion: Diabetes is one of the most important comorbidities linked to the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The seriousness factors in this field remain age ≥ 60 years, lung damage ≥ 50%, CRP ≥ 100 mg/l, and oxygen saturation at 90%.
Naby Moussa Baldé, Amadou Kaké, Djibril Sylla, Alpha Mamadou Diallo, Mamadou Mansour Diallo, Amadou Diango, Lanciné Kourouma, Elhdj Zainoul Bah, Kadija Dieng, Mody Abdoulaye Barry
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 75-81; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.122005

Abstract:
Context and Objective: Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. It represents the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism with a clear female predominance. The objective of our work was to report the sociodemographic, clinical, therapeutic, and evolutionary characteristics of Graves’ disease at the University Hospital of Conakry. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study, over the period from December 2016 to June 2021, at the endocrinology consultation of Donka University Hospital. Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic, and evolutionary variables of patients followed up for Graves’ disease were collected and analyzed. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease was based on the presence of clinical signs of thyrotoxicosis, diffuse goiter, exophthalmos, and or T-RAK positivity. Results: Graves’ disease was related to 33% of thyroid consultations and 64% of hyperthyroidism. The sex ratio M/F was 0.07. The median age of the patients was 39.4 ± 13 years. The main reason for consultation was thyrotoxicosis syndrome, dominated by cardiovascular signs (92%). TRAK was performed in 38 patients with a positive result in 89%, i.e., a mean level of 17.93 mUI/l. All patients were treated with synthetic antithyroid drugs, with a favorable clinical evolution. Surgery was considered in 4 patients after the stabilization of the thyroid function. The follow-up was considered regular in 49 patients (49%). Conclusion: Graves’ disease is the most frequent hyperthyroidism in Conakry with a clear predominance of women, especially young women. Efforts should be focused on improving diagnosis and the access to treatment for better patient compliance.
Xiao Yi Brenda Lee, Nur Wafiah Yusof, Naganathan Kathiresan Pillai, Christina Gertrude Yap, Nowrozy Kamar Jahan
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 20-46; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.122003

Abstract:
Objectives: Our main objective is to establish an association between obesity and social networks among the adult population as well as understanding the underlying mechanisms. We aim to provide suggestions for the development of future interventions to treat obesity. Methods: We carried out a literature search from 4 databases: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science. We conducted a systematic search targeting on 3 main concept terms—“social network”, “obesity” and “adult”. A final pool of 11 articles best fitted for our topic was included. Results: We have established a clear association between obesity and social networks. Single women with the co-living arrangement have a higher waist circumference (WC), consistent with a higher predisposition to obesity seen among single individuals but lone living divorced men had lower WC compared to those with partners. Women with high incomes are less likely to be obese in comparison to highly social men with low income. The degree of the effect on social networks and obesity was inconclusive due to differences in the study population. Generally, women with low social participation tend to be obese. However, non-partnered women consistently showed a higher WC in comparison to their partnered counterparts regardless of participation rates except for divorced women. Living in a neighborhood with access to active transportation, high socioeconomic status, increased levels of social trust and social support reduces the prevalence of obesity. Mechanisms of cultural ideals, nature of employment, stress, gender, self-selection, network influence, social contagion and shared built environment may have contributed to the variation in results obtained. Conclusion: Association between social network and obesity exists. However, its overall effect on body weight is affected by a variety of factors. Sociodemographic factors and network characteristics of the population may influence the impacts on body weight. Therefore, a good understanding of the mechanisms associated will assist the development of effective network-based interventions.
Kossi Kodjo, Mamadou Mansour Diallo, Alpha Mamadou Diallo, Koffi Pierre Dago, Adelaide Hue, Assita Yao, Abodo Jacko, Adrien Lokrou
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 113-121; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.125009

Abstract:
Background: Diabetic foot is a frequent complication of diabetes, of multifactorial origin, associating nervous and/or circulatory disorders to which infection is often added. Its care is multidisciplinary and requires coordination between different actors. In this context, arterial doppler ultrasound is essential in the diagnosis of diabetic arteriopathy and participates in therapeutic decision-making. The aim of this study was to describe the abnormalities found on Doppler ultrasonography of patients hospitalized for the diabetic foot in the Ivory Coast. Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study including 235 patients hospitalized for the diabetic foot in the Endocrinology department of the Yopougon University Hospital from February 2002 to December 2015. All records of patients who performed arterial Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs were selected and the various abnormalities were described. Results: The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.1 (124 men to 111 women). The predominant age group was 61.2 years. Type 2 diabetes was found in 97.4% of cases. The average evolution of diabetes was 8.9 years with extremes of 1 and 32 years. Wet gangrene was the most common type of lesion found in 75.8% of cases. On ultrasonography, 98.7% of the patients had an arterial abnormality of the lower limbs. It was bilateral in 62.2% of cases, dominated by atheromatous overloads and mediacalcosis in 46.4% and 43.8% of cases, respectively. Arterial stenosis was lesions hemodynamically found in 76.3% of cases and arterial occlusions in 32.7% of cases. The amputation rate was 72.7%. Conclusion: This study shows the high frequency of arterial abnormalities in patients with the diabetic foot with a predominantly distal involvement. Arterial Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs remains an essential tool in the care of diabetic foot. This easily accessible, non-invasive examination has a key role in therapeutic decision-making.
Etoa Etoga Martine Claude, Biwole Sida Ghislaine, Ama Moor Vicky, Ongmeb Boli Anne, Ndi Manga Jean Arnaud, Dehayem Yefou Mesmin, Mendane Mekobe Francine, Jean Claude Mbanya, Sobngwi Eugène
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.121001

Abstract:
Background: The presence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, the main entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in lung alveolar tissue, in Sertoli and Leydig cells of the adult testis, may suggest possible testicular involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our aim was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on gonadal function in men. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study in a population of men aged below 65 years of age with SARS-CoV-2. Not included in the study were any subjects on testosterone replacement therapy or with a known condition that could create hypogonadism. We recruited patients through a questionnaire and then performed total testosterone and SHBG analysis at 8 hours and 2 months post infection by ELISA. We used the Spearman Rho test for statistical analysis of correlations. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The sample consisted of 40 male COVID positive patients with a mean age of 46.4 ± 11.8 years. Eight patients were reviewed after infection. The mean total testosterone was 11 ng/ml ± 2.4 and the SHBG was 113 nmol/l ± 66.9 during infection. In the 8 patients reviewed after infection, median total testosterone decreased during infection (11 ng/ml) and increased after infection (12.7 ng/ml), this result was statistically significant (P = 0.028). Median SHBG during infection was increased (115.7 nmol/l) and after infection was decreased (82 nmol/l). There was a statistically significant (P = 0.04) and positive correlation between serum testosterone and SHBG levels in patients with severe infection. Conclusion: There could be a transient relative hypogonadism during SARS-CoV-2 infection, more marked in the severe forms of the disease with a tendency to improve after infection.
Daniela Giustarini, Comasia Ricci, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Stefano Pieretti, Paolo Andre, Silvia Migliorini, Lauretta Massai, Paola Minosi, Ilenia Casini, Anna Maria Aloisi
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 47-74; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.122004

Abstract:
Menopause is the last step in the reproductive history of a woman. The ovaries stop producing hormones and the body reacts by lowering its functions, including the cognitive one. Phytoestrogens are plant products with the estrogen-like activity which are able to mimic many of estrogen’s functions. The aim of the present experiment was to study the effects of 30 days of regular consumption of soy-enriched bread containing a known amount of phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) in climacteric or menopausal women. Thirty women at different stages of menopause (climacteric, within 5 years of menopause, more than 5 years of menopause) were asked to include 200 g/die of bread containing 40 mg of phytoestrogens in their diet. The effect of the regular consumption of this bread on common menopausal symptoms and cognitive parameters was determined before and after 30 days through questionnaires and experimental tests. Phytoestrogens were measured in the urine. Twenty-five women completed the study. Independence of the menopause stage, there was a significant increase of phytoestrogens in the urine and a decrease of the classical symptoms (i.e., hot flushes). Moreover, the women showed a significant improvement in attentional performance tests, the quality of life index and pain intensity. Phytoestrogens would be an important supplement in aging women due to their ability to induce estrogen-like effects without the potential side effects of estrogens. Their presence in soy-enriched bread, a food commonly present in meals, avoids consideration of their consumption as a drug.
Patrice Hodonou Avogbe, Ambaliou Sanni
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Volume 12, pp 123-134; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2022.126010

Abstract:
Insulin resistance (IR) is a well-recognized marker of increased cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Therefore, screening for IR predictors would help reduce the likelihood of progression from early stage of IR to T2D or CVDs. However, the knowledge of association between IR and circulating total calcium (CTCa) and phosphate levels among non-diabetic patients in Benin is lacking. We investigated whether CTCa and phosphate levels within the normal ranges are associated with IR risk among taxi-motorbike drivers (TMDs) living and working in Cotonou. We evaluated 134 non-diabetic TMDs (aged 22 - 59 years) based on CTCa, phosphate, glucose, fasting insulin, and IR levels. IR was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). IR was defined as the 75th percentile of HOMA-IR value. Cardiometabolic factors were analyzed by tertiles of CTCa and phosphate levels (low, middle, and high groups). Logistic regression models evaluated the relationships between IR and CTCa and phosphate levels. Our results showed that participants with high CTCa levels had the highest prevalence of IR, elevated total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In a fully adjusted model, the odd ratio (OR) of having IR comparing the highest (>2.50 mmol/L) to the lowest CTCa levels (1.23 mmol/L) and the lowest levels (<1.10 mmol/L) of phosphate was 0.28 (p = 0.037). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that elevated CTCa and low phosphate levels are significant predictors of IR in non-diabetic patients. Continuous monitoring of these markers may help identify earlier individuals at greatest IR risk.
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