Food and Health

Journal Information
EISSN : 2602-2834
Published by: Scientific Web Journals (SWJ) (10.3153)
Total articles ≅ 132
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Nursevim Çiftçi, Şule Karadeniz, Derya Deniz Şirinyıldız,
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 92-102; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22009

Abstract:
Rapid Alarm System for Food and Feed (RASFF); is a database created by the European Commission that provides rapid information flow and response when risks to public health are identified in the food chain. Within the scope of this study, a detailed report was prepared on the notifications of environmental pollutants in foods in the Rapid Alarm System database between 2000 and 2020. All data obtained from the system were evaluated using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. When 774 notifications made in 21 years were examined, it was determined that 32% of the notifications were about “fish and fish products”, 29% about “oils and fats” and 11% about “dietetic products and food supplements”. The main problem (12% of the notifications) was determined to be “polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons”. Among all notifications, 33% of them were found to have a “serious risk” degree. The highest number of notifications (81 notifications) was detected in 2001. Additionally, 61% of the notifications were in the “alert”, 13% “information”, 11% “information for attention”, 11% “border rejection” and 4% “information follow-up” notifications. Most of the notifications (415 notifications) were created as a result of official controls in the market. Germany was the country with the highest notifications, with 178 notifications. As a result of the notifications, sanctions were generally imposed on “withdrawal of products from the market” and “withdrawal of products from the market by the manufacturer”. Considering the decrease in PAH notifications from food-related environmental pollutants over the years, it can be thought that the Rapid Alert System was effective in the decrease in the number of notifications.
, Elif Şeyma Bağdat,
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 161-171; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22016

Abstract:
Microalgae can be considered an alternative food ingredient thanks to their nutritional composition and bioactive molecules. Microalgae are considered a rich source of sulfated and non-sulfated polysaccharides, and certain types of polysaccharides vary depending on their taxonomic groups. It is thought that valuable bioactive compounds possessed by algae biomass can increase the vitality of probiotic bacteria by stimulating their growth and being a good source for lactic acid production. Probiotics are defined as living, microbial dietary supplements that beneficially affect the human organism with their effects on the intestinal tract when they are consumed adequately. Prebiotics are indigestible or poorly digested food ingredients that stimulate the growth or activity of probiotic bacteria. Synbiotic is a term that expresses the union of probiotics and prebiotics to exert health benefits on humans. Spirulina and Chlorella are good sources of protein and polysaccharides or oligosaccharides that have been suggested as potential prebiotic candidates. These microalgae are thought to have a stimulating effect on the growth of probiotic bacteria. In this study, synbiotic efficacy and prebiotic activity of microalgae on probiotic microorganisms will be discussed and their potential in this area will be revealed.
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 118-126; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22012

Abstract:
To evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 phobia on mindful eating, eating habits and body weight change among university students. This study was carried out with 385 university students who have been in social isolation at home for at least 2 months. The online survey was constituted via an internet-based questionnaire on Google forms. The survey includes demographics features, body weight, eating habits, change in appetite and consumption of food/food groups. COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S) and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ) were used. Results: Both males and females had similar scores from C19P-S and MEQ. Body weight and BMI of students significantly increased during the pandemic period (p<0.05). The percentage of being underweight decreased and being pre-obese/obese increased during the pandemic period. The percentage of the increase in the consumption of sweets, toffees, candies and foods with sugar was high in both groups (male: 48.2%; female: 47.1%). The most increased consumption of food groups was fruit, and also fast food was the most decreased among the consumption of food groups in this study. In addition, a negative correlation was found between C19P-S and MEQ scores (r=-0.214, p<0.001). And also there was a negative correlation between the MEQ subscale of emotional eating scores and psychological, psycho-somatic and social subscales of C19P-S (p<0.01). C19P-S scores had significantly higher in those with increased or decreased appetite and MEQ scores had significantly higher in those who have decreased or unchanged appetite. COVID-19 phobia can affect mindful eating and eating habits during the social isolation/pandemic period in university students. It is important to increase mindful eating during the pandemic, to provide adequate and balanced nutrition, to reduce the risk of disease and to affect the course of the disease positively.
, Orhan Değer
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 111-117; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22011

Abstract:
This study aims to deter-mine which solvent is the best for the solubility of the propolis by using concentra-tions of total polyphenols and flavonoids, ferric reduc-ing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and total an-tioxidant status (TAS) in extracts of propolis from different provinces of Tü-rkiye prepared with water, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol and ace-tone. Propolis samples were lyophilized in the same sol-vents except for that glycer-ol and acetone. Total con-centrations of polyphenols and flavonoids, FRAP, and TAS of both normal and ly-ophilized extracts were found be consistent when compared with each other. After extraction of propolis and evaluation of the total polyphenol and flavonoid content and antioxidant ca-pacity, we concluded that it is mostly dissolved in DMSO, and after that in ethanol, acetone, glycerol respectively, and the least in water according to our ex-traction and analysis meth-ods.
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 127-140; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22013

Abstract:
The main aims of this study are determining seasonal chemical composition of green seaweed and evaluating usage of a food source with different processing techniques. For this purpose, Ulva rigida were collected from Çanakkale Strait, Türkiye and amino acid, fatty acid and proximate composition were determined seasonally in both fresh and dried samples. According to results; Ulva rigida contains high protein and amino acids content whereas it has low fat content differs in the range of 0.46-0.85 % in fresh samples and 1.81-4.53 % in dried ones. In the following, the obtained algae samples in the all seasons were processed into salad and algae soup. Most favorite consuming options determined as algae salad among groups. Besides, two consuming options were scored highest in spring and autumn. In a conclusion, Ulva rigida is evaluated a desirable aquatic food source by the consumers, especially in spring.
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 141-149; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22014

Abstract:
The study's main aim is to assess the levels of volatile N-nitrosamine (VNA) in sausages based on different brands, ingredients, and cooking methods. The effects of sausage composition and cooking method on VNA formation, which caused this difference, were studied. For this, sausages from 17 different brands and 3 different ingredients (beef, chicken, and turkey) were bought from the market, cooked using 3 different techniques (frying, boiling, and microwave), and their VNA levels were determined by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The study found different levels of VNA in all sausages. NDMA, NDEA, NDPA, NPYR, and NPIP were found in more than 70% of the samples, according to the study's findings. In the samples, the most NDMA, NPYR, and NPIP formation were observed. Total VNA levels in the study ranged from 0.18 to 109.28 ppb.
Sevim Polat, Abdurrahman Polat
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 150-160; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22015

Abstract:
Seaweeds have been used since ancient times as food, food additives, fertilizer, and a source of medicine. Like terrestrial plants, seaweeds contain many inorganic and organic substances which can beneficial to human health. Seaweeds have great potential as “bioactive compounds for functional use, “algae mineral supplements”, “pharmaceuticals and cosmetics” and in addition to their potential of good sources of minerals, trace elements, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates as traditional food. Due to the mineral absorption ability of macroalgae from the seawater, many species are a perfect source of some trace elements such as iron and iodine and a good source of some macro minerals such as calcium, phosphate, and magnesium. In some cases, the mineral content of the seaweeds may be higher than that of land plants. Scientific data show that the bioavailability of algae minerals is higher than rock-based minerals for humans. In recent years, the potential use of seaweed minerals as “algae mineral supplements” gained attention due to their rich elemental composition and the importance of minerals for human health. Mineral composition of seaweeds may vary according to locality, season, residence time, species physiology, and environmental conditions such as level of elements in seawater, light intensity, and salinity. Thus, new approaches and researches are needed on how much seaweeds can be consumed daily and their potential health risks. In this study, the mineral contents of seaweeds, the importance of minerals for human health, and potential uses of algae minerals were investigated.
, Ilkim Güney, Duygu Göksu, Büşrahan Sancak, Havvagül Pekdemir
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 57-67; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22006

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effects of animal and plant-based milk consumption on postprandial glycemia, toughness, food intake of healthy individuals. Cow milk and soymilk were used as the test drink and com-mercial fruit juice as the control group. In the study in which 19 healthy adult subjects participated, fast-ing blood glucose and post-prandial blood glucose ana-lysed, visual analog scale and appetite were ques-tioned. Then, 24-hour food comsumption records were taken and energy and mac-ronutrients were calculated and compared. While the highest energy intake was on the day that cow milk was consumed, no signifi-cant relationship was found between test groups in terms of energy and macronutrient intake (p>0.05). It was de-termined that the difference between fasting and post-prandial blood glucose was in the week in which the highest cow milk was con-sumed and this change was significant (p< 0.05). It was thought that the satiety ef-fect of cow milk may be higher than that of soy milk due to its animal protein and saturated fat content.
Derya Çakmakçı, Ülgen Ilknur Konak, Yasemin Yavuz Abanoz
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 35-45; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22004

Abstract:
In this study, physical (cooking time, water ab-sorption, cooking loss and color), chemical (proximate composition, pH, total phe-nolic content, mineral mat-ter (Ca, K, Fe, Mg and Zn)), textural (hardness and adhe-siveness) and sensory (col-or, taste, flavor, appearance, hardness, adhesiveness and overall acceptability) attrib-utes were determined in dif-ferent types of noodles pro-duced from siyez wheat flour, kale powder and chia seed mucilage. Results were statistically evaluated using SAS software. The optimal cooking time for the noo-dles were 20 min and cook-ing loss varied between 8.36-12.22%. Kale powder and chia mucilage addition decreased L* and a* values of the noodles. Ash, crude fiber, mineral matter and total phenolic contents of the noodles were higher and fat contents of the noodles were lower than the control sample. Hardness and adhe-siveness of the noodles were decreased by addition of the kale powder at 10%. The noodles with higher hard-ness and lower adhesiveness were preferred by the panel-ists in sensory evaluation. Increasing the kale powder level in the noodle formula-tion from 5% to 10% result-ed in higher color scores. However, the control sam-ple was the most preferred sample in terms of taste.
Published: 1 January 2022
Food and Health, Volume 8, pp 68-77; https://doi.org/10.3153/fh22007

Abstract:
Propolis is a natural mixture of saliva, enzymes and plant secretions which collected by bees from various plants and used for protection of hives against external fac-tors. Biological activities and chemical composition of propolis may vary accor-ding to the plant sources, location and time, and it contains phenolic compo-unds, aromatic acids, essen-tial oils, minerals and vita-mins. Propolis has been used in traditional medicine for various therapeutic pur-poses, and it has a potential as a natural preservative in foods. Propolis may have various protective effects such as reducing microbial growth and oxidation, pre-venting fungus, rotting and weight loss, maintaining product stability and exten-ding shelf life in meat, po-ultry, fish, dairy, vegetables, fruits and fruit juices during storage. However, propolis's unique odor and taste may alter the sensory quality of foods and that may effect its use in the food industry ne-gatively.
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