Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 0888-5885 / 1520-5045
Published by: American Chemical Society (ACS) (10.1021)
Total articles ≅ 36,653
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, Brian S. Haynes,
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01686

The hydrothermal decomposition of glucose in the presence of ammonium is investigated under a subcritical water condition between 220 and 280 °C using a microtubular flow reactor at short residence times (0.5–2 s) to evaluate the evolution of primary and secondary products. The consumed ammonium is mainly transformed into pyrazines, while other typical products of glucose such as fructose, glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone, formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and furfural are also generated. For the first time, the effect of the reactant concentration, residence time, and reaction temperature on the formation of pyrazines is investigated. The kinetics of glucose decomposition was evaluated through a self-decomposition path and through interaction with ammonium, resulting in activation energies of 85.6 ± 6.7 and 97.4 ± 20.5 kJ mol–1, respectively.
Dongwei Yao, Biao Liu, Feng Wu, Yuxi Li, Xiaohan Hu, Weiyang Jin, Xinlei Wang
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01514

Based on the in situ DRIFTS studies, the mechanism of formation and decomposition of NH4NO3 (decomposition to N2O) over Cu-SSZ-13 with different Cu loadings was investigated. Under standard SCR conditions, NH4NO2 can form over all catalysts, which can be more easily oxidized to NH4NO3 over higher Cu content catalysts because of their stronger oxidative ability resulting from the elevation of Cu(OH)+. Hence, a higher Cu content leads to more low-temperature N2O formation, while N2O barely occurred over Cu-0 and Cu-0.7 catalysts. When NO2 exists, NO3– forms from the disproportionation reaction of NO2 first, then reacts with NH3 to form NH4NO3, leading to N2O formation over all catalysts. Nevertheless, Cu2+ is active for the reaction between NH4NO3 and NO. The increase of Cu2+ allows more NH4NO3 consumption, and the self-inhibition of NH4NO3 alleviates, which allows NH4NO3 to decompose to N2O at lower temperatures, and N2O formation peak shifts toward lower temperatures.
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01206

Indigo dye wastewater from blue denim-manufacturing industries poses a significant threat to the environment if not adequately treated before discharge to water bodies. Indigo dye residues in the process effluent have complex molecular structures relatively stable to light and heat and resistant to biodegradation, making affordable and straightforward removal difficult. We demonstrate indigo dye removal using a low-cost, nontoxic, biodegradable, readily regenerated common adsorbent made of the CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 composite. The optimized catalyst loadings at 20 g/L for sulfur and non-sulfur indigo dye mixtures (MIX-ID) affirm 13% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 68.5% dissolved organic matter (as UVA254), and 98.4% color (indigo) removal. However, the non-sulfur indigo dye was tested with 10 g/L of the adsorbent, giving 45.4% COD, 74.6% dissolved organic matter (as UVA254), and 99% color (indigo) removal. The removal of indigo dye was compared to ozone- and peroxone-based advanced oxidation processes. Ozonation was ineffective at oxidizing the effluent, and even though the peroxone process was able to remove the color, the process increased COD. A regeneration pathway was proposed to recycle the used adsorbent and allow for resource recovery by separating pure indigo dye and reusable effluent for the textile process. The catalyst was reused three times to remove the dye from textile effluents without any loss of efficiency.
Yi-Xiang Chen, Dan Zhou, Xiu Yang, Xiao-Jiao Guo, Jing-Yu Zhang,
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c02202

Zinc vanadium oxide (ZVO) with a special alternated structure is a significant photoelectric material, so exploring atomic regulation and light processing technology to improve its electrical properties is an interesting scientific issue of potential value. Herein, a Zn3(VO4)2 crystal with a self-assembled 3D micro–nano-spherical structure was synthesized through accurately controlling the conditions of hydrothermal reaction and calcination, which increased the corrosion resistance by 429.8% compared with pure epoxy resin. After that, hydroxyl groups were successfully constructed on the crystal surface by light modification to further improve the visualized anticorrosion effect (increased by 743.5%). All of these were due to the realization of the interlayer structure, defect construction, and chloride-ion replacement under the structure-oriented effect, as well as zinc–vanadium bimetal protection. Consequently, the heat treatment, light modification, and electrochemical performance we reported in this paper, and the practicability in the iron-anticorrosion industry, were creatively reflected in the ZVO crystals.
Xiaolin Liu, Zhilin Wu, Roberta Cavalli,
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01869

Inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocomposites (NCs) generally possess versatile properties, that is, good specific surface area (SSA), magnetism, easy functionalization with ligands, etc.; thus, such nanomaterials have rapidly been appearing in drug release and diagnosis. This review presents the sonochemical synthesis of nano-SiO2, magnetic Fe3O4, graphene oxide, metal–organic frameworks, ZnO, Ca3(PO4)2, and ZrP2O7, and their NCs. The cavitation effects, such as extremely high temperature and pressure, radical reactions, high-speed microjets, shock waves, deagglomeration, and strong hydrodynamic shear-forces at collapsing cavities assist the preparation of inorganic NPs and NCs. As compared to conventional hydrothermal synthesis, the ultrasound (US)-assisted method can shorten preparation time and reduce particle size. Moreover, the prepared NPs are much more uniform in size distribution and form. Most US-assisted prepared NPs and NCs were proven to be appropriate as drug nanocarriers. Also, the drug release mechanisms are briefly presented and discussed. Furthermore, the effects of ultrasonic equipment, power, sonication time, substrate concentration, pH value, and surfactants on the characteristics and morphology of NPs and NCs are summarized.
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01690

The miscible displacement flow of a light fluid by a heavy fluid, while using a spacer between these fluids, is considered. The effects of the spacer viscosity on the displacement efficiency are studied experimentally and numerically. In our experiments, the displacing and displaced fluids are Newtonian fluids (saline solutions). A shear-thinning xanthan solution is used to create a wide range of viscosity ratios (m) between the spacer and the other fluids (m ≈ 1–20000). The experiments are performed in a long inclined square cross-section duct, and the experimental results are delivered via a novel image capturing/processing technique. The results show that using a highly viscous shear-thinning xanthan solution as a spacer can result in a complete removal of the displaced fluid from the duct, increasing the displacement efficiency. As a complementary approach, a computational model is developed using OpenFOAM to gain more insight into the flow, showing good agreement with the experimental data. The numerical simulations reveal that the shear-thinning properties of the highly viscous spacer are necessary to increase the displacement efficiency.
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01429

End-of-life fluorescent lamps, collected in most countries for their mercury content, are also an interesting source of rare-earth elements. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a cheap and environmentally friendly acid, which is produced in bulk. In this work, an integrated process for the recovery of valuable rare-earth elements via selective separation of three phosphor fractions using MSA as a lixiviant was developed. First, the halophosphate phosphor was selectively leached with pure MSA at room temperature (L/S = 10 L/kg, T = 25 °C, t = 2 h). Second, the valuable YOX phosphor was selectively leached with diluted MSA (5 vol %; L/S = 10 L/kg; t = 2 h, T = 80 °C). Finally, the remaining LAP phosphor was leached with pure MSA (T = 180 °C, L/S = 15 L/kg, t = 6 h). This highly selective sequential leaching process is based on the combination of hydro- and solvometallurgy. The calcium-rich pregnant leach solution was purified via vacuum distillation. The yttrium-rich and the lanthanum-rich pregnant leach solutions were purified via solvent extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, followed by stripping with oxalic acid. A conceptual flowsheet for the developed closed-loop recycling process is presented.
, Emad Tolba, Hatem Gaffer, Samir Kamel
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01519

Novel and durable lightening photoluminescent electrospun nanofibrous-walled tubes were developed with the ability to glow like a flashlight helping to replace electric power in medical endoscopes. Simple preparation of an organic–inorganic photoluminescent nanocomposite was developed via encapsulation of rare-earth doped aluminum strontium oxide nanoscaled particles into polycaprolactone-cellulose acetate-based nanofibers. The luminescent nanofibrous-walled tubes demonstrated an excitation band at 355 nm and a photostability phosphorescence band at 517 nm. The UV–vis absorbance and emission spectra and CIE Lab color space parameters demonstrated photochromic colorimetric shifting from white under visible daylight to greenish-yellow under ultraviolet light. Both mechanical and superhydrophobic properties of the nanocomposite electrospun nanofibrous-walled tubes were explored. The nanofibrous-walled tubes exhibited an enhanced hydrophobic performance without adversely influencing its inherent characteristics. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared phosphor nanoparticles and the performance of the phosphorescent electrospun nanofibrous-walled tubes were explored. The cytotoxicity of the generated photoluminescent aluminum strontium oxide pigment was explored. The produced nanofibrous-walled tubes demonstrated photostable long-persistent photoluminescence without fatigue upon exposure to an external ultraviolet light source.
Yudong Li, Tianyi Sun, , Jinlong Li, Yinggui Xu, Xue Jian
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c01765

A sustainable reactive coupling pressure-swing distillation process is investigated to separate the acetonitrile/isopropanol/water ternary mixture. To solve the problem of high energy consumption in this process, the application of heat integration and heat pump technologies on the basis of the reactive coupling pressure-swing distillation process are explored to achieve further energy saving. The results showed that the processes with heat pump have the better potential for energy reduction. Comparative analysis from the aspects of exergy, energy consumption, cost, and gas emission are conducted to evaluate the thermodynamic efficiency and economic and environmental improvement potential of the proposed processes. The reactive coupling pressure-swing distillation process in combination with a single heat pump, RPSDL-SHP, exhibits the best economic performance and 48.51% reduction in the total annual cost and 70.04% energy saving in comparison with the conventional process. The total exergy efficiency of RPSDL-SHP is up to 97.92%, which means that application of heat pump is feasible to save energy, reduce the cost of the process, and enhance exergy efficiency.
Rafael Lopez-Rodriguez, Matthew J. Harding, Geoff Gibson, Kevin P. Girard,
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research; doi:10.1021/acs.iecr.1c00988

A highly scalable combined modular and 3D-printed falling film crystallization device is developed and demonstrated herein; the device uses a small, complex, printed overflow-based film distribution part that ensures formation of a well-distributed heated liquid film around a modular, tubular residence time/crystallizer section, enabling extended residence times to be achieved. A model API (ibuprofen) and impurity (ibuprofen ethyl ester) were used as a test system in the evaluation of the novel crystallizer design. The proposed crystallizer was run using three operational configurations: batch, cyclical batch, and continuous feed, all with intermittent removal of product. Results were suitable for intermediate purification requirements, and stable operation was demonstrated over multiple cycles, indicating that this approach should be compatible with parallel semicontinuous operation for intermediate purification and solvent swap applications in the manufacture of drugs.
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