Education + Training

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ISSN / EISSN : 0040-0912 / 0040-0912
Published by: Emerald (10.1108)
Total articles ≅ 6,509
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Christoph Viebig
Published: 28 April 2022
Purpose: Current research lacks a clear definition of blended learning in entrepreneurship education (EE), a comprehensive overview of the recent research, and a conceptualization of different types of blends with their respective challenges and advantages. In response to that, the author systematically reviewed the literature on blended learning in EE and developed four archetypes of blends for entrepreneurship educators.Design/methodology/approach: The author conducted a systematic literature review and identified 75 relevant peer-reviewed articles published between 2004 and 2021.Findings: The findings suggest that blended learning is a common yet underexplored and undertheorized phenomenon in EE. The findings display the rationale and motives, educator characteristics, content, teaching methods, student characteristics, and results of blended learning in EE.Originality/value: The paper is original because it posits blended learning as an independent and unique mode of delivery in EE. In addition, the author suggests four archetypes of blends in EE: the traditional blend, the for-action blend, the in-action blend, and the experiential blend. For each of these blends, the author identified specific advantages and challenges and discussed under which circumstances educators may employ them.
Published: 19 April 2022
Purpose: This paper investigates areas for improvement in internship practices from the perspectives of key stakeholders, such as university department leaders, host company leaders, lecturers, work supervisors, graduates, and final year students. Student choices of internship practices are also reported.Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach was implementing that included three focus groups, 15 individual in-depth interviews, and 461 responses to a student survey. In the qualitative phase, deductive thematic analysis was employed to explore areas for improvement in internship practices. In the quantitative phase, descriptive statistical analysis, and two non-parametric tests were used: the Mann–Whitney tests and Kruskal–Wallis tests, followed by pairwise comparisons to identify student choices of internship practices.Findings: The corroboration and triangulation of the qualitative and quantitative data sets revealed three distinct areas for improvement in internship practices in Vietnamese universities. These are internship learning outcomes, internship support, and internship assessment. Findings highlighted the crucial role of industry stakeholders, including work supervisors in the entire process of the internship, as well as the key responsibility of universities in improving student internship experiences.Originality/value: Areas for improvement and student choices of internship practices in Vietnamese universities have not been discussed previously. Findings carry practical, policy and theoretical implications for higher education in Vietnam and other countries striving to enhance student internship experiences. Hence, this study contributes to the Vietnamese and international WIL literature with its findings emerging from a complex mixed-methods design. This methodological approach offers enhanced reliability and validity of findings compared to previous research in the field that relied on a single data set.
Marta Mauri Medrano, , Luis Del Barrio Aranda,
Published: 19 April 2022
Purpose: The authors of this research present a study on Mmobile learning (ML) and the communication processes that are generated in different educational and professional contexts through a systematic review.Design/methodology/approach: This is descriptive research that analyzes a total of 201 results present in Web of Science and SCOPUS, with the criteria established by the PRISMA protocol, giving special relevance to the following categories: country of origin, date of publication, main objectives, methodological design, variables analyzed and considered, size and details of the samples; and their respective scientific contributions in relation to their area of research.Findings: The results show significant methodological discrepancies with respect to the established criteria. Five blocks of action are apparent: technical issues, influence on learning, impact on satisfaction and motivation, impact on communicative processes and new forms of interaction.Originality/value: The value of this research lies on offering a critical view based on an in-depth analysis of the existing scientific production between ML and communication in education.
, Ilze Buligina, Juris Dzelme, Genutė Gedvilienė, Krista Loogma, , Tarja Irene Tikkanen, Ginta Tora, Lina Vaitkutė, Terje Valjataga, et al.
Published: 15 April 2022
Purpose: The paper seeks to disclose the features and implications of the neoliberal VET and employment policy agendas for the social and institutional VET ecosystems and the integration of at-risk youth in the labour market in the Baltic countries.Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on the comparative policy analysis approach with reference to the theories of social and skill formation ecosystems and the historical institutionalism perspective.Findings: The research has revealed three interconnected and alternately/simultaneously applied development pathways in the skill formation and vocational education of at-risk youth in the Baltic countries: (1) the market-oriented approach based on fostering immediate employability based on the momentary skills needs in the economy; (2) the state-assistance approach based on ensuring equal access to the VET and employment services by the state and (3) the approach of systemic support to socially disadvantaged or at-risk young people in developing their capabilities.Originality/value: The originality of the paper lies in a new, holistic and comparative perspective in analysing the implications of the “Baltic neoliberalism” for the development of skill formation systems, VET and employment of at-risk youth in this region.
, Bushra K. Mahadin
Published: 13 April 2022
Purpose: This paper aims to identify internship factors and their roles in obtaining employment, establishing relationships among them using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).Design/methodology/approach: Based on the literature review of more than 100 studies (1982–2020), 11 internship factors were identified. This was followed by the application of ISM technique to get insights into how these factors affect employability.Findings: ISM technique and empirical research aided in classifying the factors on their driving and dependence power. Further analysis identified contextual relationships between all factors and how these affect each other.Research limitations/implications: This study will be helpful for educators, students and managers to understand how internship affects employability through understanding of the factors and their relations.Originality/value: This study is the first study presenting a holistic view of internship factors and how their relationships affect employability in the emerging market perspective of Jordan.
Tatjana Nikitina, , Iveta Ozoliņa-Ozola,
Published: 8 April 2022
Purpose: The present study has been designed with the aim to determine whether there are differences in individual entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) between students, doing their major in business studies and the ones whose areas of study are science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical research methods comprise the review of secondary sources to build a sound theoretical framework for the research activities. The empirical research method is a survey in Latvia and Poland applying non-parametric inferential statistical methods as well as linear regression analysis to investigate which factors and components contribute to EO orientation development among different groups of students, and, thus, verify the research hypotheses.Findings: The yielded research results demonstrate that there are significant differences between business and STEM students when they analyze their IEO. It turned out that STEM students obtain significantly lower scores for risk-taking and innovation but higher for proactiveness. Additionally, it was detected that the chosen field of study affects students’ perception of educational support, thus, influencing their innovation, proactiveness, and risk propensity characteristics.Research limitations/implications: In this research, the authors focused on exploring IEO among business and STEM students in Latvia and Poland, hence the findings cannot be one-to-one applied to other countries.Practical implications: The topicality of the theme is determined by the fact that changes in external environment require higher educational institutions (HEIs) in Latvia and Poland to foster their entrepreneurial ecosystems and re-master study programs both for business and STEM students as well as conduct projects that include students, academic staff, and business representatives – the transformation is necessary to create positive attitude towards entrepreneurship among the students and help them to consider entrepreneurial career path later.Originality/value: Factors and components which contribute to IEO development among different groups of students are under-researched in the Baltic countries, experiencing systemic transformation. The authors believe that universities can use the analysis of their students’ IEO to allocate their resources in a better way, adjust curricula to the real needs of students and facilitate entrepreneurship.
Published: 22 March 2022
Education + Training, Volume 64, pp 433-444;

Purpose: The focus of this study is to explore the perceptions of motivation for further training and empowerment in future jobs of participants in different training activities under a public programme implemented in Catalonia (Spain), which delivers continuing vocational education and training (CVET) courses for unemployed and for active workers alike.Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a mixed methodology approach to study the motivation and empowerment perceived in the sample of participants. From an online survey of 281 participants in a CVET programme from the network of public centres that implement the programme in Catalonia, the authors analysed quantitatively the responses and then applied an inductive analysis for the responses related to motivation and empowerment perceived by the participants.Findings: Results show that the participation in this CVET programme has influenced positively the perception of motivation of the majority of participants to enrol in further education or training (80.43%), while at the other end of the spectrum, 18.86% of the participants reported low or no motivation to participate in further education or training. Regarding the empowerment towards their future workplace, 59.43% of participants perceived a high empowerment, while 37.37% reported feeling low-empowered or disempowered.Originality/value: This is one of the few studies that takes interest in studying a CVET public programme and its potential impact in generating perceptions of motivation for further education or training and empowerment in the participants. Moreover, its implementation was possible due to the collaboration of the public administration, which disseminated the survey to their students.
Published: 21 March 2022
Purpose: This study aims to examine the potential determinants of entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) among business students. To that end, the study investigates the role of entrepreneurship education (EE) and entrepreneurial passion (EP) (inventing and founding), as well as the mediating role of attitude towards entrepreneurship (ATE) and the moderating role of university support.Design/methodology/approach: A close-ended questionnaire measured on a seven-point Likert scale was used to collect data from business students at nine universities in Punjab, Pakistan. The sample size comprises 377 participants who were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was then applied to assess the study’s model and the postulated hypothesis.Findings: The findings indicated that (a) every independent variable (IV) directly impacts EI [dependent variable (DV)] except EP for founding (EPF), (b) ATE significantly mediates the relationship between IV and DV (c) perceived university support positively moderates the relationship between ATE and EI.Originality/value: As an implication to policy, the Government must ensure that students are exposed to business environments and find university support through different paths. Specifically, Pakistan’s Minister of Education and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) may consider designing university programs that lead to more influential EE. The empirical findings may help policymakers develop effective policies for promoting entrepreneurship.
Imam Salehudin, Frank Alpert
Published: 16 March 2022
Purpose: This study analyzed segment differences of student preference for video use in lecture classes and university use of video lecture classes. The authors then conducted novel gap analyses to identify gaps between student segments' preferences for videos versus their level of exposure to in-class videos. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to identify significant factors that explain the gaps.Design/methodology/approach: Segment differences of student preference for video use in lecture classes and university use of video lecture classes were analyzed. Novel gap analyses were then conducted to identify gaps between student segments' preferences for videos versus their level of exposure to in-class videos. MANOVA was used to identify significant factors that explain the gaps.Findings: Gap analysis of video preference relative to video exposure showed a bimodal distribution, with an approximately even split between students with an overall deficit (44.5%) and surplus (47%) of in-class videos. Deficit means students preferred to see more videos than what the lecturer showed them. Surplus means the lecturer showed students more videos than they preferred to see. Further analyses break down the deficits and surpluses based on the type of videos shown.Practical implications: Results are useful as an effective diagnostic tool for education managers because they are not at the individual student level but rather by course level. One implication for educational managers is that a one-size-fits-all approach for all courses will benefit some students and annoy others.Originality/value: This paper extends Alpert and Hodkinson’s (2019) findings by identifying preference clusters and performing segmentation analyses based on finer-grained disaggregated data analysis.
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