ISSN / EISSN : 2073-4441 / 2073-4441
Published by: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 15,704
Latest articles in this journal
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101596
Effective water and nitrogen (N) management strategies are critical for sustainable agricultural development. Lysimeter experiments with two deep percolation rates (low percolation and high percolation, i.e., LP and HP: 3 mm d−1 and 5 mm d−1) and five N application levels (N0~N4: 0, 60, 135, 210 and 285 kg N ha−1) were conducted to investigate the effects of controlled drainage on water productivity (WP) and N use efficiency (NUE) in water-saving irrigated paddy fields. The results demonstrated that NH4+-N and NO3−-N were the major components of total nitrogen (TN) in ponded water and leachate, accounting for more than 77.1% and 83.6% of TN, respectively. The risk of N leaching loss increased significantly under treatment of high percolation rates or high N application levels. High percolation loss required greater irrigation input, thus reducing WP. In addition, N uptake increased with increasing N application, but fertilization applied in excess of crop demand had a negative effect on grain yield. NUE was affected by the amount of N applied and increased with decreasing N levels. Water and N application levels had a significant effect on N uptake of rice, but their interaction on N uptake or NUE was not significant. For the LP and HP regimes, the highest N uptake and WP were obtained with N application levels of 285 kg ha−1 and 210 kg ha−1, respectively. Our overall results suggested that the combination of controlled drainage and water-saving irrigation was a feasible mitigation strategy to reduce N losses through subdrainage percolation and to provide more nutrients available for rice to improve NUE, thus reducing diffuse agricultural pollution. Long-term field trials are necessary to validate the lysimeter results.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101593
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, known as the world’s “third pole”, is home to several large rivers in Asia. Its geomorphology is exceptionally vulnerable to climate change, which has had a significant impact on historical riverbed development through runoff and sedimentation processes. However, there is limited research combining climate change, sedimentology, and chronology with river dynamics to investigate riverbed evolution patterns in geological-historical time scales and their changes in overland flow capacity. In the current study, the evolution of a representative portion of the river channel in the Nangqian basin in the Lancang River headwaters was investigated to explore the reaction of the riverbed to climatic change during the geological period via field surveys, riverbed drilling, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and bankfull channel geometry parameters. The generalized channel section of the historical period was obtained by linking sedimentary layers of the same age on the distribution map of borehole sections, and the bankfull area of the river was computed accordingly. The restored bankfull areas can effectively reflect the ability of historical river channels to transport water and sediment, thus reflecting the climate change at that time. The findings showed that river morphology in the mounded river section could be successfully reconstructed using OSL dating and sedimentary records and that the conceptual sections of the historical warm periods at 2000 years (2 ka) and 0.7 ka can be recovered. Based on the reconstruction, the calculated bankfull areas during the two warm events were larger than present by factors of 1.28 and 1.9, respectively, indicating a stronger capacity for transporting water and sediments. This is the first trial in the Lancang headwaters to investigate the response of river morphology to climate change on a geological time scale.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101590
This paper proposes a method to infer the future change in the wind-wave climate using reanalysis wind corrected to statistically match data from a regional climate model (RCM). The method is applied to the sea surface wind speed of the reanalysis ERA5 from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. The correction is determined from a quantile mapping between ERA5 and the RCM at any given point in the geographical space. The issues that need to be addressed to better understand and apply the method are discussed. Corrected ERA5 wind fields are eventually used to force a spectral wave numerical model to simulate the climate of significant wave height. The correction strategy is implemented over the Adriatic Sea (a semi-enclosed basin of the Mediterranean Sea) and includes the present-day period (1981–2010) and the near-future period (2021–2050) under the two IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 concentration scenarios. Evaluation against observations of wind and waves gives confidence in the reliability of the proposed approach. Results confirm the evolution toward an overall decrease in storm wave severity in the basin, especially under RCP8.5 and in its northern area. It is expected that the methodology may be applied to other reanalyses, RCMs (including multi-model ensembles), or seas with similar characteristics.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101595
Ammonium is one of the main inorganic pollutants in groundwater, mainly due to agricultural, industrial and domestic pollution. Excessive ammonium can cause human health risks and environmental consequences. Its temporal and spatial distribution is affected by factors such as meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology and land use type. Thus, a groundwater ammonium analysis based on limited sampling points produces large uncertainties. In this study, organic matter content, groundwater depth, clay thickness, total nitrogen content (TN), cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and land-use type were selected as potential contributing factors to establish a machine learning model for fitting the ammonium concentration. The Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) method, which explains the machine learning model, was applied to identify the more significant influencing factors. Finally, the machine learning model established according to the more significant influencing factors was used to impute point data in the study area. From the results, the soil organic matter feature was found to have a substantial impact on the concentration of ammonium in the model, followed by soil pH, clay thickness and groundwater depth. The ammonium concentration generally decreased from northwest to southeast. The highest values were concentrated in the northwest and northeast. The lowest values were concentrated in the southeast, southwest and parts of the east and north. The spatial interpolation based on the machine learning imputation model established according to the influencing factors provides a reliable groundwater quality assessment and was not limited by the number and the geographical location of samplings.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101597
In karst areas, anthropogenic contaminants reach the subsurface with detrimental effects on the groundwater ecosystem and downstream springs, which often serve as drinking water sources for the local human communities. We analyzed the water chemistry and microbial community composition in upstream and downstream locations of five hydrokarst systems (HKS) during four seasons. Conductivity and nitrates were higher in the downstream springs than in the pre-karst waters, whereas the concentration of organic matter, considered here as a pollution indicator, was lower. The microbial community composition varied largely between upstream and downstream locations, with multiple species of potentially pathogenic bacteria decreasing in the HKS. Bacteria indicative of pollution decreased as well when passing through the HKS, but potential biodegraders increased. This suggests that the HKS can filter out part of the polluting organic matter and, with it, part of the associated microorganisms. Nevertheless, the water quality, including the presence of pathogens in downstream springs, must be further monitored to control whether the water is appropriate for consumption. In parallel, the human populations located upstream must be advised of the risks resulting from their daily activities, improper stocking of their various wastes and dumping of their refuse in surface streams.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101591
Numerous geothermal resources of medium to low temperature have been reported in southern China. Suichuan County is one of the regions where thermal manifestations are abundant. However, the study regarding the understanding of geothermal water sources, hydrochemical composition and fluid-rock interaction lacks behind. Therefore, this study has characterized the slightly acidic to slightly alkaline bicarbonate geothermal waters of medium-low temperature of the Suichuan area. Geothermal waters of the study area have been evaluated mainly as of HCO3-Ca-Na hydrochemical type with a maximum temperature of 80 °C. The results indicate the low hydrochemical concentration where HCO3− acts as a principal anion. Furthermore, the F− content in geothermal and two cold water samples have been found high with a maximum value of 13.4 (mg/L), showing high pH of 9.6 as well. Here, the compilation of deuterium and oxygen-18 isotopic data of geothermal waters showed a local precipitation origin with a recharge elevation ranging from 630–1000 m. The circulation depth and reservoir temperatures are estimated, explaining the deep thermal water behavior. Additionally, the estimation of saturation indices of various minerals shows the geothermal waters’ corrosive or scaling behavior. Subsequently, the geothermal water points in the study area represent a fracture convection formation pattern. Finally, by integrating conventional hydrochemistry along with isotopic data, and considering the geological framework, a conceptual genetic model of the Suichuan thermal ground waters has been discussed. Hydrochemistry and isotopic features along with a conceptual circulation model have been provided by the foundation towards the sustainable management of hydrothermal resources in Suichuan. Proper management policies and practices are required for further development of Suichuan hydrothermal waters.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101592
Water inrush hazard seriously threatens construction safety of subsea tunnels in unfavorable geological areas. In recent years, a large number of subsea tunnels have been built worldwide, some of which have experienced many water inrush disasters, especially in Japan and Norway. In this paper, a systematic methodology is proposed to rigorously review the current literature about water inrush in subsea tunnels. Emphasis is placed on recorded causes and evolution processes of water inrush, as well as relevant mitigation measures. In particular, the geological conditions that generate such water inrush hazards are initially discussed by counting cases of tunnel water inrush in the past decades (43 cases of water inrush hazards in tunnels (including mountain tunnels)). The process of formation of failure modes of water inrush, and the corresponding research methods (including theoretical, numerical and experimental) are reviewed, and can be used to pave the ways for hazard prevention and future research. This is followed by a summary of the prevention methods and mitigation measures used in practice, and a short discussion of the achievements and limitations of each method. Then combined with the evolution characteristics of the failure area, the water inrush process of different modes is divided into three stages, with a proposed a grouting scheme for each stage. Finally, concluding remarks, current research gaps and future research directions on subsea tunnel water inrush are provided and discussed.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101589
Seabed offshore pipelines are widely applied to carry fluid over long distances of the seafloor. The design of offshore pipelines is conducted to bear quite a few environmental loading circumstances in order to provide a well-guarded and reliable fluid transition. Fluid leakage and pipeline vibration due to a failure of the pipeline are the prime causes of accidental catastrophes. Scour phenomena occur around offshore pipelines due to currents and/or wave conditions, consequently causing the susceptibility to pipeline failure. Then, scouring propagation rates require to be studied in three dimensions, namely beneath and normal to the offshore pipeline and the longitudinal direction of itself. In this research, Artificial Intelligent (AI) models are used to derive new regression equations based on the laboratory data for the estimation of 3D scour propagation patterns while seafloor offshore pipelines are exposed to simultaneous impacts of currents and waves. In this way, chiefly based on the experimental investigations conducted by Cheng and colleagues, seven sets of dimensional parameters were given in terms of the Shields’ parameter due to currents and waves, the Keulegan–Carpenter number, the ratio of embedment depth to pipeline diameter, the ratio of orbital velocity to current velocity, and the wave/current angle of attack. Dimensionless parameters were used to provide regression-based equations to evaluate scour propagation rates in three dimensions. The performance of AI models was evaluated by various statistical measures. The model based on our proposed equations performed better than the reported models in the literature. Even more importantly, we indicated that our model inherently has a reliable physical consistency for variations of dimensionless parameters against the scour propagation patterns.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101584
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area, located within the Mexico Basin, is the most important economic center in Mexico. An ever-growing population, currently at 22 million with increasing water demands, has resulted in the overexploitation of groundwater with associated impacts to hydrological conditions for a century. Land subsidence due to chronic groundwater level declines has damaged infrastructure and increased water delivery and flood control challenges, causing loss of aquifer storage. An additional associated problem is groundwater quality deterioration, which reduces potable supplies due to increasing anthropogenic pollution and salinization. A new integrated conceptual model of the Mexico Basin Aquifer has been constructed based on a comprehensive compilation of existing and new hydrogeological knowledge. As a result, this conceptual model updates and improves the understanding of the characteristics of the aquifer and current hydrodynamic behavior of groundwater. Four hydrogeological units were identified, their heads and related flow system interdependencies were evaluated and their hydraulic properties associated; this allowed identifying local, intermediate and regional flow systems, aquifer transition from confined to unconfined conditions, changes to land subsidence and groundwater quality deterioration. This conceptual model could be the basis in building a numerical model, and as a powerful tool to test different management scenarios for decision-making.
Water, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101581
Rockfill dams are hydraulic structures of major importance. They can be exposed to extreme flood events, in turn leading to overtopping. These phenomena erode and affect structural and geotechnical integrity, which in turn can cause dam breach. Ripraps are broadly used for rockfill dam protection against such erosion processes. For steep slopes, as the one considered in this study (S = 1:1.5, vertical: horizontal), understanding the riprap behavior during overtopping is an important issue to improve dam design and reinforcement techniques. In this work, datasets are obtained from five experimental models of placed riprap built on a rock filter layer in a flume, at the hydraulic laboratory of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. The riprap stones were placed in an interlocking pattern with a metallic support at the toe. The models were subjected to successive and incremental overtopping discharges until their complete failure. A laser traverse system was used to measure the coordinates (3D) of individual marked riprap stones between each discharge increase. Six load cells located at the toe measured the imposed loads during the entire procedure. From the total load values, two different types of load contributions could be distinguished: the self-weight of the stones and the hydraulic load depending on the discharge level of the overflow. This article highlights the strong relation in each of the five tests between riprap stone displacements, axial reaction load values measured at the toe and overtopping discharges. Moreover, as demonstrated in previous works, a buckling deformation of the riprap layer was observed and described. The results demonstrate that as the hydraulic load induces 2D deformations of the riprap, a larger part of the riprap weight is supported at the toe. Thus, the measured axial load during overtopping arises both from the hydraulic load and from the load imparted due to the compaction of the riprap layer. This compaction effect induces an even greater load than the one imposed due to the hydraulic contribution. The results from this study are finally put into perspective with the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate recommendations for full scale dams and suggest the great resistance of supported riprap at the toe.