Food and Health
EISSN : 2602-2834
Published by: Scientific Web Journals (SWJ) (10.3153)
Total articles ≅ 108
Latest articles in this journal
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 91-102; doi:10.3153/fh21011
Bu çalışmada Bitlis ilinde iki farklı yöntemle (salamura ve basma) geleneksel olarak üretilen otlu peynirlerin besin kompozisyonunun ve kimyasal bileşiminin saptanması ve belirlenen kalite parametrelerinin farklı standartlara (Türk Standartları Enstitüsü (TSE) otlu peynir standardı (TS 13205), Türk Patent Enstitüsü (TPE) Van otlu peyniri coğrafi işaret (No: 405) ve Türk Gıda Kodeksi (TGK) peynir tebliği) göre değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Numunelerin kuru madde, kül, yağ, protein ve tuz miktarları ile enerji değerleri belirlendikten sonra yağ ve tuz miktarının kuru maddedeki değerleri ile yağsız peynir kitlesindeki nem oranı (PYKN) değerleri hesaplanmıştır. Bitlis otlu peynir numunelerinin nem miktarının TSE otlu peynir standardına uygun olduğu, basma peynir numunelerinin kuru madde ve yağ miktarının TPE Van otlu peynir coğrafi işaret tescilinde belirtilen üst değerden daha yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Numunelerin (ikisi hariç) enerji değerlerinin TPE Van otlu peynir coğrafi işaret tescilinde belirtilen ortalama değerden yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir. Basma peynir numunelerinin (biri hariç) TGK peynir tebliğinde belirtilen PYKN değerlerine göre yarı sert peynir kategorisine girdiği bulunmuştur. Bitlis otlu peynirinin yağ, protein ve enerji değerleri açısından besinsel değerinin oldukça yüksek olduğu saptanmış, ancak kalite parametrelerinin değişkenlik göstermesi sebebiyle modern, endüstriyel ve standart üretim yönteminin geliştirilmesinin ve uygulanmasının oldukça önemli olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 128-137; doi:10.3153/fh21014
Milk is composed of water, proteins, lipids, lactose, vit-amins, and minerals. More than 80% of most mam-mals’ milk proteins are con-stituted by caseins. Casein is a group of proteins and they are sub-divided into αs1-, αs2-, β- and -casein families. Among these ca-sein families, -casein is the second most abundant pro-tein. Different mutations in the cow milk -casein gene led to 12 genetic variants and most common of these are genetic variants A1 and A2. The A1 and A2 variants differ only at amino acid position 67, which is histi-dine in A1 or proline in A2 milk. This difference in amino acid sequence sug-gests a conformational change in the secondary structure of the expressed β-casein. Milk that contains A1 β-casein and A2 β-casein are known as A1 milk and A2 milk, respectively. A1 β-casein milk releases an amino acid bioactive pep-tide called beta-casomorphin-7 (CM-7) in small intestine. Beta-casomorphin-7 released from A1 β-casein is respon-sible for many human dis-orders like type-1 diabetes, autism, schizophrenia, alz-heimer’s disease (AD), at-tention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and heart diseases.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 138-149; doi:10.3153/fh21015
A large amount of avocado is produced every year, and processing of avocado re-sults in the production of large quantities of peel, which is usually disposed as waste without any further application. Avocado peel is a rich source of diverse phy-tochemicals known as he-alth-promoting compounds, and these compounds can be used to produce high eco-nomic value products. How-ever, the amount and com-position of phenolic com-pounds vary regarding dif-ferent factors, such as level of ripening and maturation, growing conditions and the country of origin. Phenolics within avocado peel have been reported to exhibit an-tioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, and associated with exten-sive health benefits. Thus, it is of great importance to recover these compounds from the peel for usage in food and health industries. This review focuses on the phytochemical compounds together with main factors influencing their types and amounts in avocado peel, and the possible utilisation of this by-product in the food, pharmaceutical and some other industries.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 45-53; doi:10.3153/fh21006
There are similar inflammatory reasons behind non-contagious chronic diseases. The prevalence of these diseases increases everyday both in our country and around the world. That's why scientists have begun looking for strong antioxidants that could help prevent and treat such inflammatory diseases. Curcumin is one of those antioxidants. Curcumin is one of the components of turmeric, which belongs to the ginger family. Many studies showed that the curcuminoids in turmeric can be used to prevent and treat cardiovascular, autoimmune and endocrine diseases, cancer as well as various inflammatory diseases. With this study, we aim to interpret these recent studies conducted with curcumin.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 21-30; doi:10.3153/fh21003
The present study evaluated the effect of extraction techniques (ultrasound-assisted extraction (U) and shaking water bath extrac-tion (WB)), solvents (etha-nol, acetone and distilled water) and concentration (2.5% and 5%) on total phe-nolic content (TPC), anti-bacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts ob-tained from feijoa leaves, peel and pulp. The antibac-terial activity of feijoa ex-tracts were tested in vitro against 6 pathogens bacteria by the disc diffusion method and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2 diphe-nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay. The results indicated that leaves and peel extracts exhibited stronger antibac-terial activity than that of pulp. In generally, WB-A5%, WB-W5%, U-A5% and U-W 5% extracted with acetone (A) and water (W) at 5% concentration from feijoa leaves, peel and pulp showed more antibacterial activity against all tested pathogen bacteria. The leaves, peel, and pulp ex-tracts had high antioxidant activity with 85.78-90.82%, 89.86-91.60%, and 81.49-91.31%, respectively. Peel extracts had slightly higher antioxidant activity than leaves and pulp extracts. TPC of leaves, peel, and pulp extracts were in the range of 488.99-554.00, 349.17-517, and 115.64-345.46 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g of extract. The overall findings suggested that different part of feijoa (especially leaves and peel) could be used as a natural antibacterial and an-tioxidant for functional foods.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 54-63; doi:10.3153/fh21007
Polyphenols are the secondary metabolites of plants and has an important role in human nutrition as the leading antioxidants. According to the carbon number-based classification of polyphenols, resveratrol is a natural polyphenol in the stilbene group with antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects. Its beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases have also been reported. It was first identified in 1940 and has recently gained importance especially in medicine and pharmacy. Researchers have carried out various studies on resveratrol and its time-honored use in traditional eastern medicine has been reported. Resveratrol is a food ingredient that has the potential to be used in the treatment of various diseases, but also has antiviral effects. The study focuses on resveratrol’s physical and chemical properties, effects on health, antiviral effects and use in foods as a functional component.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 15-20; doi:10.3153/fh21002
Ground beef as commonly consumed among animal products may be suitable for bacterial growth under unhygienic production and storage conditions. Aeromonas spp. can be widely found in the environment and it is associated with water. With contaminated water used in production, microorganisms pass into products and may pose a threat to public health. People are often infected by consuming contaminated water and meat products. Aeromonas spp. causes various disorders such as vomiting, diarrhoea and gastroenteritis. In addi-tion, children and older people are more susceptible to these bacteria. In this study, the presence of Aeromonas spp. was investigated by classical culture method in 100 ground beef samples which were sold in Afyonka-rahisar city centre. The suspected Aeromonas spp. were confirmed with VITEK® 2 Compact. The detected A. hydrophila strains were further investigated by PZR in terms ofaerA and hlyA genes. At the end of the analysis, A. hydrophila was identified in 3% of the ground beef samples. It was detected that all three bacteria have both the aerA and hlyA genes. In addition, only one of the identified strains was found to be resistant to amoxicillin and nalidixic acid. As a result, it is recommended to take necessary hygiene measures in all stages of red meat production according to farm to fork, to give attention to storage, heat treatment and inform consumers.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 203-215; doi:10.3153/fh21022
This research was aimed to analyze the food safety knowledge levels between gastronomy and culinary arts students and food work-ers in the Çukurova Region of Turkey. A total of 155 participants (80 students, 75 food workers) have partici-pated in this cross-sectional study. The overall knowledge scores of food workers and the students were 89.33% and 78.89% respectively, and food workers have more scores in all sections (p0.05). A positive correla-tion was found between gender, education status, hygiene certification, and frequency of receiving hy-giene education; but no cor-relation was found between working in any food busi-ness, graduated high schools, and age of the stu-dents (p>0.05). More knowledge gaps of both groups have been found about time-temperature con-trol, holding/storage tem-perature, and cross-contamination. Finally, it is important to measure the reflection of the hygiene training on practices and to make it regular in ensuring food safety.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 185-193; doi:10.3153/fh21020
This research was carried out to determine the levels of some minerals and heavy metals in Urfa cheeses and cow's milk offered for sale in Şanlıurfa. Mineral and heavy metal levels were determined by analysing 18 Urfa cheese and 21 cow milk samples collected from retail outlets with ICP-MS. Mean mineral and heavy metal contents in Urfa cheese samples were; magnesium (Mg) 129.8 ±31.14 mg/kg, calcium (Ca) 2712.66 ±1002.4 mg/kg, potassium (K) 272.06 ±127.21 mg/kg, titanium (Ti) 7.48 ±2.63 mg/kg, zinc (Zn) 40.4 ±16.33 mg/kg, selenium (Se) 10.6 ±3.51 mg/kg. In cow milk samples, average selenium (Se) 0.22 ±0.04 mg/kg, titanium (Ti) 0.07 ±0.009, mg/kg, copper (Cu) 0.0068 ±0.01 mg/kg and chromium (Cr) was detected at the level of 0.019 ±0.001 mg/kg. Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and thallium (Tl) levels were below the detectable levels in Urfa cheese and cow's milk samples. As a result, it was concluded that the samples do not pose a significant danger to public health in terms of heavy metal pollution and can contribute significantly to nutrition with the mineral substances it contains.
Food and Health, Volume 7, pp 179-184; doi:10.3153/fh21019
This study aimed to determine the effects of cooling on microbiological quality of lamb carcasses. Total Aerobic Bacteria Count (TABC), Enterobactericeae counts and the presence of Salmonella spp. were investigated in accordance with the Turkish Food Codex Regulation on Microbiological Criteria and European Union Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Sampling was carried out on aseptic conditions from the surface of 25 randomly selected lambs brought to slaughterhouse. The results showed that the mean TABC were 2.24±0.087 log cfu/cm2 before cooling and 2.41±0.061 log cfu/cm2 after cooling (P>0.05). The mean Enterobactericeae count was 0.21±0.11 log cfu/cm2 before cooling and 0.69±0.13 log cfu/cm2 after cooling (P<0.01). Furthermore, Salmonella spp. were determined on 3 carcasses before cooling and one another carcass after cooling. The inﬂuence of cooling on categorisation according to the legislations presented that it could potentially improve the numbers of acceptable carcasses for TABC and Salmonella spp. Nevertheless, the results exhibited that the hygiene and cooling stage of the slaughter line must be re-evaluated in terms of HACCP requirements and that corrective measures/actions must be taken.