Frontiers in Plant Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1664-462X / 1664-462X
Published by: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
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Yu-Hang Zhong, Yun-Fei Zheng, Yin-Xuan Xue, Lv-Ji Wang, Jin-Wang Zhang, Dai-Li Li,
Published: 26 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.816946

Abstract:
Interploidy cross commonly results in complex chromosome number and structural variations. In our previous study, a progeny with segregated ploidy levels was produced by an interploidy cross between diploid female parent Populus tomentosa × Populus bolleana clone TB03 and triploid male parent Populus alba × Populus berolinensis ‘Yinzhong’. However, the chromosome compositions of aneuploid genotypes in the progeny were still unclear. In the present study, a microsatellite DNA allele counting–peak ratios (MAC-PR) method was employed to analyze allelic configurations of each genotype to clarify their chromosome compositions, while 45S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was used to reveal the mechanism of chromosome number variation. Based on the MAC-PR analysis of 47 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed across all 19 chromosomes of Populus, both chromosomal number and structural variations were detected for the progeny. In the progeny, 26 hypo-triploids, 1 hyper-triploid, 16 hypo-tetraploids, 10 tetraploids, and 5 hyper-tetraploids were found. A total of 13 putative structural variation events (duplications and/or deletions) were detected in 12 genotypes, involved in chromosomes 3, 6, 7, 14, 15, 16, and 18. The 46.2% (six events) structural variation events occurred on chromosome 6, suggesting that there probably is a chromosome breakpoint near the SSR loci of chromosome 6. Based on calculation of the allelic information, the transmission of paternal heterozygosity in the hypo-triploids, hyper-triploid, hypo-tetraploids, tetraploids, and hyper-tetraploids were 0.748, 0.887, 0.830, 0.833, and 0.836, respectively, indicating that the viable pollen gains of the male parent ‘Yinzhong’ were able to transmit high heterozygosity to progeny. Furthermore, 45S rDNA–FISH analysis showed that specific-chromosome segregation feature during meiosis and chromosome appointment in normal and fused daughter nuclei of telophase II of ‘Yinzhong,’ which explained that the formation of aneuploids and tetraploids in the progeny could be attributed to imbalanced meiotic chromosomal segregation and division restitution of ‘Yinzhong,’ The data of chromosomal composition and structural variation of each aneuploid in the full-sib progeny of TB03 × ‘Yinzhong’ lays a foundation for analyzing mechanisms of trait variation relying on chromosome or gene dosages in Populus.
Xingwei Zheng, Ling Qiao, Ye Liu, Naicui Wei, Jiajia Zhao, Bangbang Wu, Bin Yang, Juanling Wang, Jun Zheng
Published: 26 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.806295

Abstract:
Water availability is a crucial environmental factor on grain number in wheat, which is one of the important yield-related traits. In this study, a diverse panel of 282 wheat accessions were phenotyped for grain number per spike (GNS), spikelet number (SN), basal sterile spikelet number (BSSN), and apical sterile spikelet number (ASSN) under different water regimes across two growing seasons. Correlation analysis showed that GNS is significantly correlated with both SN and BSSN under two water regimes. A total of 9,793 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from the 15 K wheat array were employed for genome-wide association study (GWAS). A total of 77 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) for investigated traits as well as 8 MTAs for drought tolerance coefficient (DTC) were identified using the mixed linear model. Favored alleles for breeding were inferred according to their estimated effects on GNS, based on the mean difference of varieties. Frequency changes in favored alleles associated with GNS in modern varieties indicate there is still considerable genetic potential for their use as markers for genome selection of GNS in wheat breeding.
Ting Zhang, Ya-Nan Li, Xue Li, Wangliu Gu, Emily Kolojane Moeketsi, Ruiwen Zhou, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang, Haifeng Zhang
Published: 26 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.811041

Abstract:
Fatty acid metabolism is important for the maintenance of fatty acid homeostasis. Free fatty acids, which are toxic in excess, are activated by esterification with coenzyme A (CoA) and then subjected to β-oxidization. Fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes play critical roles in the development and virulence of several phytopathogens. In this study, we identified and characterized a peroxisomal-CoA synthetase in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, MoPCS60, which is a homolog of PCS60 in budding yeast. MoPCS60 was highly expressed during the conidial and early infectious stages and was induced under oleate treatment. Targeted deletion of MoPCS60 resulted in a significant reduction in growth rate when oleate and olive oil were used as the sole carbon sources. Compared with the wild-type strain Guy11, the ΔMopcs60 mutant exhibited fewer peroxisomes, more lipid droplets, and decreased pathogenicity. The distribution of MoPcs60 varied among developmental stages and was mainly localized to peroxisomes in the hyphae, conidia, and appressoria when treated with oleate. Our results suggest that MoPcs60 is a key peroxisomal-CoA synthetase involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and pathogenicity in rice blast fungi.
Kenta Shirasawa, Tomoya Esumi, Akihiro Itai, Sachiko Isobe
Published: 26 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.802203

Abstract:
To gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying blooming and petal movement in flowering cherry (Cerasus × yedoensis), we performed time-course RNA-seq analysis of the floral buds and open-flowers of the most popular flowering cherry cultivar, ‘Somei-Yoshino.’ Independent biological duplicate samples of floral buds and open-flowers were collected from ‘Somei-Yoshino’ trees grown at three different locations in Japan. RNA-seq reads obtained from floral bud and open-flower samples collected in the current study (in 2019) and in a previous study (in 2017) were aligned against the genome sequence of ‘Somei-Yoshino’ to quantify gene transcript levels. Clustering analysis of RNA-seq reads revealed dynamic changes in the transcriptome, with genes in seven modules predominantly expressed at specific time points, ranging from 5 weeks before flowering to 2 weeks after flowering. Based on the identified gene modules and Gene Ontology (GO) terms enriched at different floral stages, we speculate that the genetic mechanisms underlying petal movement and flower opening in cherry involve the processes of development, cell wall organization, reproduction, and metabolism, which are executed by genes encoding transcription factors, phytohormones, transporters, and polysaccharide metabolic enzymes. Furthermore, we established a statistical model for cherry bloom forecasting, based on gene expression levels as RNA markers at different time points before flowering.
Xiaofeng Bian, Ho Soo Kim, Sang-Soo Kwak, Qian Zhang, Shuai Liu, Peiyong Ma, Zhaodong Jia, Yizhi Xie, Peng Zhang, Yang Yu
Published: 26 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.820450

Abstract:
Plant root systems are essential for the uptake of water and nutrients from soil and are positively correlated to yield in many crops including the sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized IbRAP2.4, a novel nuclear-localized gene encoding the AP2/ERF transcription factor, from sweetpotato. IbRAP2.4 was responsive to NaCl, PEG8000, ethylene, and Indole 3-acetic acid treatments. As revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and dual luciferase assay, IbRAP2.4 could bind to both DRE and GCC-box elements and acted as a transcription activator. IbRAP2.4 overexpression significantly promoted lateral root formation and enhanced the drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, while it inhibited storage root formation in transgenic sweetpotato by comprehensively upregulating lignin biosynthesis pathway genes. Results suggested that IbRAP2.4 may be a useful potential target for further molecular breeding of high yielding sweetpotato.
Corrigendum
, Nobuhiko Ohno, Mami Matsumoto, Sergey Bayborodin, Elena Deineko
Published: 25 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.847408

Abstract:
A Corrigendum onSerial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals That Intercellular Nuclear Migration Occurs in Most Normal Tobacco Male Meiocytesby Mursalimov, S., Ohno, N., Matsumoto, M., Bayborodin, S., and Deineko, E. (2021). Front. Plant Sci. 12:672642. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.672642 There is an error in the Funding statement. The correct number for the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Japan Society for Promotion of Science is No. 21-54-50001 and JPJSBP120214813. The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Keywords: volume electron microscopy (vEM), cytomixis, male meiosis, Nicotiana, serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, nuclear migration, intercellular channels Citation: Mursalimov S, Ohno N, Matsumoto M, Bayborodin S and Deineko E (2022) Corrigendum: Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals That Intercellular Nuclear Migration Occurs in Most Normal Tobacco Male Meiocytes. Front. Plant Sci. 13:847408. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.847408 Received: 02 January 2022; Accepted: 05 January 2022; Published: 25 January 2022. Approved by: Copyright © 2022 Mursalimov, Ohno, Matsumoto, Bayborodin and Deineko. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. *Correspondence: Sergey Mursalimov, [email protected]
Wanyu Xu, Wenquan Bao, Huimin Liu, Chen Chen, Haikun Bai, Mengzhen Huang, Gaopu Zhu, Han Zhao, Ningning Gou, Yixiao Chen, et al.
Published: 25 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.802827

Abstract:
Freezing during the flowering of Prunus sibirica is detrimental to fruit production. The late flowering (LF) type, which is delayed by 7–15 days compared with the normal flowering (NF) type, avoids damages at low temperature, but the molecular mechanism of LF remains unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to comprehensively characterize floral bud differentiation. A histological analysis showed that initial floral bud differentiation was delayed in the LF type compared to the NF type. Genome-wide associated studies (GWAS) showed that a candidate gene (PaF106G0600023738.01) was significantly associated with LF type. It was identified as trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (PsTPPF), which is involved in trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) signaling pathway and acts on floral transition. A whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing analysis was conducted, and a total of 6,110 differential expression (DE) mRNAs, 1,351 DE lncRNAs, and 148 DE miRNAs were identified. In addition, 24 DE mRNAs related with floral transition were predicted, and these involved the following: three interactions between DE lncRNAs and DE mRNAs of photoperiod pathway with two mRNAs (COP1, PaF106G0400018289.01 and CO3, MXLOC_025744) and three lncRNAs (CCLR, LTCONS_00031803, COCLR1, LTCONS_00046726, and COCLR2, LTCONS_00046731); one interaction between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs with one mRNA, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (PsTPS1, PaF106G0100001132.01), and one miRNA (miRNA167h). Combined with the expression profiles and Tre6P levels, functions of PsTPPF and PsTPS1 in Tre6P regulation were considered to be associated with flowering time. A new network of ceRNAs correlated with LF was constructed, and it consisted of one mRNA (PsTPS1), one lncRNA (TCLR, LTCONS_00034157), and one miRNA (miR167h). This study provided insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of LF in Prunus sibirica.
Helga Ochagavía, Tibor Kiss, Ildikó Karsai, Ana M. Casas,
Published: 25 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.776982

Abstract:
Ambient temperatures are increasing due to climate change. Cereal crops development and production will be affected consequently. Flowering time is a key factor for adaptation of small grain cereals and, therefore, exploring developmental responses of barley to rising temperatures is required. In this work, we studied phasic growth, and inflorescence traits related to yield, in eight near isogenic lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing at the VRN-H1, VRN-H2 and PPD-H1 genes, representing different growth habits. The lines were grown in contrasting vernalization treatments, under two temperature regimes (18 and 25°C), in long days. Lines with recessive ppd-H1 presented delayed development compared to lines with the sensitive PPD-H1 allele, across the two growth phases considered. High temperature delayed flowering in all unvernalized plants, and in vernalized spring barleys carrying the insensitive ppd-H1 allele, whilst it accelerated flowering in spring barleys with the sensitive PPD-H1 allele. This finding evidenced an interaction between PPD-H1, temperature and vernalization. At the high temperature, PPD-H1 lines in spring backgrounds (VRN-H1-7) yielded more, whereas lines with ppd-H1 were best in vrn-H1 background. Our study revealed new information that will support breeding high-yielding cultivars with specific combinations of major adaptation genes tailored to future climatic conditions.
Venja M. Roeber, Thomas Schmülling,
Published: 25 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.781988

Abstract:
The photoperiod, which is the length of the light period in the diurnal cycle of 24 h, is an important environmental signal. Plants have evolved sensitive mechanisms to measure the length of the photoperiod. Photoperiod sensing enables plants to synchronize developmental processes, such as the onset of flowering, with a specific time of the year, and enables them to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses occurring at the same time every year. During the last years, the importance of the photoperiod for plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses has received increasing attention. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the signaling pathways involved in the photoperiod-dependent regulation of responses to abiotic (freezing, drought, osmotic stress) and biotic stresses. A central role of GIGANTEA (GI), which is a key player in the regulation of photoperiod-dependent flowering, in stress responses is highlighted. Special attention is paid to the role of the photoperiod in regulating the redox state of plants. Furthermore, an update on photoperiod stress, which is caused by sudden alterations in the photoperiod, is given. Finally, we will review and discuss the possible use of photoperiod-induced stress as a sustainable resource to enhance plant resistance to biotic stress in horticulture.
Minglei Su, Yingli Liu, Jianxiong Lyu, Shutang Zhao, Yurong Wang
Published: 25 January 2022
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.679230

Abstract:
Unraveling the impact of lignin reduction on cell wall construction of poplar stems is important for accurate understanding the regulatory role of biosynthetic genes. However, few cell-level studies have been conducted on the changes in lignin, other important cell wall composition, and the structural properties of transgenic poplar stems at different developmental stages. In this work, the content and microdistributions of cell wall composition as well as the morphological characteristics of cells were studied for p-hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A:quinate/shikimate p-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) downregulated transgenic poplar 84K (Populus alba × P. glandulosa cl. ‘84k’) at different developmental stages. Results show that the lignin contents of the upper, middle, and basal parts of HCT transgenic poplar stems were significantly decreased by 10.84, 7.40, and 7.75%, respectively; and the cellulose contents increased by 8.20, 6.45, and 3.31%, respectively, compared with the control group. The cellulose/lignin ratio of HCT transgenic poplars was therefore increased, especially in the upper sections, where it was 23.2% higher. Raman results indicate the appearance of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H) and a decrease in the ratio of syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin monomers in fiber cell walls of HCT transgenic poplars. In addition, microstructure observations revealed that the fiber and vessel cells of the HCT transgenic poplars exhibited thin cell walls and large lumen diameters. Compared with the control group, the cell wall thickness of fiber and vessel cells decreased by 6.50 and 10.93% on average, respectively. There was a 13.6% decrease in the average ratio of the cell wall thickness to the lumen diameter and an increase in fiber length and width of 5.60 and 6.11%, respectively. In addition, downregulation of HCT did not change the orientation of cellulosic microfibrils, but it led to an 11.1% increase of the cellulose crystallinity in cell walls compared to the control poplars. The information obtained herein could lead to a better understanding of the effects of genetic modifications on wood cell walls.
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