Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2087-8273 / 2460-6278
Published by: Diponegoro University (10.14710)
Total articles ≅ 505
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J. M. Dhuha, M. T. A. Muayad, O. A. Saeed, M. A. Al-Bayar, Z. J. M. Saeid, S. A. Al-Bakri, H. Che Musa, A. Safaa, Q. N. Abed, S. A. G. Kaabi, et al.
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 219-226; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.219-226

Abstract:
The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of seasonal variations on the hematological responses of goats in Malaysia. Fifty-two goats (24 bucks and 28 does), aged between 1 to 2 years old were used in the study. The goats were fed on commercial concentrate and forage, access to mineral salt and water was ad libitum. Blood samples were obtained from each goat in January, May and September to analyze hematology blood constitute during the study. The results showed that red blood cell (RBC) levels in Anglo-Nubian females rose dramatically in January and May while the Saanen breed remains without diversity. In all seasons, high hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of Anglo-Nubian males was unlike Saanen breed. For Saanen females, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) increased significant-ly, whereas in Saanen males, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC) were increased. High packed cell volume (PCV) concentration of Anglo females compared to others during September. In conclusion, variations in breed and sex of goats reflect the distinct ability of trop-ical changes that have been formed during seasonal effects on hematological responses between the two breeds of goats.
Y. N. Larasati, E. Harmayani, J. Widada, N. Nurliyani, A. Perdinan
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 187-198; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.187-198

Abstract:
Glucomannan is consisted of D-glucose and D-mannose with β-1.4 linkages. Poultry had no enzyme to digest β linkage so that porang (Amorphophallus onchophyllus) glucomannan could be a prebiotic candidate. The study purposed to determine the effect of porang glucomannan on caecum bacterial composition (similarity, diversity, grouping of bacteria) using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms method and performance (body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio) of broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty unsexed day old chicks (DOC) were divided into 6 treat-ments and 3 replicates (10 birds each) using completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were P0 (basal feed), P1 (basal feed + 0.05% porang glucomannan), P2 (basal feed + 0.1% porang glu-comannan), P3 (basal feed + 0.15% porang glucomannan), KJ (basal feed + 0.1% commercial konjac glucomannan), and KM (commercial feed). The results showed that caecal bacterial composition of porang glucomannan treatment had similarity with konjac glucomannan and basal feed. Diversity index and species number of porang glucomannan treatment was higher than konjac glucomannan. Gluco-mannan prebiotics had higher Lactobacillus while the lowest Clostridium was obtained in 0.1% porang glucomannan treatment. The inclusion of glucomannan prebiotics gave no negative effect on the per-formance of broilers.
S. Hartini, D. D. Rahardjo, H. Sasongko
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 248-257; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.248-257

Abstract:
The physiological effect of insoluble fibers may change with diet composition. The present study aimed to determine the difference in the physiological responses of broiler chickens fed diet incorporated with rice hulls in different ways. Two hundred and forty broiler chicks at two-days old were randomly placed in 30 cages and fed: control diet (based on corn-soybean) (CO), rice hull supplementation diet (CO + 4% of rice hulls) (RS), and rice hull inclusion diet (inclusion of 4% rice hulls in diet) (RI). The significant effects were mostly found in the starter phase. The RI increased ADG (P<0.05) but reduced empty ceca weight (P<0.05) in comparison to CO and RS. The RS increased the jejunal crypt depth (P<0.05) and reduced the small intestinal content (P<0.05). Birds fed RS and RI had higher villus height (P<0.05) and thicker jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) than those fed the CO. In the finisher phase, birds fed the RS had the narrower width of the upper and lower jejunal villi than the others. Supplementation or inclusion of insoluble fiber in the diet will lead to different physiological responses due to changes in diet composition.
I. G. R. Putra, D. A. Sari, S. M. Rachmawati, R. Oktaviani, R. R. Noor,
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 199-208; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.199-208

Abstract:
The PLAG1 gene is one of the genes that affect the growth traits located on chromosome 14 in cattle. This study aims to obtain SNP of the PLAG1 gene in exon 1 and exon 2 and their association with growth traits in Bali cattle. The number of samples used was 52 samples of Bali cattle, 10 samples of Peranakan Ongole (PO), and 8 samples of Limousine cattle. Identification of SNPs PLAG1 gene was analyzed by direct sequencing method and genotyping of selected SNPs was carried out using PCR-RFLP. Association of genotypes of SNP c.957A>C with growth using t-test. There were 7 SNPs in exon 2 of the PLAG1 gene, namely SNP c.339A>G, c.489C>T, c.795A>G, c.957A>C, c.1023C>T, c.1056A>G, and c.1353A>G. SNP c.957A>C was validated by PCR-RFLP using TaqI enzyme and obtained three genotypes, namely genotypes AA, AC, and CC with allele frequency A and C, respec-tively 0.10 and 0.90 in Bali cattle, while in PO and Limousine cattle were monomorphic. Genotype association of SNP c.957A>C PLAG1 gene were not associated with birth weight (BW0), weaning weight at 205 days of age (WW205), yearling weight at 365 days of age (YW365), yearling weight at 730 days of age (YW730), and average daily gain (ADG). SNP c.957A>C as a specific SNP for Bali cattle needs to be investigated in further research as a candidate marker for growth traits in Bali cattle.
S. Rehman, M. I. Khan, F. A. Rantam, M. H. Effendi, A. Shehzad, A. Tariq
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 209-218; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.209-218

Abstract:
The current study was conducted to estimate the serological prevalence and risk factors associated with the transmission of avian influenza subtype H9N2 among backyard poultry from different villages of semi-arid climate district Peshawar Pakistan between January to May 2019. In total, 240 blood samples of healthy backyard poultry older than two months were collected from 30 different villages of district Peshawar. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect the data related to risk factors. Se-rum samples were tested through the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test further confirmed by the micro-neutralizing test (MN). Antibody body titer ≤ 8 considered negative for prevalence of H9N2. In order to classify risk factors, Chi-square and Logistic regression analyses were performed. Out of 240, 150 were found to be positive. The overall seroprevalence was 62.5%, mean antibody titer for avian influenza virus in all villages was 6.8 and (95%) confidence interval ranges from 35.33 to 51.70% re-spectively. The high prevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses in bird serum emphasizes that avian influenza plays an important role in the respiratory infections of backyard chickens in the area, and possibly throughout Pakistan. In order to avoid the introduction of H9N2, biosecurity initiatives, surveillance, monitoring systems, and to some extent, vaccinations are useful tools.
S. M. J. Hosseini, T. Tanha, H. Maghsoodi
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 236-247; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.236-247

Abstract:
To investigate the effects of bedding types on the performance, skeletal and behavioral characteristics, health and immunity conditions of suckling Holstein calves, an experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design using 80 Holstein calves. The calves were distributed over 5 treatments and 4 replicates (each replicate included 2 male and 2 female calves). The 5 experimental treatments werechaff, straw, bagasse, sand, or mat. The results showed that the highest feed intake was related to the sand and chaff beddings and the highest weight gain (P<0.05) was found for the chaff, straw and sandbeddings . Withers height was highest and lowest for straw and mat treatments, respectively (P<0.05). The longest standing and resting times in calf behavior (P<0.05) were found for the sand and straw treatments, respectively. In cleanness, nose, eye, and joint scorings, the highest amount of con-tamination was related (P<0.05) to the mat and sand treatments . For immunity parameters, bagasse treatment showed the highest level of eosinophils (P<0.05) compared to the other treatments. Accord-ing to the results, it can be concluded that the straw bedding has better characteristics for growth, be-havior, and health of calves compared to the other beddings.
D. N. Adli, O. Sjofjan, , N. Qamariyah, , , R. A. Nurfitriani, , R. Solfaine, N. Nahrowi
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.270-281

Abstract:
A meta-analysis conducted to determine effect of anti-microbial peptide (AMP) form on the per-formance of pig. A database was designed based on data published that reported used probiotic on pig. The method used in the selection of articles was based on the systematic review center for laboratory animal experimentation (SYRCLE's) method. The final database consisted of 41 in vivo studies with 241 treatments. The analysis statement in the system were R Version 3.6.30. In general, in the total phase, body weight and survival rate increased (p <0.05; quadratic) due to AMP administration. In continued of the phase 1, growth performance parameters [eg, body weight, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily intake (ADI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)] increased (p <0.05; quadratic) and FCR decreased (p <0.05; quadratic) due to SAP administration. In the total phase, parameters such as body weight, ADG, and survival rate increased (p <0.05; quadratic) while ADI tended to increase (p <0.1; linear) due to the increase in the CAP dose. Meanwhile, other parameters in the total phase, i.e. FCR decreased (p <0.05; quadratic). The optimal dose of CAP for the total phase was 21.406 mg/kg of feed with a predicted minimum FCR of 1.47. The AMP forms (SAP and CAP) improved (p <0.05) the pa-rameters of body weight, ADG, ADI, FCR, diarrhea ratios, and survival rate at each phase. In sum-mary, both form and dosage of the anti-microbial help to beneficial effect on the growth performance of pigs.
R. Mulianda, A. Sofyan, H. Herdian, E.B. Laconi, M. Ridla, W. W. Wardani,
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 227-235; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.227-235

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the in sacco nutrient degradability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing intact and defatted black soldier fly (BSF) larvae. The study evaluated four dietary treatments and six replications. The treatments consisted of control TMR silage without BSF larvae (R1), 20% intact BSF larvae + 80% TMR silage (R2), 20% chemically defatted BSF larvae + 80% TMR silage (R3), and 20% mechanically defatted BSF larvae + 80% TMR silage (R4). Samples were placed in polyester bags and incubated in the rumen in sacco up to 72 h. Nutrient degradability was evaluated for each time point interval. Results revealed that the lowest dry matter degradability (DMD) was found in R1 compared to all treatments (p < 0.05), while the highest DMD was found in R2 (p < 0.05). The highest organic matter degradability was found in R2 compared to R1, R3 and R4 (p < 0.05). Addition of BSF larvae to TMR silage increased the crude protein degradability (p < 0.05). In conclusion, inclusion of both intact and defatted BSF larvae into TMR silage did not have any adverse effects on nutrient profiles and showed a good nutrient degradation values in the rumen.
W. Sumekar, , A. Setiadi
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 258-269; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.3.258-269

Abstract:
Business strategy is an effort to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in an agro-industry. The research objective on salted egg agro-industrial center is to identify a model for business development. The advantages of salted duck eggs have been recognized by people in south east asian countries and east asian countries. This observational research was conducted on 105 salted egg agro-industries in Brebes Regency. Data on 22 variables of quantitative strategic planning were collected through interviews using a questionnaire. Strategy formulation framework method was applied to determine specific alternative strategies to reach sustainable competitive advantage The results showed that the salted egg agro-industry were not supported by the availability of duck eggs and upstream industry (50.58%) although most consumers were fond of salted egg due to its taste (52.38%), texture (58.10%), and price (71,43%). The salted egg agro-industry was in the aggressive position. The best strategy concept for business policy development was market penetration The market penetration strategy was chosen, namely increasing promotion and sales volume. Market penetration strategy is suggested to be the mod-el for empowering salted egg agro-industry and agro-industrial commodities in general so that the activ-ity of duck farming and upstream industry can be leveraged.
A. Gunawan, N. Azmi, A. Anggraeni
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture, Volume 46, pp 114-123; https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.46.2.114-123

Abstract:
Liver X Receptor Alpha (LXRα) is a nuclear receptor that play a crucial role in regulating of gene involvedin lipid metabolism. The aim of this research was to identify polymorphisms and association of LXRα gene with charateristic of carcass, meat quality and fatty acid composition in ducks using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total sample of 98 Cihateup ducks consisted of 57 females and 41 males with age 12 weeks were used in this study. Product size is 661 bp amplicons. The genotype genes frequencies in CC, GC and GG were 0.21, 0.55 and 0.23 respectively. The chi-square test revealed that LXRα gene (g.3575 C>G) in exon 2 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A SNP of LXRα gene in region g.3575 C>G was significantly associated (P<0.05) with duck meat quality and fatty acid content. Several parameters have significant affect (P <0. 05) on meat quality in the breast meat weight, carcass percentage and head percentage, while associated fatty acids were saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palimitic acid (C16:0); γ-and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) such as linolenic acid (C18:3n3); cis 11 eicosenoic acid (C20:1) and 11.14 cis-eicosedenoic acid (C20:2). In could be concluded that LXRα gene might be useful as genetic markers to select and produce meat with desirable unsaturated fatty acids.
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