ISSN / EISSN : 0013-7219 / 2185-6370
Published by: Japan Endocrine Society (10.1507)
Total articles ≅ 2,929
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Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 421-429; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.421
To characterize the mechanisms of insulin resistance in liver cirrhosis (LC), we estimated the peripheral tissue sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin using the euglycemic clamp technique and determined the insulin binding to erythrocytes in patients with compensated LC as well as in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The insulin dose-response curves of the glucose metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were shifted to the right and downward both in patients with LC and NIDDM, indicating a reduced sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin. In the cirrhotics, MCR at the maximally effective insulin level, an index of insulin responsiveness, was correlated with fasting insulin levels (r = -0.57, P < 0.01) and sigma BG in 75 gOGTT (r = -0.43, P < 0.05), but no correlations were found between them and the diabetics. Although specific insulin bindings to erythrocytes were significantly lower in patients both with LC and NIDDM, Scatchard analysis revealed a significant decrease in the number of insulin receptors in the cirrhotics, and a decrease in the empty-site affinity in the diabetics. These findings suggest that insulin resistance in LC consists of a combination of binding and postbinding defects. The latter defect may be caused by basal hyperinsulinemia and contribute to the development of glucose intolerance. Although binding and postbinding abnormalities are also found in NIDDM, the mechanisms of insulin resistance in LC and NIDDM may be different.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 439-444; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.439
We studied the effect of a specific-competitive inhibitor of the sucrose taste response, p-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside (PNP-Glu) on insulin release and phosphoinositide metabolism in rat pancreatic islets. The alpha-anomer, but not the beta-anomer, of PNP-Glu at a concentration of 5 mM inhibited insulin release induced by 10 mM glucose. Islets were labeled by exposure for 2 h to 10 uCi of myo-[2-3H] inositol solution supplemented with 2.8 mM glucose. Forty islets were then incubated in the presence of 10 mM LiCl, 1 mM inositol and 10 mM glucose with or without the anomers of PNP-Glu. [3H] radioactivity in the incubation medium remained significantly greater in the presence of the alpha-anomer of PNP-Glu than in the presence of glucose alone after 5- and 20-min incubation. The inositol monophosphate levels in the islets incubated with glucose alone were increased more than in the islets with alpha-anomer. The beta-anomer of PNP-Glu did not change either glucose-induced insulin release or phosphoinositide breakdown. A patch-clamp study revealed that neither anomer affected the glucose-dependent ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels. These results indicate that the anomeric preference for glucose in insulin release in the pancreatic islets is closely associated with phosphoinositide breakdown.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 445-453; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.445
In order to clarify the role of free fatty acid (FFA) in thyroid hormone abnormalities in patients with nonthyroidal illness, thyroid function, FFA, inhibitor of extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 (IEC) and thyroid hormone binding inhibitor (THBI) were studied in 99 patients with various nonthyroidal illnesses including diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 35), liver cirrhosis (LC) (n = 33), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 17) and chronic heart failure (CHF) (n = 14). Patients were divided into three groups based on the level of serum T3: Group I (T3 < 50 ng/dl), Group II (50 < or = T3 < 80) and Group III (80 < or = T3). Serum T4, FT3 and the T3/T4 ratio decreased significantly in the order Group III, Group II and Group I (Group III > II > I). The plasma FFA level was 0.91 +/- 0.12 mmol/l in Group I (P < 0.05, vs. Group III), 0.65 +/- 0.06 in Group II and 0.54 +/- 0.04 in Group III, respectively. The incidence of positive IEC was 80.0% in Group I (P < 0.05, vs. Group III), 53.7% in Group II (P < 0.05, vs. Group III) and 34.2% in Group III. However, IEC was not correlated with the serum T3 concentration. The incidence of positive THBI was 80% in Group I (P < 0.05, vs. Group III), 68.3% in Group II and 47.4% in Group III, but THBI was not correlated with the serum T4 level. Positive correlations were observed among FFA, IEC and THBI (P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 469-476; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.469
In this paper, we report a 49-year-old female with subacute thyroiditis who had thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAb) and thyroid-stimulation-blocking antibodies (TSBAb) in serum. Although she was in the thyrotoxic phase and TSH was suppressed in May, 1990, her radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) was not suppressed (35.5%) and a thyroid scan disclosed a diffuse goiter with no defect. Serum assays revealed the presence of TSAb, but TSBAb were negative. In August, 1990, the right lobe became undetectable by thyroid scan when the RAIU was 20.7% with the TSH level remaining suppressed. At that time, TSAb were negative, while TSBAb were positive. When the RAIU was 31.1% in October, 1990, both thyroid lobes became visible and the TSH level was normalized. TSBAb became negative, and although TSAb reappeared it later became undetectable. These results indicate that the changes in the patient's thyroid scan and RAIU were attributable to the presence of TSAb.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 477-483; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.477
The glucocorticoid receptor is a member of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-activated transcription factor. To reconstitute the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular response to soluble receptor ligands, we have exploited a cell-free system that exhibits glucocorticoid-induced activationof the latent cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor to an active DNA-binding species. We demonstrate here that cytosol from a rat hepatoma cell, M1. 19, contains glucocorticoid receptor-specific immunoreactivities and target DNA-binding activities. Moreover, specific DNA-binding activities of M1.19 cytosol were dose-dependently induced by dexamethasone treatment, and linearly correlated with the hormonal induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity at the corresponding concentrations. These results indicate that the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor could be converted in a DNA-binding form under cell-free conditions and the ligand appears to play a crucial role in the direct control of the level of functional activity of a given ligand-receptor complex.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 499-505; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.499
A 59-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism was found to have a parathyroid adenoma behind the left clavicle. Preoperatively, it appeared as a hypoechoic mass on ultrasonography, as a hot nodule on thallium scintigraphy, and as a high signal on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies of the surgically resected tumor revealed a parathyroid adenoma composed mainly of oxyphil cells with production of a parathyroid hormone. Moreover, a multilocular lesion of lymphangiectasia was contained. Hypercalcemia was alleviated postoperatively. These observations corroborated a functioning parathyroid oxyphil cell adenoma. This is the first case report of functioning oxyphil cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland with lymphangiectasia in Japan.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 507-515; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.507
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in urine were measured in adults using specific RIA after extraction with acid-ammonium sulfate. Mean (+/- SD) total urine IGF-I values were 267.9 +/- 112.9 ng/day and 167.8 +/- 73.2 ng/g creatinine (Cr) in 17 normal young adults. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.785, P < 0.001) between IGF-I values in early morning urine and those of 24 h urine when they were corrected by urinary Cr. IGF-I values in early morning urine were ranged from 60 to 1,100 ng/gCr with a mean value of 309.6 ng/gCr in 178 normal adults aged 21-80 yr. There was a consistent trend towards higher urinary IGF-I values in males during aging and this trend did not reach statistical significance until the sixth and seventh decades. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.465, P < 0.005) between urinary IGF-I values and age in males but not in females. Although urinary IGF-I values were higher in females than in males of the second and third decades, no sex difference was found in older adults. Urinary IGF-I values were correlated reversely with 24 h Cr clearance (CCr) and positively with urinary beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) levels in patients with renal dysfunction. These findings indicate that urinary IGF-I levels are influenced by age, sex and renal function in adults.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 109-114; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.109
Some of luteinizing hormone (LH) isoforms can stimulate renal growth. The objective of this study is to determine whether the administration of LH modifies subtotal nephrectomy-induced chronic renal failure. Castrated 3/4-nephrectomized male rats were divided into four groups of seven each and fed a low-protein (6%) diet. Ovine LH with renotropic activity (40 micrograms/day) or vehicle only (control) was given for three weeks or six weeks. Compared with controls, remnant kidney weights (% body weight) in LH-treated rats had increased significantly at three weeks (0.385 +/- 0.019 vs 0.443 +/- 0.052, P less than 0.02), but not at six weeks (0.281 +/- 0.004 vs 0.272 +/- 0.013). 24 h creatinine clearance (ml/day/100 g body weight) increased significantly both by three weeks (242 +/- 58 vs 301 +/- 36, P less than 0.05), and six weeks (323 +/- 55 vs 395 +/- 10, P less than 0.01). Urinary thromboxane B2 excretion increased in LH-treated rats, suggesting that hemodynamic changes may play a role in increasing creatinine clearance. Our results suggest that renotropically active oLH stimulated the glomerular function in castrated rats with reduced renal mass. Further study may clarify its clinical usefulness.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 121-127; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.121
The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGFs), important growth factors both in vivo and in vitro, are known to have at least six binding proteins (IGFBP-1-6). In human serum, IGFBP-3 is a major binding protein and is considered to be GH-IGF-I-dependent. We have established a Western Ligand Blot (WLB) assay for IGFBP-3. The method is a densitometric analysis of IGFBP-3 bands on a film of WLB. The IGFBP-3 levels of patients with classical growth hormone deficiency (GHD, 5 isolated and 10 multiple hormone deficiencies with appropriate therapy) were studied. Before puberty there is no overlap between control (n = 31) and the patients with GHD (n = 10). However, IGFBP-3 levels of two of five pubertal patients with GHD were within the normal range (n = 16). We think that measurement of serum IGFBP-3 is a useful diagnostic marker for GHD, especially before puberty.
Endocrinologia Japonica, Volume 39, pp 129-132; https://doi.org/10.1507/endocrj1954.39.129
To clarify the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on the secretion of serum thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), we performed TRH and LH-RH testing in 4 patients with the nephrotic syndrome before and after the administration of CsA, 6 mg/kg/day for 4 to 12 weeks. Prior to CsA all patients responded normally to TRH with respect to TSH and PRL secretion. Two patients showed normal response of LH and FSH to LH-RH stimulation while the response in 2 other patients, who were both menopausal, was exaggerated. By the third or fourth week of CsA administration the basal and peak TSH and PRL values declined significantly in all patients in response to TRH stimulation while those of LH and FSH showed only a modest decrease in response to LH-RH stimulation. Two to 4 weeks after the cessation of CsA the response of TSH, PRL and FSH returned to the pretreatment level. These observations suggest that: 1) CsA exerts an inhibitory effect on the secretion of at least TSH and PRL in humans, and 2) the effect of CsA on the pituitary may be partially reversible after the cessation of the therapy.