ISSN / EISSN : 0974-7796 / 0974-7834
Published by: Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 913
Latest articles in this journal
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 238-242; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_41_20
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard for benign prostatic enlargement; however, hemorrhage still remains one of the major complications. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion. Secondary parameters compared were operating time, volume of irrigation fluid used, and reduction in hemoglobin concentration. A total of 70 eligible patients undergoing TURP were randomized based on computer generated table into two groups. The study group (1) received IV TXA 500 mg after induction of anesthesia and 500 mg in each irrigation fluid bottle (dual mode) and the control group (2) received none. The mean age (68.20 vs. 66.5 years), prostate size (57 vs. 51 g), and preoperative hemoglobin (13.3 vs. 13.5 g/dl) were similar between the groups. Intraoperative blood loss in the TXA group was found to be significantly reduced (174.60 ± 125.38 ml vs. 232.47 ± 116.8; P = 0.04). Blood transfusion was required in 2.8% of cases as compared to 14.2% in controls. Operating time, volume of irrigation fluid, and postoperative reduction of hemoglobin were not significant between the groups. No complications were observed in both groups. In this study, we observed that TXA, when used as a combination of Intravenous and topical route, effectively reduced intra-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 272-276; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_146_20
Prospective urology applicants in Saudi Arabia must go through a rigorous matching process. Defining which aspects of an applicant's portfolio or interview will get them matched is difficult. Our objective is to provide information on which aspects of an application are the most important. In this cross-sectional study, an electronic survey was sent out to all urology program directors (PD). The survey included 27 items from an application that were rated by the respondent using a 5-point Likert scale. Twenty-three urology PD completed the survey (79.3% response rate). Most of the PD subspecialized in endourology and minimally invasive surgery. The three most important aspects as perceived by all responding PD were as follows: performance during rotation at the respondent's centre, publications in urology, and the total number of electives in urology. The three least important factors were as follows: presentations in fields other than urology, recommendation letters from nonurologists, and quality reference letters from nonurologists. Performance during rotations has been shown in our and other studies to be one of the most important factors in an application. Surveying PD on what they value the most in an applicant, provides valuable information and more transparency regarding the match processes. We also recommend that our colleagues from different specialties conduct similar studies.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 268-271; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_53_20
Varicocele is detected in 35%–50% of men with primary infertility and up to 81% with secondary infertility. Various studies have shown that varicocele is related to testicular hypotrophy and impaired spermatogenesis. The effect of varicocelectomy in mild-to-moderate male factor infertility has been well reported. However, only a few studies addressed the impact of varicocelectomy in severe oligospermia. We included 45 patients with severe oligospermia ( 0.05). Four patients (8.9%) were found to have azoospermia after a 6-month follow-up. In these four patients who turned azoospermic had count 6 months). The magnitude of improvement after microsurgical varicocelectomy for severely oligospermic patients is less profound than reported in mild male factor infertility.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 263-267; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_52_20
At the initial management of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome urge suppression technique along with other behavioural modification could be a good option. Prospective experimental study conducted between 2015 and 2019. Women complaining of OAB were enrolled. Three-day bladder diary and patient global impression of severity (PGI-S) scale were evaluated at baseline. Then, the women were asked to perform the urge suppression technique whenever urgency occurred. She stopped moving, sat down and started squeezing the pelvic floor muscle quickly and tightly about ten times without full relaxation in between squeezes. After that, she did something to distract her mind. Once urgency disappeared, she proceeded to the toilet. If urgency reappeared, she stopped moving and repeated the same thing. Only on relax mood she entered toilet. Modified fluid consumption was - total daily requirement divided into three parts and two-third of that was taken from morning to lunch. The remaining one-third was divided again in three parts and two-third of that was taken before evening. Rest few amount was taken from the evening till waking up the next morning. After 3 months, 3-day bladder diary and patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I) scale assessed the improvement. Ninety-one women ultimately completed the study. Frequency and nocturia were reduced. Seventy-six women had improvement of their urgency sensation (P < 0.001), whereas urgency urinary incontinence reduction was statistically not significant (P > 0.05). PGI-I scale showed that 51.6% felt that either they were very much better or much better. Urge suppression and modified fluid consumption is good adjunct in female OAB management.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 254-257; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_129_20
Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (micro-TESE) is a surgical method used for retrieving sperm from men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) production. It is believed that treating patients with CC prior to micro-TESE increases the chance of sperm retrieval. This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and included all patients who underwent Micro-TESE from August 2015 to November 2018. Data related to the pre-surgery hormonal levels, testicular volume, and associated genetic abnormalities were collected. chi-square and t-test were used to compare variables. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 122 patients were included in this study, with 30.0% (n=37) treated with CC. The overall sperm retrieval rate was 44.3%. Micro-TESE results were not statistically affected by age, testosterone levels, Klinefelter syndrome, or taking CC. However, higher testicular volumes and lower LH and FSH levels had more positive micro-TESE results. In conclusion, Micro-TESE results were not affected by CC, age or testicular volume.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 243-253; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_42_20
The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and perception pattern of contraception and family planning among males in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Study sample were Saudi males who presented to the urology clinics in one tertiary center. Beside demographic data, we evaluate the responders’ knowledge about types of contraceptive methods, usage of one or more methods, reasons for using contraceptives, knowledge of contraception complications, awareness of religious opinion on contraception, the ideal number of children, and birth interval between them. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. A value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Two hundred and forty-three subjects filled the questioner. The participants’ mean age was 42.7 years (range, 19–81); 227 (93.4%) were married. The majority of the participants were aware of the concept of contraception (79%). However, only 54% of the cohort reported using at least one type of contraception. A high percentage of the participants wanted a limited number of children with longer birth intervals. Many factors are responsible for increasing awareness and practice of contraception, additionally; there is limited knowledge and practice regarding male contraception, particularly vasectomy. Withdrawal technique and oral contraceptive pills for females were the most commonly used contraceptive methods for Saudi family planning. The most common reason for using birth control methods was having a lot of children. More than two-thirds of males believed that birth control methods are not prohibited by Islamic law. Younger age, shorter duration of marriage, governmental employee, less number of children, higher education degree, and higher monthly income had higher impact on contraception awareness and utilization. Couples still prefer noninvasive methods for contraception. Despite the relatively low use of contraceptive methods, particularly the male methods, the majority of the participants know about contraception. Efforts to advocate and promote the effective use of reproductive and sexual health services among newly married couples are warranted.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 258-262; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_51_20
Introduction: In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of flexible uretrorenoscopy (fURS) for removal of solitary renal stones sized up to 15 mm. We evaluated the data of 115 patients who underwent fURS at our unit between Jan 2018 and Dec 2019. All fURS were performed by a single surgeon using Flex-2 flexiscope. Ureteral Access sheath (UAS) of size 9/11 fr was used in all patients. Stones were fragmented using 20 watts laser. Few fragments were retrieved using Nitinol zero tip basket for assessment of the passability of remaining dust and sent for stone analysis. Data pertaining to demographic characteristics, stone size, stone site, operative time, intra and post operative complications were retrieved from the records. Of the 115 patients who underwent fURS, 71 (61.7%) were male and 44 (38.2%) were female. Average age of patients was 32.9±8.9 years; the average body mass index was 22.9±3.9 kg/m2. Average size of the stone was 11.0±1.5 × 10.2±1.3 mm. The stone free rates at the end of 3 weeks and 3 months were 97% and 99%, respectively. fURS is an effective minimally-invasive procedure for removal of single stones up to 15 mm in size. We observed minimal morbidity rates and acceptable stone free rates in our series.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 226-231; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_10_20
PCNL is the treatment of choice for renal stones. But wide array of complications due to larger tract size(>20 Fr) has lead to development of improved techniques like miniPCNL( 51.58 min; p=0.003), lesser radiation exposure (p=0.012), shorter hospital stay (p =0.15), lesser blood loss and lesser post operative pain on POD1 and POD2 (p =0.005, p=0.001 respectively). RIRS group patients sufferred more post op complications (p=0.03 )of which urosepsis was most common. Stone free rate is significantly better(p =0.003) in miniPCNL group on POD1 , while SFR's at 1 month (miniPCNL-90% and RIRS -85%) and 3 month (miniPCNL- 92.5% and RIRS -87.5%) was better in miniPCNL group, but statistically insignificant.On subgroup analysis SFR in lower pole calculus was better in miniPCNL group at 1month and 3 month (p=0.008). Second intervention for stone clearance was required in 3 patients of miniPCNL and 5 patients of RIRS, out of which 4 had lower pole stone.No significant differnce was found in quality of life in both groups at 1 month. MiniPCNL is a better treatment modality for higher single step stone free rate, shorter operative time and fewer postop complication. RIRS has SFR slightly less than miniPCNL but has less radiation exposure and much less post operative pain. There is no significant difference in quality of life in both groups.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 67-72; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_14_20
Renal angiomyolipoma (AML) is the most frequent mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. Although there is a rare possibility of malignant transformation of AML, this risk has not been studied in immunosuppressed patients. The safety of donors with AML and their kidney transplant recipients has not been well established. A literature search was conducted utilizing MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases from inception through May 15, 2018 (updated on October 2019). We included studies that reported the outcomes of kidney donors with AML or recipients of donor with AML. The protocol for this meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42018095157). Fourteen studies with a total of 16 donors with AML were identified. None of the donors had a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), or epithelioid variant of AML. Donor age ranged from 35 to 77 years, and recipient age ranged from 27 to 62 years. Ninety-two percent of the donors were female. Only 8% were deceased donor renal transplant. The majority underwent ex vivo resection (65%) before transplantation, followed by no resection (18%), and the remaining had in vivo resection. Tumor size varied from 0.4 cm to 7 cm, and the majority (87%) were localized in the right kidney. Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 107 months. Donor creatinine prenephrectomy ranged 0.89–1.1 mg/dL and postnephrectomy creatinine 1.0–1.17 mg/dL. In those who did not have resection of the AML, tumor size remained stable. None of the donors with AML had end-stage renal disease or died at last follow-up. None of the recipients had malignant transformation of AML. These findings are reassuring for the safety of donors with AML (without TSC or LAM) as well as their recipients without evidence of malignant transformation of AML. As such, this can also positively impact the donor pool by increasing the number of available kidneys.
Urology Annals, Volume 13, pp 80-82; https://doi.org/10.4103/ua.ua_25_20
Retrograde ureteric calculus migration is a rare phenomenon. Herein, we report two such cases where each patient presented with a calculus, measured at 5 mm and 6 mm, respectively, at the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ) on noncontrast computerized tomography kidneys, ureters, and bladder (CTKUB). Following acute presentation with renal colic, each patient opted for conservative management of their ureteric stone and became asymptomatic when undergoing their follow-up imaging. The first patient underwent a follow-up noncontrast limited pelvic computerized tomography (CT) where it had appeared that the radiolucent VUJ calculus had passed. This stone was then discovered incidentally 3 months later in the upper ureter when the patient had undergone a CT colonography. The other patient underwent a follow-up X-ray KUB where the stone was shown to have migrated to the lower renal pole calyx which was confirmed with noncontrast CTKUB imaging. In all reported cases of retrograde VUJ calculus migration, the use of a noncontrast limited pelvic CT scan either missed or would have missed this phenomenon. This potential pitfall of the noncontrast limited pelvic CT scan should be appreciated and the use of full upper renal tract imaging should be considered for the follow-up of radiolucent VUJ calculus cases whereby there is no clear history of calculus passage.