Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

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ISSN / EISSN : 1662-5161 / 1662-5161
Published by: Frontiers Media SA (10.3389)
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Dongdong Jiang, Zongyu Liu,
Published: 13 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.725233

Abstract:
Objectives: The present study aimed to test the effect of yoga meditation (YoMed) practice on inhibitory control of young adults. Methods: A total of 50 participants (23 male, 21–28 years old) from a university in Jinan, Shandong Province were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to a YoMed group or a Control group. Participants’ basic information, physical activity, and inhibitory control were measured. A multi-channel continuous-wave near-infrared spectrometer was used to monitor the brain’s hemodynamic responses. Results: After the intervention, we found significant differences in Flanker tasks between the YoMed group and Control group. The accuracy in the YoMed group was higher than those in the Control group (p < 0.05). Analysis of fNIRS data showed that oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) increased in the YoMed group during the Flanker tasks after the YoMed intervention. Conclusion: YoMed has a temporarily promoting effect on the brain activation of young adults. It is an effective and appropriate exercise to improve the inhibitory control of young adults.
Adam Fry, Stephen Braren, Nicholas Pitaro, Brandon Larson,
Published: 13 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.713193

Abstract:
Methods to enhance the ergogenic effects of music are of interest to athletes of all abilities. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the ergogenic effects of two commercially available methods of music augmentation: auditory beats and vibrotactile stimulation. Six male and five female cyclists/triathletes cycled for 7 minutes at three different intensities: a rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11 (“light”), RPE of 15 (“hard”), and a 7-minute time-trial. Before each 7-minute bout of cycling, participants listened to 10 minutes of self-selected music (MUS), or the same music with the addition of either isochronic auditory beats (ABS) or vibrotactile stimulation via SUBPACTM (VIB). MUS, ABS and VIB trials were performed in a randomized order. Power output was measured during cycling and felt arousal and feeling scores were recorded at timepoints throughout the protocol. The results found the augmented MUS interventions did not influence power output with no significant main effect of trial (p = 0.44, η2 = 0.09) or trial × cycling intensity interaction (p = 0.11, η2 = 0.20). Similarly, both felt arousal and feeling scores were unchanged between the MUS, ABS, and VIB trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, this pilot study indicated an ineffectiveness of the ABS and VIB to affect subsequent 7-min cycling performance compared to self-selected MUS alone.
, Marie Freslier, Florent Moissenet, Sailee Sansgiri, Navrag B. Singh, Elke Viehweger, William R. Taylor, Reinald Brunner
Published: 13 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.720699

Abstract:
For interpreting outcomes of clinical gait analysis, an accurate estimation of gait events, such as initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO), is essential. Numerous algorithms to automatically identify timing of gait events have been developed based on various marker set configurations as input. However, a systematic overview of the effect of the marker selection on the accuracy of estimating gait event timing is lacking. Therefore, we aim to evaluate (1) if the marker selection influences the accuracy of kinematic algorithms for estimating gait event timings and (2) what the best marker location is to ensure the highest event timing accuracy across various gait patterns. 104 individuals with cerebral palsy (16.0 ± 8.6 years) and 31 typically developing controls (age 20.6 ± 7.8) performed clinical gait analysis, and were divided into two out of eight groups based on the orientation of their foot, in sagittal and frontal plane at mid-stance. 3D marker trajectories of 11 foot/ankle markers were used to estimate the gait event timings (IC, TO) using five commonly used kinematic algorithms. Heatmaps, for IC and TO timing per group were created showing the median detection error, compared to detection using vertical ground reaction forces, for each marker. Our findings indicate that median detection errors can be kept within 7 ms for IC and 13 ms for TO when optimizing the choice of marker and detection algorithm toward foot orientation in midstance. Our results highlight that the use of markers located on the midfoot is robust for detecting gait events across different gait patterns.
Di Liang, , Xianfu Zhang, Weiwei Zhang
Published: 13 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.745671

Abstract:
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex and unknown etiology. Statistics demonstrate that the number of people diagnosed with ASD is increasing in countries around the world. Currently, although many neuroimaging studies indicate that ASD is characterized by abnormal functional connectivity (FC) patterns within brain networks rather than local functional or structural abnormalities, the FC characteristics of ASD are still poorly understood. In this study, a Vietoris-Rips (VR) complex filtration model of the brain functional network was established by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of children aged 6–13 years old [including 54 ASD patients and 52 typical development (TD) controls] from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) public database. VR complex filtration barcodes are calculated by using persistent homology to describe the changes in the FC neural circuits of brain networks. The number of FC neural circuits with different length ranges at different threshold values is calculated by using the barcodes, the different brain regions participating in FC neural circuits are discussed, and the connectivity characteristics of brain FC neural circuits in the two groups are compared and analyzed. Our results show that the number of FC neural circuits with lengths of 8–12 is significantly decreased in the ASD group compared with the TD control group at threshold values of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9, and there is no significant difference in the number of FC neural circuits with lengths of 4–7 and 13–16 and lengths 16. When the thresholds are 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9, the number of FC neural circuits in some brain regions, such as the right orbital part of the superior frontal gyrus, the left supplementary motor area, the left hippocampus, and the right caudate nucleus, involved in the study is significantly decreased in the ASD group compared with the TD control group. The results of this study indicate that there are significant differences in the FC neural circuits of brain networks in the ASD group compared with the TD control group.
Yang Di, , Wenxiao Zhong, Shuang Liu, Dong Ming
Published: 13 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.672946

Abstract:
An ongoing interest towards identification based on biosignals, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is growing in the past decades. Previous studies indicated that the inherent information about brain activity may be used to identify individual during resting-state of eyes open (REO) and eyes closed (REC). Electroencephalographic (EEG) records the data from the scalp, and it is believed that the noisy EEG signals can influence the accuracies of one experiment causing unreliable results. Therefore, the stability and time-robustness of inter-individual features can be investigated for the purpose of individual identification. In this work, we conducted three experiments with the time interval of at least 2 weeks, and used different types of measures (Power Spectral Density, Cross Spectrum, Channel Coherence and Phase Lags) to extract the individual features. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) is calculated to measure the level of linear correlation for intra-individual, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to obtain the related classification accuracy. Results show that the classification accuracies of four features were 85–100% for intra-experiment dataset, and were 80–100% for fusion experiments dataset. For inter-experiments classification of REO features, the optimized frequency range is 13–40 Hz for three features, Power Spectral Density, Channel Coherence and Cross Spectrum. For inter-experiments classification of REC, the optimized frequency range is 8–40 Hz for three features, Power Spectral Density, Channel Coherence and Cross Spectrum. The classification results of Phase Lags are much lower than the other three features. These results show the time-robustness of EEG, which can further use for individual identification system.
, Caroline Palmer, Anna-Katharina R. Bauer, Martin G. Bleichner, Alexander P. Demos, Stefan Debener
Published: 13 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.717810

Abstract:
Interpersonal synchrony refers to the temporal coordination of actions between individuals and is a common feature of social behaviors, from team sport to ensemble music performance. Interpersonal synchrony of many rhythmic (periodic) behaviors displays dynamics of coupled biological oscillators. The current study addresses oscillatory dynamics on the levels of brain and behavior between music duet partners performing at spontaneous (uncued) rates. Wireless EEG was measured from N = 20 pairs of pianists as they performed a melody first in Solo performance (at their spontaneous rate of performance), and then in Duet performances at each partner’s spontaneous rate. Influences of partners’ spontaneous rates on interpersonal synchrony were assessed by correlating differences in partners’ spontaneous rates of Solo performance with Duet tone onset asynchronies. Coupling between partners’ neural oscillations was assessed by correlating amplitude envelope fluctuations of cortical oscillations at the Duet performance frequency between observed partners and between surrogate (re-paired) partners, who performed the same melody but at different times. Duet synchronization was influenced by partners’ spontaneous rates in Solo performance. The size and direction of the difference in partners’ spontaneous rates were mirrored in the size and direction of the Duet asynchronies. Moreover, observed Duet partners showed greater inter-brain correlations of oscillatory amplitude fluctuations than did surrogate partners, suggesting that performing in synchrony with a musical partner is reflected in coupled cortical dynamics at the performance frequency. The current study provides evidence that dynamics of oscillator coupling are reflected in both behavioral and neural measures of temporal coordination during musical joint action.
Yuting Li, Lanlan Zhang, Yin Wu, Jian Zhang, Ke Liu
Published: 10 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.711703

Abstract:
Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disease that includes non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment. Long-term mind-body exercise has been shown to improve cognitive ability in PD patients, but the methods of assessment and intervention were inconsistent across studies. Wuqinxi is a mind-body exercise that is easy to learn, has few physical and cognitive demands, and is recommended for PD patients. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) has been associated with cognitive alterations in PD patients, but no studies have yet explored the effects of Wuqinxi on this association. The current protocol is designed to measure the effects of long-term Wuqinxi intervention on cognition in PD patients, and explore the underlying neural mechanisms through DFC. Methods: A long-term single-blind, randomized trial will be conducted. PD patients and age- and gender-matched HC will be recruited; PD patients will be randomly assigned to either Wuqinxi or balance groups, and HC will all receive health education. The Wuqinxi group will receive a 90-min session of Wuqinxi intervention three times a week for 24 weeks, while the balance group will receive balance exercise instruction on the same schedule. Primary outcomes will include assessment of cognitive domains and dynamic temporal characteristics of functional connectivity. Secondary outcomes will include severity of motor symptoms, mobility, balance, and emotional state. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, at the end of 24 weeks of intervention, and 12 weeks after interventions have ended. Discussion: This study will provide evidence to the effects of Wuqinxi exercise on cognitive improvements in PD patients from the perspective of DFC, and will contribute to the understanding of neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement through Wuqinxi practice. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR2000038517.
Alexandros T. Karagiorgis, Nikolas Chalas, Maria Karagianni, Georgios Papadelis, Ana B. Vivas, Panagiotis Bamidis,
Published: 10 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.742607

Abstract:
Incoming information from multiple sensory channels compete for attention. Processing the relevant ones and ignoring distractors, while at the same time monitoring the environment for potential threats, is crucial for survival, throughout the lifespan. However, sensory and cognitive mechanisms often decline in aging populations, making them more susceptible to distraction. Previous interventions in older adults have successfully improved resistance to distraction, but the inclusion of multisensory integration, with its unique properties in attentional capture, in the training protocol is underexplored. Here, we studied whether, and how, a 4-week intervention, which targets audiovisual integration, affects the ability to deal with task-irrelevant unisensory deviants within a multisensory task. Musically naïve participants engaged in a computerized music reading game and were asked to detect audiovisual incongruences between the pitch of a song’s melody and the position of a disk on the screen, similar to a simplistic music staff. The effects of the intervention were evaluated via behavioral and EEG measurements in young and older adults. Behavioral findings include the absence of age-related differences in distraction and the indirect improvement of performance due to the intervention, seen as an amelioration of response bias. An asymmetry between the effects of auditory and visual deviants was identified and attributed to modality dominance. The electroencephalographic results showed that both groups shared an increase in activation strength after training, when processing auditory deviants, located in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis revealed that only young adults improved flow of information, in a network comprised of a fronto-parietal subnetwork and a multisensory temporal area. Overall, both behavioral measures and neurophysiological findings suggest that the intervention was indirectly successful, driving a shift in response strategy in the cognitive domain and higher-level or multisensory brain areas, and leaving lower level unisensory processing unaffected.
Kai Niu, Yihan Li, Tingting Zhang, Jintao Sun, Yulei Sun, Mingzhu Shu, Pengfei Wang, Ke Zhang, QiQi Chen, Xiaoshan Wang
Published: 10 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.720596

Abstract:
Objective: Childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), the most common childhood epilepsy, still lacks longitudinal imaging studies involving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In order to examine the effect of AEDs on cognition and brain activity. We investigated the neuromagnetic activities and cognitive profile in children with CECTS before and after 1 year of treatment. Methods: Fifteen children with CECTS aged 6–12 years underwent high-sampling magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings before treatment and at 1 year after treatment, and 12 completed the cognitive assessment (The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). Next, magnetic source location and functional connectivity (FC) were investigated in order to characterize interictal neuromagnetic activity in the seven frequency sub-bands, including: delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (12–30 Hz), gamma (30–80 Hz), ripple (80–250 Hz), and fast ripple (250–500 Hz). Results: After 1 year of treatment, children with CECTS had increased scores on full-scale intelligence quotient, verbal comprehension index (VCI) and perceptual reasoning index (PRI). Alterations of neural activity occurred in specific frequency bands. Source location, in the 30–80 Hz frequency band, was significantly increased in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) after treatment. Moreover, FC analysis demonstrated that after treatment, the connectivity between the PCC and the medial frontal cortex (MFC) was enhanced in the 8–12 Hz frequency band. Additionally, the whole-brain network distribution was more dispersed in the 80–250 Hz frequency band. Conclusion: Intrinsic neural activity has frequency-dependent characteristic. AEDs have impact on regional activity and FC of the default mode network (DMN). Normalization of aberrant DMN in children with CECTS after treatment is likely the reason for improvement of cognitive function.
Lydiane Lauzier, Mohamed Abdelhafid Kadri, Emilie Bouchard, Kevin Bouchard, Sébastien Gaboury, Jean-Michel Gagnon, Marie-Pier Girard, Andréanne Larouche, Roxane Robert, Patrick Lapointe, et al.
Published: 10 September 2021
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.719502

Abstract:
Background: Standing on a foam surface is used to investigate how aging affect the ability to keep balance when somatosensory inputs from feet soles become unreliable. However, since standing on foam also affects the efficacy of postural adjustments, the respective contributions of sensory and motor components are impossible to separate. This study tested the hypothesis that these components can be untangled by comparing changes of center of pressure (CoP) parameters induced by standing on a foam pad vs. a novel vibration (VIB) platform developed by our team and targeting feet soles’ mechanoreceptors. Methods: Bipedal postural control of young (n = 20) and healthy elders (n = 20) was assessed while standing barefoot on a force platform through 3 randomized conditions: (1) Baseline (BL); (2) VIB; and (3) Foam. CoP Amplitude and Velocity in the antero-posterior/medio-lateral (AP/ML) directions and COP Surface were compared between conditions and groups. Findings: Both VIB and Foam increased CoP parameters compared to BL, but Foam had a significantly greater impact than VIB for both groups. Young and Old participants significantly differed for all three Conditions. However, when correcting for BL levels of postural performance, VIB-related increase of COP parameters was no longer different between groups, conversely to Foam. Interpretation: Although both VIB and Foam highlighted age-related differences of postural control, their combined use revealed that “motor” and “sensory” components are differently affected by aging, the latter being relatively unaltered, at least in healthy/active elders. The combined used of these methods could provide relevant knowledge to better understand and manage postural impairments in the aging population.
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