ISSN / EISSN : 19073062 / 24072230
Current Publisher: Universa Medicina (10.18051)
Total articles ≅ 167
Latest articles in this journal
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 55-62; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.55-62
BACKGROUND Scabies is a World Health Organization neglected tropical disease common in children in low-and middle-income countries. The prevalence of scabies, especially in tropical countries, is still quite high at more than 200 million cases per year. Transmission of scabies is predominantly via skin-to-skin contact. The purpose of the study was to determine the epidemiology of clinical scabies among schoolchildren and spatial modeling using geographic information systems (GIS).METHODSA study of unmatched case-control design with a ratio of 1: 1 was performed to identify specific risk factors of scabies. Cases were patients with clinical scabies and controls were healthy people in the area. A total of 100 students were involved in the study. Simple and multiple logistic regression was used to test any association between the variables. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) modeling was used to determine the spatial distribution of clinical scabies based on 69 cases.RESULTThere was a significant association between the level of environmental sanitation and the prevalence of clinical scabies (OR = 2.53;95% C.I. 1.11-5.74). Multivariate analysis showed that the level of environmental sanitation was significant (AOR = 3.05;95% C.I. 1.19-7.81). Risk factors for developing clinical scabies increased to 3 times after considering other risk factors, namely gender, age group and respondent education level. Analysis of average nearest neighbor distance showed that the spatial distribution of clinical scabies was clustered. CONCLUSIONSThe distribution of clinical scabies was spatial clustering, and prediction of transmission in a clockwise direction with Southeast and Northwest ellipses.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 47-54; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.47-54
BackgroundMenopause is associated with changes in metabolic profile. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been shown to have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, its adverse effects have indicated a need for alternative estrogen-based treatments. Several investigations have evaluated the effects of isoflavones on serum lipid levels in postmenopausal women, but the results were ambiguous. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of dietary daidzein, genistein, and glycitein levels with lipid profile in postmenopausal women.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted involving 186 post-menopausal women. A food recall questionnaire was used to measure dietary genistein, daidzein, and glycitein levels. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (TAG) were measured using the enzymatic colorimetric method. Simple and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze the data.ResultsGenistein intake was significantly associated with TC (b=145.48, p=0.023) and HDL cholesterol levels (b=48.80, p=0.032). Daidzein intake was significantly associated with TC (b=-204.60, p=0.003), LDL cholesterol (b=-160.81, p=0.014) and HDL cholesterol levels (b=-67.118, p=0.032). Glycitein was not significantly associated with TC (b=232.78;p=0.133), HDL (b=43.59;p=0.428), and LDL (b=235.84;p=0.116). Dietary daidzein had a more lowering effect on TC (Beta=-2.80) and HDL cholesterol (Beta=-2.67) than had genistein on TC (Beta=2.66) and HDL cholesterol (Beta=2.03).ConclusionsHigh dietary daidzein level has a significant lowering effect on TC, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol in post-menopausal women. Our study supports the advice given to the public to increase soy isoflavone intake in post-menopausal women.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 42-46; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.42-46
BackgroundMicroalbuminuria is the earliest evidence of diabetic nephropathy and a major predictor of end stage renal disease (ESRD). The objective of the study was to determine the influence of several risk factors on the presence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetics. MethodsThis observational cross-sectional study was done on 73 patients with type 2 diabetes, who attended the Prolanis program in Primary Health Care from May to November 2018. Detailed medical histories including duration of diabetes and relevant clinical examinations including fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PPBS), HbA1c, serum creatinine, blood urea and urinary microalbumin were recorded for each patient. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The analysis was assessed at 5% level of significance. ResultsMean age of study population was 51.89 ± 6.78 years with female preponderance (51.1%). Mean FBS, PPBS, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, microalbuminuria and serum creatinine was 182.51 ± 74.63 mg/dL, 186.25 ± 26.72 mg/dL, 8.8 ± 1.83%, 9.37 ± 5.96 years, 118.44 ± 4.13 mmHg, 30.32 ± 3.2 mg/day and 1.33 ± 0.64 mg/dL respectively. Duration of diabetes and HbA1c were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (β=0.052; Beta =0.367; p<0.001 and β=0.058; Beta=0.363; p<0.001) respectively. ConclusionsDuration of diabetes was the most important risk factor of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes patients. Therefore microalbuminuria can predict diabetic nephropathy earlier, as a warning to prevent further worsening of diabetic complications.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 34-41; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.34-41
BackgroundCognitive impairment and dementia are some of the major health concerns in the aging population. Many studies showed positive effects of physical exercise in delaying or preventing these conditions. Brain Gym ® exercises is a structured aerobic exercise involving head, eyes and crossing movements of the extremities in order to stimulate both brain hemispheres. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Brain Gym ® exercises sessions on cognitive function and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the elderly. MethodsA non-blinded randomized controlled study involving 64 healthy women aged >60 years who were randomized into Brain Gym ® exercises treatment group (n=32) and control group (n=32). Treatment group joined 60 minutes of brain gym exercises sessions twice a week for 12 weeks. The measured outcomes were cognitive function (assessed by mini-mental state examination [MMSE] questionnaire) and plasma BDNF levels. The outcomes were measured at base-line and after the intervention. An independent t-test was used to analyze the data. ResultsThe BDNF levels were increased in both groups after 12 weeks, and there was a significant difference between treatment group (41.26 ± 6,82 ng/mL) and control group (37.10 ± 8.11 ng/mL)(p=0.040). However, the MMSE score was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.200). ConclusionBrain Gym ® exercises sessions significantly increase plasma BDNF level in the elderly population. In practical terms, we may suggest evaluation of the effects of Brain Gym ® exercises as a strategy in the treatment of disorders associated with central degenerative changes.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 1-2; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.1-2
Adolescence is a transitional stage in physical and psychological development, and in this stage multiple physical, emotional and social changes, can make adolescents vulnerable to mental health problems like self-harm and suicide. Self-harm and suicide are serious problems in children, adolescents and young people with the highest rates seen in those aged 16-24 years, and self-harm is highly correlated with the presence of anxiety disorders and depression.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 27-33; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.27-33
BackgroundDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease with a large incidence in the world and constitutes a global health problem. By 2030 it is estimated that there will be around 439 million people suffering from DM. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by a lack or absence of the hormone insulin. In type 2 DM pharmacotherapy can be given one of which is insulin. To monitor therapy, random blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) levels can be examined. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of glycated albumin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with random blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetics. MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted involving 92 type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin. The study used a questionnaire and blood samples. We measured the GA , HbA1C and random blood glucose levels. A multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. ResultsMean HbA1c was 9.21 ± 2.15%, mean glycated albumin was 24.4 ± 8.65%, and mean blood glucose was 229.47 ± 98.7 mg / dL. Multiple linear regression tests showed that HbA1c (B= 5,544;β=0.121;p=0.420) and GA (B=5.899;β=0.517;p=0.001) was signigicantly corelated with random blood gucose, respectively, indicating that glycated albumin is significantly related to and has the greatest influence on glucose level. ConclusionGlycated albumin is correlated with and has greater influence on glucose level than does HbA1c. Glycated albumin could be a better marker for glycemic control than glycated hemoglobin in diabetic patients treated with insulin.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 63-70; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.63-70
Up to the present, there has been a controversy on the relationship between Parkinson’s disease and the welding job. The aim of this study was to obtain evidence-based information regarding the relationship between Parkinson’s disease and the welding job through an evidence-based case report derived from a literature review. The review was conducted through a method of search and selection of articles in the Pubmed, Cochrane Library and JSTOR databases aimed at answering the study question. The process of searching articles used the keywords “Welding” OR “Welder” AND “Parkinson”. Article selection was performed using the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. At the initial search, 117 articles were retrieved from the three databases. Following the selection process, three articles remained, which consisted of one systematic review and two observational studies. Comparing the selected articles, the systematic review of Mortimer et al. is more relevant and appropriate for answering the clinical question. Mortimer et al. used a meta-analytical method, applied strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and excluded studies that potentially led to bias effects, lack of validity or inadequate statistical methods. Based on the selected evidence-based resources, Parkinson’s disease is not related to the welding job. The welding job, however, may produce clinical symptoms and signs resembling Parkinson’s disease, known as manganism.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 19-26; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.19-26
BackgroundThalassemia, a monogenic genetic disease of red blood cells, is spread widely throughout the world. Glutathione S transferase (GST) enzymes have an antioxidant role in detoxification processes of toxic substances This study aimed to determine the role of the genetic modifier genes GSTT1 and GSTM1, and the catalase (CAT) gene in clinical degrees of hemoglobin (Hb)E/β thalassemia. MethodsSixty HbE/β Thalassemia patients were examined to determine their clinical pictures. Clinical score was based on age when thalassemia symptoms appeared, time of diagnosis, time of first blood transfusion, pre-transfusion hemoglobin concentration, frequency of transfusions, and enlargement of spleen. Ferritin concentration was also obtained from medical records. Gene polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and CAT were measured using PCR and PCR-RFLP methods. Clinical scores were categorized into mild (0-3.5), moderate (4-7), and severe (7.5-10) degrees, while ferritin level was expressed in mg/dL. One way Anova was used to analyze the data. ResultsThe clinical appearance showed that severe, moderate, and mild degrees accounted for 42%, 45%, and 13%, respectively. The majority had a high ferritin level of more than 5000 mg/dL (67%). GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null, and CAT minor allele genotypes were 21.7%, 33.3%, and 12.1%, respectively. GSTT1, GSTM1, and CAT genotypes had no impact on the severity of thalassemia patients (p=0.091, p=0.082, and p=0.141, respectively).ConclusionGSTT1, GSTM1, CAT gene polymorphisms tend to be a minor aspect of severity of clinical outcome for HbE/â thalassemia patients and should be not considered a routine laboratory check.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 3-11; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.3-11
BACKGROUNDThe biochemical mechanism underlying the nutraceutical effects of honey is poorly understood, thus making its functions more a matter of speculations. In this study, we investigated the effects of honey on the atherogenic and coronary risk indices in Wistar rats.METHODSAn experimental design comprising two groups of rats fed with normal rat chow but with the experimental group receiving 10% honey in water and the control group water alone, for five weeks. Blood samples were collected weekly from each group, and the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total protein were determined. The lipids profile (total cholesterol, total triglycerides, LDL and HDL) were also determined, and the atherogenic and coronary indices were estimated. Data were analyzed, and p<0.05 was considered significant.RESULTSThere were no significant changes in both groups’ serum SOD and CAT across the weeks of study. The LDL cholesterol of the honey-treated rats, however, decreased significantly (9.95 mg/dL) compared to the controls (27.07 mg/dL) (p=0.000). In contrast, honey intake elevated the HDL cholesterol (18.37 mg/dL) relative to 12.25 mg/dL in the control group (p=0.003). Consequently, honey treatment caused significant depletion of atherogenic and coronary risk indices (76.13%, p=0.001) and (50.37%, p=0.023) respectively. CONCLUSIONWe show evidence that the regular intake of honey, at a concentration as low as ten percent of total water intake, may lower factors for the onset of hypertension and coronary diseases.
Universa Medicina, Volume 39, pp 12-18; doi:10.18051/univmed.2020.v39.12-18
BackgroundAnemia is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia in CKD is associated with reduced quality of life, increased cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and mortality. Therefore it is necessary to find an alternative agent for preventing anemia in CKD. Celery is one of the natural substances that have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antihypertensive pharmacological effects. Based on the mechanism of CKD and its progression, celery is thought to prevent anemia in CKD. This research was aimed at evaluating the protective effect of celery extract against anemia in a CKD rat model. MethodsThis was an experimental laboratory study using 25 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 2-3 months, they were randomized into 5 groups, namely group A, sham operation; group B, subtotal nephrectomy; group C, D, E, subtotal nephrectomy + 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg BW ethanol extract of celery, respectively. The administration of celery extract was performed 14 days before and 14 days after induction of 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy. The hematological parameters (Hb, RBC, Ht, MCV, MCH, MCHC) and serum creatinine level were measured at the end of the study. Data were analyzed with One Way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test at p<0.05. ResultsThere were no significant differences between groups in Hb, RBC, Ht, MCV (p>0.05) and significant differences between groups in MCH and MCHC (p<0.05). The highest levels of Hb, RBC, and Ht were found in group C.ConclusionCelery ethanol extract at a dose of 250 mg/kg BW/day may prevent anemia in the CKD rat model.