Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

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ISSN : 2221-1691
Published by: Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 2,020
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Jigna S Shah, Khushboo G Faldu, Snehal S Patel
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.306690

Abstract:
Objective: To explore the effect and mechanism of action of Celastrus paniculatus oil on the treatment of perinatal rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Methods: In the perinatal stage, the rats were either isolated or administered with lead acetate to establish an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Atomoxetine served as the reference standard. Animals’ behaviours were assessed through Y-maze, novel object preference, fear conditioning and resident-intruder aggression tests. Oxidative stress parameters, bioamine concentration (dopamine, noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine), nerve growth factor, interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were estimated. Synaptophysin immunohistochemical assay was performed.Results: Celastrus paniculatus oil significantly improved behavioural parameters in Y maze, novel object preference, discrimination index, fear conditioning and resident intruder aggressive tests. The treatment groups showed a decrease in malondialdehyde level. Changes in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin were restored by Celastrus paniculatus oil. Celastrus paniculatus oil increased nerve growth factor and decreased interleukin-6, nuclear factor-κB, and TNF-α. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was also improved by Celastrus paniculatus oil with alleviated reactive gliosis, degeneration, and vascular proliferation.Conclusions: This research shows the therapeutic potential of Celastrus paniculatus oil for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Esrafil Mansouri, Zeinab Rafiee, Maasoumeh Zare Moaiedi, Armita Valizadeh Gorji
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.306691

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the effect of p-coumaric acid against adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group received solvent; the p-coumaric acid group was treated with 100 mg/kg of p-coumaric acid orally for five consecutive days; the adriamycin group was administered with a single dose of adriamycin (15 mg/kg, i.p.), and the p-coumaric acid + adriamycin group was given p-coumaric acid five days before adriamycin administration. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and liver tissues were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemistrical studies. Moreover, the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in liver tissue were measured.Results: Treatment with p-coumaric acid protected the liver from the toxicity of adriamycin by attenuating the increase in alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lessening the decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin. p-Coumaric acid also raised the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, as well as decreased lipid peroxidation in liver tissue and hepatic IL- 1β expression. Additionally, histopathological study confirmed the protective effect of p-coumaric acid against liver damage.Conclusions: p-Coumaric acid can alleviate adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity.
Ornanong Tusskorn, Kanoktip Pansuksan, Kwanchayanawish Machana
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.303607

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the effects of Borassus flabellifer L. extracts on antioxidant activity, maintenance of cellular redox, and mitochondrial function in cisplatin-induced kidney injury.Methods: The extracts of Borassus flabellifer were obtained from crude male flowers using ethyl acetate and methanol. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content was also determined. Cytoprotective activity of ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts was assessed after kidney cells were treated with cisplatin. Oxidative stress was determined by glutathione (GSH) assay, and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) using 2’,7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and JC-10 assays, respectively.Results: Borassus flabellifer methanolic extract exhibited greater antioxidant activity than the ethyl acetate extract. Cytoprotective effect was demonstrated in both extracts, particularly in the ethyl acetate extract. The extracts showed protection against the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin by prevention of the increased GSSG and declined GSH/GSSG ratio. Both extracts also prevented the increase in ROS formation, and loss of ΔΨm.Conclusions: Both Borassus flabellifer extracts show antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity of NRK-52E cells by preventing oxidative stress and maintenance of GSH redox status. Borassus flabellifer extracts may possess beneficial effects on the prevention of oxidative stress- induced cell injury.
Byung-Min Choi, Seok-Hee Lim, Bing Si Li, Ri Zhe Zhu
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.301058

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the potential anti-aging mechanism of 9-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxydalbergiquinol (HDDQ) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).Methods: The effect of HDDQ on cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and the effects of HDDQ on senescence-like phenotypes were determined by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, Western blotting analysis, and a cell proliferation assay. The expression level and activity of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) induced by HDDQ were also measured.Results: HDDQ reversed senescence-like phenotypes in the oxidant-challenged model, through reducing SA-β-gal activity and promoting cell growth. Meanwhile, decreases in ac-p53, p21Cip1/WAF1, and p16Ink4a and an increase in pRb were observed. HDDQ induced the expression of SIRT1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, HDDQ inhibited H2O2-induced phosphorylation of Akt by SIRT1 up-regulation and reduced SA-β-gal staining.Conclusions: HDDQ inhibits H2O2-induced premature senescence and upregulation of SIRT1 expression plays a vital role in the inhibition of the senescence phenotype in HDFs.
Sukhbir Kaur, Vikas Kushwaha
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.300728

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the immunostimulatory potential of cross-reactive molecule heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) of filarial parasite Brugia malayi and Leishmania donovani.Methods: HSP60 of Brugia malayi (BmHSP60) was amplified using gene-specific primer, cloned in pTriEx4 vector, expressed in BL21-DE3 cells, and recombinant HSP60 (rHSP60) of ~65 kDa was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA column. The recombinant protein was desalted by the dialysis membrane, and the presence of endotoxin level was determined by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The recombinant protein was tested for cell proliferation, nitric oxide release, expression of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and transcription factors (STATs) in vitro using murine macrophage cell line (J774A.1).Results: Higher cell proliferation indicated that BmHSP60 had immunostimulatory potential. rBmHSP60 exposure upregulated the expression of iNOS, STAT1, STAT4, Th1 cytokines (IFN–γ, TNF–α, IL-12), and nitric oxide release. In addition, no remarkable change was observed in the expression of IL-6, IL-10, and STAT3 in macrophage cell line J774A.1. The ELISA analysis showed the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12 were upregulated while IL-10 level was downregulated, revealing that BmHSP60 triggered a Th1 immune response.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that rBmHSP60 has immunogenic properties which effectively enhances the Th1 type immune responses, and can be used as an immunoprophylactic agent against leishmaniasis. Furthermore, in vivo studies are in progress to determine the protective role of rBmHSP60 against Leishmania donovani infection in a mouse model.
Upa Kukongviriyapan, Gulladawan Jan-On, Akarachai Tubsakul, Weerapon Sangartit, Poungrat Pakdeechote, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Ketmanee Senaphan, Chakree Thongraung
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.300727

Abstract:
Objective: To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of Sang-Yod rice bran hydrolysates (SRH) and in combination with lisinopril against hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats with nitric oxide deficiency-induced hypertension.Methods: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by administration of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω- nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Hypertensive rats were administered daily with SRH (500 mg/kg/day), lisinopril (1 mg/kg/day), or the combination of SRH and lisinopril by gastric lavage for the last 3 weeks of L-NAME treatment. Hemodynamic status, vascular reactivity to vasoactive agents, and vascular remodeling were assessed. Blood and aortic tissues were collected for measurements of oxidative stress markers, plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin II, and protein expression.Results: L-NAME induced remarkable hypertension and severe oxidative stress, and altered contents of smooth muscle cells, elastin, and collagen of the aortic wall. SRH or lisinopril alone reduced blood pressure, restored endothelial function, decreased plasma ACEs and angiotensin II levels, alleviated oxidant markers and glutathione redox status, and restored the vascular structure. The effects were associated with increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and decreased expression of gp91phox and AT1R expression. The combination of SRH and lisinopril was more effective than monotherapy.Conclusions: SRH alone or in combination with lisinopril exert an antihypertensive effect and improve endothelial function and vascular remodeling through reducing oxidative stress and suppressing elevated renin-angiotensin system.
Lucia Dwi Antika, Rita Marleta Dewi
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.300726

Abstract:
Over the past decades, epidemiological studies have concluded that a diet rich in plant-derived products plays a pivotal role in human health. Fisetin (3,3’,4’,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a hydrophobic polyphenolic compound primarily found in edible plants (e.g. strawberry, blueberry, apple, grape, persimmon, kiwi, and cucumber). Various preclinical studies have revealed that fisetin exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-osteoporotic, antimicrobial, and anti-diabetic properties. Therefore, the pharmacological in vitro and in vivo studies on fisetin are discussed in this review. Additionally, this review would be useful for further study regarding the potential of natural products, notably fisetin, and its therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of diseases.
Chandragouda R Patil, Kalpesh R Patil, Aarti S Kale, Avinash R Wadkar, Umesh B Mahajan, Lalit A Birari, Sateesh Belemkar, Sameer N Goyal, Shreesh Ojha, Sanjay J Surana
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.311768

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the effect of aloin against chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group I (normal control), Group II (sham-operated), Group III (CCI control) and Group IV, V, VI, and VII, which underwent CCI surgery and then were administered with aloin (5 mg/kg, p.o.; 25 mg/kg, p.o.; 125 mg/kg, p.o.) and gabapentin (50 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively for 14 days. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by silk ligatures (4-0) loosely placed around the sciatic nerve. Nociceptive thresholds against mechanical stimuli (Von-Frey filaments) and thermal stimuli (12 °C and 40 °C) were measured at mid-plantar paw region ipsilateral to the compressed nerve on day-3, 7, 11, and 14. The concentration of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β was estimated at day-7. At day 14, motor nerve conduction velocity was determined under urethane anesthesia (1.25 g/kg). Oxidative stress parameters (malondiadehyde, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) were estimated in sciatic nerve homogenates at day 14. Representative nerve samples were processed for histological investigations.Results: Aloin significantly reduced CCI-induced mechanical and thermal allodynia. It also improved motor nerve conduction velocity and decreased oxidative stress in nerve tissues. In addition, it decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and restored the histoarchitecture of compressed sciatic nerve.Conclusions: Aloin mitigates CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the afflicted sciatic nerve.
Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Rabia Iqbal, Irfan Hamid, Khalid Hussain Janbaz, Ammara Saleem, Ali Sharif, Sohaib Peerzada, Bushra Akhtar, Kashif Sohail, Sajid Ali
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.311769

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the pharmacological potential of Argemone mexicana in treating constipation and emesis by using in vitro and in vivo models.Methods: The spasmogenic and spasmolytic effects were evaluated on isolated rabbit jejunum fragments loaded in a tissue organ bath. The response was recorded with an isotonic transducer attached with Power Lab Data Acquisition System. The laxative and antiemetic activities were assessed in BALB-c mice and poultry chicks challenged with carbamylcholine and copper sulphate stimulated emesis, respectively.Results: The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the extract were (267.75 ± 5.77) mg GAE/g and (73.86 ± 6.01) mg QE/g, respectively. Argemone mexicana extract exerted spasmogenic effect on isolated rabbit jejunum segments with an EC50 value of 0.016 mg/ mL, which was blocked by atropine (0.3 μM). Argemone mexicana extract exerted spasmolytic effect in atropine treated jejunum fragments with an EC50 value of 2.185 mg/mL. Furthermore, Argemone mexicana extract relaxed potassium (80 mM)-induced contractions (EC50: 9.07 mg/mL), similar to a standard drug verapamil. The calcium channel blocker activity was confirmed by a rightward shift of concentration-response curve of calcium in the presence of Argemone mexicana extract (1-5 mg/mL) and verapamil (0.1-1 μM). In addition, the extract increased the distance travelled by a charcoal in the gastrointestinal tract and exhibited antiemetic effect on copper sulphate induced emesis in chicks. Conclusions: Argemone mexicana shows cholinergic agonist and calcium channel blocker activities, as well as antiemetic effect. It may be used as a potential agent for treating gastrointestinal disorders.
Yung Hyun Choi
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.4103/2221-1691.311770

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the effect of honokiol on oxidative damage in HaCaT human keratinocytes.Methods: HaCaT cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), following pretreatment with various concentrations of honokiol. The alleviating effects of honokiol on HaCaT cell viability and cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage, mitochondrial dynamics, and inhibition of adenosine triphoaphate production against H2O2 were investigated. Western blotting analysis was used to analyze the expression levels of specific proteins. Results: Honokiol suppressed H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage by blocking abnormal ROS accumulation. Honokiol also prevented apoptosis by inhibiting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and reducing the activity of caspase-3 in H2O2-stimulated HaCaT cells. In addition, honokiol attenuated H2O2-induced reduction of adenosine triphosphate content, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was markedly promoted by honokiol in H2O2-stimulated cells. Importantly, the anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferative activity of honokiol against H2O2 was further enhanced by adding an activator of AMPK, indicating that honokiol activated AMPK in HaCaT keratinocytes to protect against oxidative damage. Conclusions: The present results indicate that honokiol may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent against various oxidative stress-related skin diseases.
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